Amino metabolites with potential prooxidant properties, particularly alpha-aminocarbonyls, are the focus of this review. Among them we emphasize 5-aminolevulinic acid (a heme precursor formed from succinyl-CoA and glycine), aminoacetone (a threonine and glycine metabolite), and hexosamines and hexosimines, formed by Schiff condensation of hexoses with basic amino acid residues of proteins. All these metabolites were shown, in vitro, to undergo enolization and subsequent aerobic oxidation, yielding oxyradicals and highly cyto- and genotoxic alpha-oxoaldehydes. Their metabolic roles in health and disease are examined here and compared in humans and experimental animals, including rats, quail, and octopus. In the past two decades, we have concentrated on two endogenous alpha-aminoketones: (i) 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), accumulated in acquired (e.g., lead poisoning) and inborn (e.g., intermittent acute porphyria) porphyric disorders, and (ii) aminoacetone (AA), putatively overproduced in diabetes mellitus and cri-du-chat syndrome. ALA and AA have been implicated as contributing sources of oxyradicals and oxidative stress in these diseases. The end product of ALA oxidation, 4,5-dioxovaleric acid (DOVA), is able to alkylate DNA guanine moieties, promote protein cross-linking, and damage GABAergic receptors of rat brain synaptosome preparations. In turn, methylglyoxal (MG), the end product of AA oxidation, is also highly cytotoxic and able to release iron from ferritin and copper from ceruloplasmin, and to aggregate proteins. This review covers chemical and biochemical aspects of these alpha-aminoketones and their putative roles in the oxidative stress associated with porphyrias, tyrosinosis, diabetes, and cri-du-chat. In addition, we comment briefly on a side prooxidant behaviour of hexosamines, that are known to constitute building blocks of several glycoproteins and to be involved in Schiff base-mediated enzymatic reactions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cbpc.2006.07.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000248881200007
View details for PubMedID 16920403