Clinical Focus

  • Endocrinology/Diabetes, Pediatric
  • Pediatric Endocrinology

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Chief, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (2004 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1982)
  • Fellowship:Stanford University School of Medicine (1984) CA
  • Residency:Stanford University School of Medicine (1980) CA
  • Internship:Stanford University School of Medicine (1978) CA
  • Medical Education:UCSD Medical Center (1977) CA

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

My research interests cover a number of areas in Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes. I am PI of the Stanford Center for the NIH-funded Type-1 Diabetes TrialNet group. TrialNet conducts clinical trials directed at preventing or delaying the onset of Type 1 diabetes. I am an investigator in DirecNet, another NIH-funded study group, which is devoted to evaluating glucose sensors and the role of technology on the management of diabetes.

Clinical Trials

  • Comparison of Transdermal and Oral Estrogens in Adolescent Girls With Ovarian Failure Not Recruiting

    To directly compare the safety (by laboratory evaluation) and efficacy (feminization and growth) of three commonly used estrogen preparations in adolescent patients with ovarian failure, either due to congenital causes (Turner syndrome) or medical therapies. We hypothesize that transdermal estrogen will have equivalent efficacy and a more favorable safety profile in comparison with conventional oral estrogen replacement.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sejal Shah, (650) 723 - 5791.

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  • Medtronic Treat to Range (TTR) Closed-Loop Control Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a treat-to-range automated insulin management system using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and subcutaneous insulin pump infusion in individuals with type 1 diabetes.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kari Benassi, RN, FNP, 650-736-8948.

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  • T Cell Validation Study Using Blood Samples From Subjects With Recent Onset Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Not Recruiting

    Type 1 diabetes is a condition that is caused in part by an abnormality of the immune system which occurs when T cells, which are part of the immune system, damage the insulin secreting cells (islet cells) in the pancreas. Although it is known that T cells are important mediators of the disease, progress in the development of reliable T cell assays has been modest. The purpose of this study is to learn which T cell assays are most reliable and reproducible so that the investigators can improve their understanding about how type 1 diabetes occurs.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Alison Rigby, (877) 232 - 5182.

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  • Oral Insulin for Prevention of Diabetes in Relatives at Risk for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Recruiting

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease. This means that the immune system (the part of the body which helps fight infections) mistakenly attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin (islet cells found in the pancreas). As these cells are destroyed, the body's ability to produce insulin decreases. There is evidence suggesting that repeated oral administration of an autoantigen (the same protein that the immune system is reacting to) may introduce a protective immunity and cause the immune system to stop its attack. An earlier, large scale study was done to see if oral insulin could delay or prevent the development of Type 1 diabetes in relatives at risk for developing Type 1 diabetes. The overall results showed that for the entire study population, oral insulin did not delay or prevent Type 1 diabetes. However, an analysis that was done after the conclusion of the trial suggested a potential beneficial effect in a subgroup of participants. The participants who seemed to benefit from oral insulin had higher levels of insulin autoantibodies which are directed against insulin itself ( called mIAA). The Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet study group will further explore the potential role of oral insulin to delay or prevent Type 1 diabetes in a similar group of people. The study will also include a secondary group of individuals at different levels of risk than those in the primary cohort to gather information for future studies.

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  • Effects of Rituximab on the Progression of Type 1 Diabetes in New Onset Subjects Not Recruiting

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Without these beta cells, the body cannot maintain proper blood glucose levels in response to daily activities such as eating or exercise. With fewer insulin producing cells blood glucose increases, causing hunger, thirst, and unexplained weight loss. By the time these symptoms develop, 80-90% of a person's beta cells have already been destroyed. However, this also means that between 10-20% of these cells remain that continue to produce insulin. Scientists have learned that two types of immune cells, B cells and T cells, are involved in causing type 1 diabetes. T cells are responsible for attacking and destroying the beta cells that make insulin. Although they don't attack insulin producing cells, B cells may be what trigger the T cells to attack. This study will investigate the use of rituximab to see if it can help lower the number of immune B cells thereby preventing the destruction of any remaining insulin producing beta cells that remain at diagnosis. Rituximab is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of a condition called B-lymphocyte lymphoma. Its effects on the immune system are well understood through its use in organ transplantation. Research has shown that rituximab might be helpful in treating other conditions caused by T cells and B cells, including type 1 diabetes. The goal of this study is to find out if rituximab can preserve residual insulin secretion and prevent further beta cell destruction in type 1 diabetes.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Allison Rigby, (877) 232 - 5182.

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2014-15 Courses

Postdoctoral Advisees


Journal Articles

  • A cross-sectional study of osteocalcin and body fat measures among obese adolescents. Obesity Lenders, C. M., Lee, P. D., Feldman, H. A., Wilson, D. M., Abrams, S. H., Gitelman, S. E., Klish, W. J., Wertz, M. S., Taylor, G. A., Alongi, R. T., Chen, T. C., Holick, M. F. 2013; 21 (4): 808-814


    Osteocalcin (OCN), a marker of osteoblast activity, has been implicated in the regulation of energy metabolism by the skeleton and thus may affect body fat measures.To examine the relationships of OCN to body fat measures and whether they vary according to markers of energy and vitamin D metabolism.Data were obtained from 58 obese adolescents aged 13-17.9 years (38 females, 8 black or African-American). Total fat mass (FM) [dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)] and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) [computerized axial tomography (CT)] were calculated. Blood tests included leptin, OCN, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid function tests, and triglycerides. Markers of glucose metabolism were obtained from fasting and OGTT samples.Adolescents with 25(OH)D <20 ng mL(-1) were considered deficient (n = 17/58); none had high PTH (PTH ? 65 pg mL(-1) ). OCN was associated with lower VAT (-84.27 ± 33.89 mm(2) ) and BMI (-0.10 ± 0.05 kg m(-2) ), not FM (P = 0.597) in a core model including age, sex, race, geographic latitude, summer, height z-score, and tanner stage. Adding 25(OH)D deficiency and PTH attenuated the inverse association of OCN to VAT. There was a significant interaction of OCN and 25(OH)D deficiency on FM (0.37 ± 0.18 kg, P = 0.041) and BMI (0.28 ± 0.10 kg m(-2) , P = 0.007) in this adjusted model, which was further explained by leptin. Adding A1C to the core model modified the relationship of OCN to VAT (-93.08 ± 35.05 mm(2) , P = 0.011), which was further explained by HOMA-IR. In summary, these findings provide initial evidence for a relationship between OCN and body fat measures that is dependent on energy metabolism and vitamin D status among obese adolescents.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/oby.20131

    View details for PubMedID 23712984

  • Interleukin-1 antagonism in type 1 diabetes of recent onset: two multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Moran, A., Bundy, B., Becker, D. J., DiMeglio, L. A., Gitelman, S. E., Goland, R., Greenbaum, C. J., Herold, K. C., Marks, J. B., Raskin, P., Sanda, S., Schatz, D., Wherrett, D. K., Wilson, D. M., Krischer, J. P., Skyler, J. S., Pickersgill, L., de Koning, E., Ziegler, A. G., Böehm, B., Badenhoop, K., Schloot, N., Bak, J. F., Pozzilli, P., Mauricio, D., Donath, M. Y., Castaño, L., Wägner, A., Lervang, H. H., Perrild, H., Mandrup-Poulsen, T., Pociot, F., Dinarello, C. A. 2013; 381 (9881): 1905-15


    Innate immunity contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, but until now no randomised, controlled trials of blockade of the key innate immune mediator interleukin-1 have been done. We aimed to assess whether canakinumab, a human monoclonal anti-interleukin-1 antibody, or anakinra, a human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, improved ?-cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes.We did two randomised, placebo-controlled trials in two groups of patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes and mixed-meal-tolerance-test-stimulated C peptide of at least 0·2 nM. Patients in the canakinumab trial were aged 6-45 years and those in the anakinra trial were aged 18-35 years. Patients in the canakinumab trial were enrolled at 12 sites in the USA and Canada and those in the anakinra trial were enrolled at 14 sites across Europe. Participants were randomly assigned by computer-generated blocked randomisation to subcutaneous injection of either 2 mg/kg (maximum 300 mg) canakinumab or placebo monthly for 12 months or 100 mg anakinra or placebo daily for 9 months. Participants and carers were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was baseline-adjusted 2-h area under curve C-peptide response to the mixed meal tolerance test at 12 months (canakinumab trial) and 9 months (anakinra trial). Analyses were by intention to treat. These studies are registered with, numbers NCT00947427 and NCT00711503, and EudraCT number 2007-007146-34.Patients were enrolled in the canakinumab trial between Nov 12, 2010, and April 11, 2011, and in the anakinra trial between Jan 26, 2009, and May 25, 2011. 69 patients were randomly assigned to canakinumab (n=47) or placebo (n=22) monthly for 12 months and 69 were randomly assigned to anakinra (n=35) or placebo (n=34) daily for 9 months. No interim analyses were done. 45 canakinumab-treated and 21 placebo-treated patients in the canakinumab trial and 25 anakinra-treated and 26 placebo-treated patients in the anakinra trial were included in the primary analyses. The difference in C peptide area under curve between the canakinumab and placebo groups at 12 months was 0·01 nmol/L (95% CI -0·11 to 0·14; p=0·86), and between the anakinra and the placebo groups at 9 months was 0·02 nmol/L (-0·09 to 0·15; p=0·71). The number and severity of adverse events did not differ between groups in the canakinumab trial. In the anakinra trial, patients in the anakinra group had significantly higher grades of adverse events than the placebo group (p=0·018), which was mainly because of a higher number of injection site reactions in the anakinra group.Canakinumab and anakinra were safe but were not effective as single immunomodulatory drugs in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Interleukin-1 blockade might be more effective in combination with treatments that target adaptive immunity in organ-specific autoimmune disorders.National Institutes of Health and Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation.

    View details for PubMedID 23562090

  • White Matter Structural Differences in Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study DIABETES CARE Aye, T., Barnea-Goraly, N., Ambler, C., Hoang, S., Schleifer, K., Park, Y., Drobny, J., Wilson, D. M., Reiss, A. L., Buckingham, B. A. 2012; 35 (11): 2167-2173


    To detect clinical correlates of cognitive abilities and white matter (WM) microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in young children with type 1 diabetes.Children, ages 3 to <10 years, with type 1 diabetes (n = 22) and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (n = 14) completed neurocognitive testing and DTI scans.Compared with healthy controls, children with type 1 diabetes had lower axial diffusivity (AD) values (P = 0.046) in the temporal and parietal lobe regions. There were no significant differences between groups in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity (RD). Within the diabetes group, there was a significant, positive correlation between time-weighted HbA(1c) and RD (P = 0.028). A higher, time-weighted HbA(1c) value was significantly correlated with lower overall intellectual functioning measured by the full-scale intelligence quotient (P = 0.03).Children with type 1 diabetes had significantly different WM structure (as measured by AD) when compared with controls. In addition, WM structural differences (as measured by RD) were significantly correlated with their HbA(1c) values. Additional studies are needed to determine if WM microstructural differences in young children with type 1 diabetes predict future neurocognitive outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.2337/dc12-0017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311424100015

    View details for PubMedID 22966090

  • Inpatient studies of a Kalman-filter-based predictive pump shutoff algorithm. Journal of diabetes science and technology Cameron, F., Wilson, D. M., Buckingham, B. A., Arzumanyan, H., Clinton, P., Chase, H. P., Lum, J., Maahs, D. M., Calhoun, P. M., Bequette, B. W. 2012; 6 (5): 1142-1147


    An insulin pump shutoff system can prevent nocturnal hypoglycemia and is a first step on the pathway toward a closed-loop artificial pancreas. In previous pump shutoff studies using a voting algorithm and a 1 min continuous glucose monitor (CGM), 80% of induced hypoglycemic events were prevented.The pump shutoff algorithm used in previous studies was revised to a single Kalman filter to reduce complexity, incorporate CGMs with different sample times, handle sensor signal dropouts, and enforce safety constraints on the allowable pump shutoff time.Retrospective testing of the new algorithm on previous clinical data sets indicated that, for the four cases where the previous algorithm failed (minimum reference glucose less than 60 mg/dl), the mean suspension start time was 30 min earlier than the previous algorithm. Inpatient studies of the new algorithm have been conducted on 16 subjects. The algorithm prevented hypoglycemia in 73% of subjects. Suspension-induced hyperglycemia is not assessed, because this study forced excessive basal insulin infusion rates.The new algorithm functioned well and is flexible enough to handle variable sensor sample times and sensor dropouts. It also provides a framework for handling sensor signal attenuations, which can be challenging, particularly when they occur overnight.

    View details for PubMedID 23063041

  • Feasibility of prolonged continuous glucose monitoring in toddlers with type 1 diabetes. Pediatric diabetes Tsalikian, E., Fox, L., Weinzimer, S., Buckingham, B., White, N. H., Beck, R., Kollman, C., Xing, D., Ruedy, K. 2012; 13 (4): 301-307


    To examine the feasibility of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use in very young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D).Twenty-three children less than 4 yr of age with T1D were provided with a FreeStyle Navigator(®) (n = 21) or a Paradigm(®) (n = 2) CGM device. At baseline, mean age was 3.0 ± 0.8 yr, mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 8.0 ± 0.8%, 10 were using an insulin pump and 13 were on multiple daily injections. CGM use was evaluated over a 6-month period.Three children dropped out of the study before the end of 6 months. Among the 20 children who completed 6 months of follow-up, CGM use in month 6 was ?6 d/wk in 9 (45%), 4 ? 6 d/wk in 2 (10%), and <4 d/wk in 9 (45%). Skin reactions were minimal. Although there was no detectable change in mean HbA1c between baseline and 6 months (7.9 and 8.0%, respectively), there was a high degree of parental satisfaction with CGM as measured on the CGM satisfaction scale questionnaire. A high percentage of glucose values were in the hyperglycemic range, and biochemical hypoglycemia was infrequent.More than 40% of very young children were able to safely use CGM on a near-daily basis after 6 months. CGM demonstrated frequent hyperglycemic excursions, with a large variability in glucose readings. Although improvement in glycemic control was not detected in the group as a whole, parental satisfaction with CGM was high.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2011.00837.x

    View details for PubMedID 22151826

  • The interrelationships of glycemic control measures: HbA1c, glycated albumin, fructosamine, 1,5-anhydroglucitrol, and continuous glucose monitoring PEDIATRIC DIABETES Beck, R., Steffes, M., Xing, D., Ruedy, K., Mauras, N., Wilson, D. M., Kollman, C. 2011; 12 (8): 690-695


    To describe the interrelationships of glycemic control measures: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin, fructosamine, 1,5-anhydroglucitrol (1,5-AG), and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.In total, 26 subjects of age 4-17 had HbA1c measurement followed within 14 d by three laboratory measures of glycemia and the collection of CGM glucose data (N = 21).Glycated albumin and fructosamine levels had a higher correlation with each other than with HbA1c. The correlation of 1,5-AG with HbA1c was lower (absolute r value = 0.25). All four measures had a similar degree of correlation with CGM-measured mean glucose (absolute r value = 0.50-0.56) and with hyperglycemic area under the curve (AUC) at 180 mg/dL (0.50-0.60).Each of the four measures (i.e., HbA1c, glycated albumin, fructosamine, and 1,5-AG) had a similar correlation with mean glucose and hyperglycemic AUC-180. 1,5-AG did not correlate with hyperglycemic AUC-180 better than did HbA1c.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2011.00764.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298170000004

    View details for PubMedID 21496193

  • The Feasibility of Detecting Neuropsychologic and Neuroanatomic Effects of Type 1 Diabetes in Young Children DIABETES CARE Aye, T., Reiss, A. L., Kesler, S., Hoang, S., Drobny, J., Park, Y., Schleifer, K., Baumgartner, H., Wilson, D. M., Buckingham, B. A. 2011; 34 (7): 1458-1462


    To determine if frequent exposures to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia during early childhood lead to neurocognitive deficits and changes in brain anatomy.In this feasibility, cross-sectional study, young children, aged 3 to 10 years, with type 1 diabetes and age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects completed neuropsychologic (NP) testing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain.NP testing and MRI scanning was successfully completed in 98% of the type 1 diabetic and 93% of the HC children. A significant negative relationship between HbA1c and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) verbal comprehension was observed. WISC index scores were significantly reduced in type 1 diabetic subjects who had experienced seizures. White matter volume did not show the expected increase with age in children with type 1 diabetes compared with HC children (diagnosis by age interaction, P=0.005). A similar trend was detected for hippocampal volume. Children with type 1 diabetes who had experienced seizures showed significantly reduced gray matter and white matter volumes relative to children with type 1 diabetes who had not experienced seizures.It is feasible to perform MRI and NP testing in young children with type 1 diabetes. Further, early signs of neuroanatomic variation may be present in this population. Larger cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of neurocognitive function and neuroanatomy are needed to define the effect of type 1 diabetes on the developing brain.

    View details for DOI 10.2337/dc10-2164

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293261200003

    View details for PubMedID 21562318

  • Persistence of Individual Variations in Glycated Hemoglobin Analysis of data from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Continuous Glucose Monitoring Randomized Trial DIABETES CARE Wilson, D. M., Xing, D., Cheng, J., Beck, R. W., Hirsch, I., Kollman, C., Laffel, L., Lawrence, J. M., Mauras, N., Ruedy, K. J., Tsalikian, E., Wolpert, H. 2011; 34 (6): 1315-1317


    To determine the individual persistence of the relationship between mean sensor glucose (MG) concentrations and hemoglobin A(1c) (A1C) from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) Randomized Trial.MG was calculated using CGM data for 3 months before A1C measurements at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months for the CGM group and at 9 and 12 months for the control group. An MG-to-A1C ratio was included in analysis for subjects who averaged ?4 days/week of CGM use.Spearman correlations of the MG-to-A1C ratio between consecutive visits 3 months apart ranged from 0.70 to 0.79. The correlations for children and youth were slightly smaller than those for adults. No meaningful differences were observed by device type or change in A1C.Individual variations in the rate of hemoglobin glycation are persistent and contribute to the inaccuracy in estimating MGs calculated from A1C levels.

    View details for DOI 10.2337/dc10-1661

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291846200012

    View details for PubMedID 21505208

  • A closed-loop artificial pancreas based on risk management. Journal of diabetes science and technology Cameron, F., Bequette, B. W., Wilson, D. M., Buckingham, B. A., Lee, H., Niemeyer, G. 2011; 5 (2): 368-379


    Control algorithms that regulate blood glucose (BG) levels in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus face several fundamental challenges. Two of these are the asymmetric risk of clinical complications associated with low and high glucose levels and the irreversibility of insulin action when using only insulin. Both of these nonlinearities force a controller to be more conservative when uncertainties are high. We developed a novel extended model predictive controller (EMPC) that explicitly addresses these two challenges.Our extensions to model predictive control (MPC) operate in three ways. First, they explicitly minimize the combined risk of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Second, they integrate the effect of prediction uncertainties into the risk. Third, they understand that future control actions will vary if measurements fall above or below predictions. Using the University of Virginia/Padova Simulator, we compared our novel controller (EMPC) against optimized versions of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, a traditional MPC, and a basal/bolus (BB) controller, as well as against published results of an independent MPC (IMPC). The BB controller was optimized retrospectively to serve as a bound on the possible performance.We tuned each controller, where possible, to minimize a published blood glucose risk index (BGRI). The simulated controllers (PID/MPC/EMPC/BB) provided BGRI values of 2.99/3.05/2.51/1.27 as compared to the published IMPC BGRI value of 4.10. These correspond to 73/79/84/92% of BG values lying in the euglycemic range (70-180 mg/dl), respectively, with mean BG levels of 151/156/147/140 mg/dl.The EMPC strategy extends MPC to explicitly address the issues of asymmetric glycemic risk and irreversible insulin action using estimated prediction uncertainties and an explicit risk function. This controller reduces the avoidable BGRI by 56% (p < .05) relative to a published MPC algorithm studied on a similar population.

    View details for PubMedID 21527108

  • Hemoglobin A(1c) and Mean Glucose in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Analysis of data from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation continuous glucose monitoring randomized trial DIABETES CARE Wilson, D. M., Xing, D., Beck, R. W., Block, J., Bode, B., Fox, L. A., Hirsch, I., Kollman, C., Laffel, L., Ruedy, K. J., Steffes, M., Tamborlane, W. V. 2011; 34 (3): 540-544


    To determine the relationship between mean sensor glucose concentrations and hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) values measured in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications laboratory at the University of Minnesota in a cohort of subjects with type 1 diabetes from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation continuous glucose monitoring randomized trial.Near-continuous glucose sensor data (? 4 days/week) were collected for 3 months before a central laboratory-measured HbA(1c) was performed for 252 subjects aged 8-74 years, the majority of whom had stable HbA(1c) values (77% within ± 0.4% of the patient mean).The slope (95% CI) for mean sensor glucose concentration (area under the curve) versus a centrally measured HbA(1c) was 24.4 mg/dL (22.0-26.7) for each 1% change in HbA(1c), with an intercept of -16.2 mg/dL (-32.9 to 0.6). Although the slope did not vary with age or sex, there was substantial individual variability, with mean sensor glucose concentrations ranging from 128 to 187 mg/dL for an HbA(1c) of 6.9-7.1%. The root mean square of the errors between the actual mean sensor glucose concentration versus the value calculated using the regression equation was 14.3 mg/dL, whereas the median absolute difference was 10.1 mg/dL.There is substantial individual variability between the measured versus calculated mean glucose concentrations. Consequently, estimated average glucose concentrations calculated from measured HbA(1c) values should be used with caution.

    View details for DOI 10.2337/dc10-1054

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288145400002

    View details for PubMedID 21266647

  • A Randomized Controlled Trial of Culturally Tailored Dance and Reducing Screen Time to Prevent Weight Gain in Low- Income African American Girls ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Robinson, T. N., Matheson, D. M., Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, D. M., Obarzanek, E., Thompson, N. S., Alhassan, S., Spencer, T. R., Haydel, K. F., Fujimoto, M., Varady, A., Killen, J. D. 2010; 164 (11): 995-1004


    To test a 2-year community- and family-based obesity prevention program for low-income African American girls: Stanford GEMS (Girls' health Enrichment Multi-site Studies).Randomized controlled trial with follow-up measures scheduled at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months.Low-income areas of Oakland, California.African American girls aged 8 to 10 years (N=261) and their parents or guardians.Families were randomized to one of two 2-year, culturally tailored interventions: (1) after-school hip-hop, African, and step dance classes and a home/family-based intervention to reduce screen media use or (2) information-based health education.Changes in body mass index (BMI).Changes in BMI did not differ between groups (adjusted mean difference [95% confidence interval] = 0.04 [-0.18 to 0.27] per year). Among secondary outcomes, fasting total cholesterol level (adjusted mean difference, -3.49 [95% confidence interval, -5.28 to -1.70] mg/dL per year), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (-3.02 [-4.74 to -1.31] mg/dL per year), incidence of hyperinsulinemia (relative risk, 0.35 [0.13 to 0.93]), and depressive symptoms (-0.21 [-0.42 to -0.001] per year) decreased more among girls in the dance and screen time reduction intervention. In exploratory moderator analysis, the dance and screen time reduction intervention slowed BMI gain more than health education among girls who watched more television at baseline (P = .02) and/or those whose parents or guardians were unmarried (P = .01).A culturally tailored after-school dance and screen time reduction intervention for low-income, preadolescent African American girls did not significantly reduce BMI gain compared with health education but did produce potentially clinically important reductions in lipid levels, hyperinsulinemia, and depressive symptoms. There was also evidence for greater effectiveness in high-risk subgroups of girls.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283735700006

    View details for PubMedID 21041592

  • Two New Unrelated Cases of Hereditary 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-Resistant Rickets with Alopecia Resulting from the Same Novel Nonsense Mutation in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM Forghani, N., Lum, C., Krishnan, S., Wang, J., Wilson, D. M., Blackett, P. R., Malloy, P. J., Feldman, D. 2010; 23 (8): 843-850


    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) an important regulator of bone homeostasis, mediates its actions by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a nuclear transcription factor. Mutations in the VDR cause the rare genetic disease hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets (HVDRR). In this study, we examined two unrelated young female patients who exhibited severe early onset rickets, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. Both patients had partial alopecia but with different unusual patterns of scant hair. Sequencing of the VDR gene showed that both patients harbored the same unique nonsense mutation that resulted in a premature stop codon (R50X). Skin fibroblasts from patient #1 were devoid of VDR protein and 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment of these cells failed to induce CYP24A1 gene expression, a marker of 1,25(OH)2D3 action. In conclusion, we identified a novel nonsense mutation in the VDR gene in two patients with HVDRR and alopecia. The mutation truncates the VDR protein and causes 1,25(OH)2D3 resistance.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282488800016

    View details for PubMedID 21073129

  • Insulin Pumps in Young Children DIABETES TECHNOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS Fuld, K., Conrad, B., Buckingham, B., Wilson, D. M. 2010; 12: S67-S71


    Insulin infusion pump therapy has dramatically improved over the past 20 years and can now address some of the specific challenges related to toddlers with diabetes. We discuss both the non-randomized and randomized controlled trials comparing continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily injections (MDI) in this age group. There are advantages and disadvantages related to both CSII and MDI treatments, and ultimately the decision to use CSII should be individualized for each patient and family with the guidance of their diabetes team.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2009.0182

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278212300012

    View details for PubMedID 20515310

  • Failure to Preserve beta-Cell Function With Mycophenolate Mofetil and Daclizumab Combined Therapy in Patients With New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes DIABETES CARE Gottlieb, P. A., Quinlan, S., Krause-Steinrauf, H., Greenbaum, C. J., Wilson, D. M., Rodriguez, H., Schatz, D. A., Moran, A. M., Lachin, J. M., Skyler, J. S. 2010; 33 (4): 826-832


    This trial tested whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) alone or with daclizumab (DZB) could arrest the loss of insulin-producing beta-cells in subjects with new-onset type 1 diabetes.A multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked trial was initiated by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet at 13 sites in North America and Europe. Subjects diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and with sufficient C-peptide within 3 months of diagnosis were randomized to either MMF alone, MMF plus DZB, or placebo, and then followed for 2 years. The primary outcome was the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide from the 2-h mixed meal tolerance test.One hundred and twenty-six subjects were randomized and treated during the trial. The geometric mean C-peptide AUC at 2 years was unaffected by MMF alone or MMF plus DZB versus placebo. Adverse events were more frequent in the active therapy groups relative to the control group, but not significantly.Neither MMF alone nor MMF in combination with DZB had an effect on the loss of C-peptide in subjects with new-onset type 1 diabetes. Higher doses or more targeted immunotherapies may be needed to affect the autoimmune process.

    View details for DOI 10.2337/dc09-1349

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276793200029

    View details for PubMedID 20067954

  • Metformin Extended Release Treatment of Adolescent Obesity A 48-Week Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial With 48-Week Follow-up ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Wilson, D. M., Abrams, S. H., Aye, T., Lee, P. D., Lenders, C., Lustig, R. H., Osganian, S. V., Feldman, H. A. 2010; 164 (2): 116-123


    Metformin has been proffered as a therapy for adolescent obesity, although long-term controlled studies have not been reported.To test the hypothesis that 48 weeks of daily metformin hydrochloride extended release (XR) therapy will reduce body mass index (BMI) in obese adolescents, as compared with placebo.Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.The 6 centers of the Glaser Pediatric Research Network from October 2003 to August 2007.Obese (BMI > or = 95th percentile) adolescents (aged 13-18 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 39) or placebo groups. Intervention Following a 1-month run-in period, subjects following a lifestyle intervention program were randomized 1:1 to 48 weeks' treatment with metformin hydrochloride XR, 2000 mg once daily, or an identical placebo. Subjects were monitored for an additional 48 weeks. Main Outcome Measure Change in BMI, adjusted for site, sex, race, ethnicity, and age and metformin vs placebo.After 48 weeks, mean (SE) adjusted BMI increased 0.2 (0.5) in the placebo group and decreased 0.9 (0.5) in the metformin XR group (P = .03). This difference persisted for 12 to 24 weeks after cessation of treatment. No significant effects of metformin on body composition, abdominal fat, or insulin indices were observed.Metformin XR caused a small but statistically significant decrease in BMI when added to a lifestyle intervention Identifiers: NCT00209482 and NCT00120146.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274139500001

    View details for PubMedID 20124139

  • Rituximab, B-Lymphocyte Depletion, and Preservation of Beta-Cell Function NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Pescovitz, M. D., Greenbaum, C. J., Krause-Steinrauf, H., Becker, D. J., Gitelman, S. E., Goland, R., Gottlieb, P. A., Marks, J. B., McGee, P. F., Moran, A. M., Raskin, P., Rodriguez, H., Schatz, D. A., Wherrett, D., Wilson, D. M., Lachin, J. M., Skyler, J. S. 2009; 361 (22): 2143-2152


    The immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with T-lymphocyte autoimmunity. However, there is growing evidence that B lymphocytes play a role in many T-lymphocyte-mediated diseases. It is possible to achieve selective depletion of B lymphocytes with rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. This phase 2 study evaluated the role of B-lymphocyte depletion in patients with type 1 diabetes.We conducted a randomized, double-blind study in which 87 patients between 8 and 40 years of age who had newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes were assigned to receive infusions of rituximab or placebo on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of the study. The primary outcome, assessed 1 year after the first infusion, was the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC) for the serum C-peptide level during the first 2 hours of a mixed-meal tolerance test. Secondary outcomes included safety and changes in the glycated hemoglobin level and insulin dose.At 1 year, the mean AUC for the level of C peptide was significantly higher in the rituximab group than in the placebo group. The rituximab group also had significantly lower levels of glycated hemoglobin and required less insulin. Between 3 months and 12 months, the rate of decline in C-peptide levels in the rituximab group was significantly less than that in the placebo group. CD19+ B lymphocytes were depleted in patients in the rituximab group, but levels increased to 69% of baseline values at 12 months. More patients in the rituximab group than in the placebo group had adverse events, mostly grade 1 or grade 2, after the first infusion. The reactions appeared to be minimal with subsequent infusions. There was no increase in infections or neutropenia with rituximab.A four-dose course of rituximab partially preserved beta-cell function over a period of 1 year in patients with type 1 diabetes. The finding that B lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes may open a new pathway for exploration in the treatment of patients with this condition. ( number, NCT00279305.)

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272117800008

    View details for PubMedID 19940299

  • Duration of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia Before Seizures DIABETES CARE Buckingham, B., Wilson, D. M., Lecher, T., Hanas, R., Kaiserman, K., Cameron, F. 2008; 31 (11): 2110-2112


    Despite a high incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia documented by the use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), there are no reports in the literature of nocturnal hypoglycemic seizures while a patient is wearing a CGM device.In this article, we describe four such cases and assess the duration of nocturnal hypoglycemia before the seizure.In the cases where patients had a nocturnal hypoglycemic seizure while wearing a CGM device, sensor hypoglycemia (<60 mg/dl) was documented on the CGM record for 2.25-4 h before seizure activity.Even with a subcutaneous glucose lag of 18 min when compared with blood glucose measurements, glucose sensors have time to provide clinically meaningful alarms. Current nocturnal hypoglycemic alarms need to be improved, however, since patients can sleep through the current alarm systems.

    View details for DOI 10.2337/dc08-0863

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260565000007

    View details for PubMedID 18694975

  • Low-fat vs. high-fat bedtime snacks in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes PEDIATRIC DIABETES Wilson, D., Chase, H. P., Kollman, C., Xing, D., Caswell, K., Tansey, M., Fox, L., Weinzimer, S., Beck, R., Ruedy, K., Tamborlane, W. 2008; 9 (4): 320-325


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether, in a group of children with type 1 diabetes using insulin pump, a prebedtime snack with a relatively high fat content provides greater protection from nocturnal hypoglycemia than a snack containing the same amount of carbohydrate and protein but a lower fat content.Ten subjects, aged 6 to <18 yr, in a trial evaluating the Abbott Navigator glucose sensor, agreed to this ancillary study. On 12 or more separate nights, each subject was randomized by a Web site to a carbohydrate-low-fat (30 g CHO, 2.5 g protein, and 1.3 g fat; 138 kcal) snack or a carbohydrate-high-fat (30 g CHO, 2 g protein, and 20 g fat; 320 kcal) snack. Subjects used their usual evening snack algorithm to determine the size (in 15-g carbohydrate increments) and insulin dosage.Average glucose on 128 valid study nights before snack was similar in both groups. The proportion of nights with hypoglycemia (a sensor or meter glucose value or=200 mg/dL and at least 50 mg/dL above baseline, 35% high fat vs. 30% low fat).There were no statistical differences between the high- and low-fat snacks on the frequency of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. This study highlights the feasibility of web-based research in patients' home environment.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2008.00393.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257991100011

    View details for PubMedID 18768036

  • Stanford GEMS phase 2 obesity prevention trial for low-income African-American girls: Design and sample baseline characteristics CONTEMPORARY CLINICAL TRIALS Robinson, T. N., Kraemer, H. C., Matheson, D. M., Obarzanek, E., Wilson, D. M., Haskell, W. L., Pruitt, L. A., Thompson, N. S., Haydel, K. F., Fujimoto, M., Varady, A., McCarthy, S., Watanabe, C., Killen, J. D. 2008; 29 (1): 56-69


    African-American girls and women are at high risk of obesity and its associated morbidities. Few studies have tested obesity prevention strategies specifically designed for African-American girls. This report describes the design and baseline findings of the Stanford GEMS (Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies) trial to test the effect of a two-year community- and family-based intervention to reduce weight gain in low-income, pre-adolescent African-American girls.Randomized controlled trial with measurements scheduled in girls' homes at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 month post-randomization.Low-income areas of Oakland, CA.Eight, nine and ten year old African-American girls and their parents/caregivers.Girls are randomized to a culturally-tailored after-school dance program and a home/family-based intervention to reduce screen media use versus an information-based community health education Active-Placebo Comparison intervention. Interventions last for 2 years for each participant.Change in body mass index over the two-year study.Recruitment and enrollment successfully produced a predominately low-socioeconomic status sample. Two-hundred sixty one (261) families were randomized. One girl per family is randomly chosen for the analysis sample. Randomization produced comparable experimental groups with only a few statistically significant differences. The sample had a mean body mass index (BMI) at the 74 th percentile on the 2000 CDC BMI reference, and one-third of the analysis sample had a BMI at the 95th percentile or above. Average fasting total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were above NCEP thresholds for borderline high classifications. Girls averaged low levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity, more than 3 h per day of screen media use, and diets high in energy from fat.The Stanford GEMS trial is testing the benefits of culturally-tailored after-school dance and screen-time reduction interventions for obesity prevention in low-income, pre-adolescent African-American girls.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cct.2007.04.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252584100007

    View details for PubMedID 17600772

  • Real-time continuous glucose monitoring. Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity Buckingham, B., Caswell, K., Wilson, D. M. 2007; 14 (4): 288-295


    To summarize the current literature on real-time continuous glucose monitors, focusing on devices that have been approved or are pending approval.Real-time continuous glucose sensors are new tools to assist in diabetes management. Several devices are currently being sold and additional monitors are expected to be available shortly. These sensors measure interstitial glucose - a distinct physiologic space when compared with the blood glucose. The ability to recognize trends in blood glucose levels provides a new paradigm for making insulin dose decisions and treating hypo- and hyperglycemia.Real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems are currently less accurate than home glucose meters, but provide information every 1-5 min throughout the day and night with alarms for hyper- and hypoglycemia, providing information on glucose trends and nocturnal glycemic excursions. Current real-time sensors are behavior modification tools. Thus, improvements in diabetes control depend on the willingness of patients to modify their diabetes management based on information provided by these devices.

    View details for PubMedID 17940454

  • The medtronic MiniMed gold continuous glucose monitoring system: An effective means to discover hypo- and Hyperglycemia in children under 7 years of age DIABETES TECHNOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS Gandrud, L. M., Xing, D., Kollman, C., Block, J. M., Kunselman, B., Wilson, D. M., Buckingham, B. A. 2007; 9 (4): 307-316


    The glycemic patterns of children less than 7 years with type 1 diabetes have not been well studied using continuous glucose monitoring. Our goal was to assess the incidence of hypoglycemia as well as postprandial glycemic patterns in this age group utilizing continuous glucose monitoring.Nineteen children used the Medtronic MiniMed (Northridge, CA) CGMS System Gold on three to seven occasions over approximately 6 months.Nineteen children (nine girls and 10 boys; mean age 4.8 +/- 1.4 years, range 1.6-6.8 years) used the CGMS 102 times, providing 434 days of data; 79% of days were optimal based on CGMS Solutions software version 3.0. Mild hypoglycemia (glucose or=2 mg/dL/min following 50% of breakfasts. Children with hemoglobin A1c levels >or=8% had higher postprandial glucose concentrations. There was no significant advantage of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy over multiple daily injection therapy in decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia.CGMS tracings from young children with diabetes demonstrate frequent mild nocturnal hypoglycemia and significant postprandial hyperglycemia, with a rapid rise in glucose following the meal. The most rapid rate of rise and the most severe postprandial hyperglycemia occurred after breakfast.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2007.0026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248811800001

    View details for PubMedID 17705686

  • Impact of real-time continuous glucose monitoring on children and their families. Journal of diabetes science and technology Wilson, D. 2007; 1 (1): 142-145

    View details for PubMedID 19888396

  • Association of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose variability with morbidity and death in the pediatric intensive care unit PEDIATRICS Wintergerst, K. A., Buckingham, B., Gandrud, L., Wong, B. J., Kache, S., Wilson, D. M. 2006; 118 (1): 173-179


    We evaluated retrospectively plasma glucose levels and the degree of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose variability in a PICU and then assessed their association with hospital length of stay and mortality rates.Electronic medical records at the Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford University were reviewed retrospectively for all PICU admissions between March 1, 2003, and March 31, 2004. Patients with a known diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were excluded. The prevalence of hyperglycemia was defined with cutoff values of 110, 150, and 200 mg/dL. Hypoglycemia was defined as < or = 65 mg/dL. Glucose variability was assessed with a calculated glucose variability index.In 13 months, 1094 eligible admissions generated 18865 glucose values (median: 107 mg/dL; range: 13-1839 mg/dL). Patients in the highest maximal glucose quintile had a significantly longer median PICU length of stay, compared with those in the lowest quintile (7.5 days vs 1 day). Mortality rates increased as patients' maximal glucose levels increased, reaching 15.2% among patients with the greatest degree of hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia was also prevalent, with 18.6% of patients (182 of 980 patients) having minimal glucose levels of < or = 65 mg/dL. There was an increased median PICU length of stay (9.5 days vs 1 day) associated with glucose values in the lowest minimal quintile, compared with those in the highest quintile. Hypoglycemia was correlated with mortality rates; 16.5% of patients with glucose levels of < or = 65 mg/dL died. Glucose variability also was associated with increased length of stay and mortality rates. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, glucose variability, taken with hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, showed the strongest association with mortality rates.Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia were prevalent in the PICU. Hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and, in particular, increased glucose variability were associated with increased morbidity (length of stay) and mortality rates.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2005-1819

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238726100021

    View details for PubMedID 16818563

  • Definition of metabolic syndrome in preadolescent girls JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Chi, C. H., Wang, Y., Wilson, D. M., Robinson, T. N. 2006; 148 (6): 788-792


    To compare and contrast proposed definitions of metabolic syndrome in pediatrics, and to determine prevalence of metabolic syndrome in preadolescent females when applying different criteria.A literature review on definitions of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular "risk factor clustering" in children and adolescents published in the past decade. Pediatric definitions of metabolic syndrome were then applied to a community-based study of 261 black preadolescent females (Girls Health Enrichment MultiSite studies [GEMS]) and a school-based, cross-sectional study of 240 ethnically-diverse preadolescent females (Girls Activity, Movement and Environmental Strategy [GAMES]) who had a baseline physical examination and fasting morning blood sample.Agreement among pediatric definitions of metabolic syndrome was poor. The prevalence of MS and cardiovascular risk factor clustering ranged from 0.4% to 23.0% for GEMS and 2.0% to 24.6% for GAMES with definitions adapted from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, and 0% to 15.3% for GEMS and 0.4% to 15.8% for GAMES using modified criteria from the World Health Organization.The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in preadolescent girls varies widely because of disagreement among proposed definitions of metabolic syndrome in pediatrics. Further investigation is needed to determine which metabolic factors and their respective cut points should be used to identify children at risk for development of clinical disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.01.048

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238332500019

    View details for PubMedID 16769388

  • Evaluation of factors affecting CGMS calibration DIABETES TECHNOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS Buckingham, B. A., Kollman, C., Beck, R. W., Kalajian, A., Fiallo-Scharer, R., Tansey, M. J., Fox, L. A., Wilson, D. M., Weinzimer, S. A., Ruedy, K. J., Tamborlane, W. V. 2006; 8 (3): 318-325


    The optimal number/timing of calibrations entered into the CGMS (Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA) continuous glucose monitoring system have not been previously described.Fifty subjects with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (10-18 years old) were hospitalized in a clinical research center for approximately 24 h on two separate days. CGMS and OneTouch Ultra meter (LifeScan, Milpitas, CA) data were obtained. The CGMS was retrospectively recalibrated using the Ultra data varying the number and timing of calibrations. Resulting CGMS values were compared against laboratory reference values.There was a modest improvement in accuracy with increasing number of calibrations. The median relative absolute deviation (RAD) was 14%, 15%, 13%, and 13% when using three, four, five, and seven calibration values, respectively (P < 0.001). Corresponding percentages of CGMS-reference pairs meeting the International Organisation for Standardisation criteria were 66%, 67%, 71%, and 72% (P < 0.001). Nighttime accuracy improved when daytime calibrations (pre-lunch and pre-dinner) were removed leaving only two calibrations at 9 p.m. and 6 a.m. (median difference, -2 vs. -9 mg/dL, P < 0.001; median RAD, 12% vs. 15%, P = 0.001). Accuracy was better on visits where the average absolute rate of glucose change at the times of calibration was lower. On visits with average absolute rates <0.5, 0.5 to <1.0, 1.0 to <1.5, and >or=1.5 mg/dL/min, median RAD values were 13% versus 14% versus 17% versus 19%, respectively (P = 0.05).Although accuracy is slightly improved with more calibrations, the timing of the calibrations appears more important. Modifying the algorithm to put less weight on daytime calibrations for nighttime values and calibrating during times of relative glucose stability may have greater impact on accuracy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242531200007

    View details for PubMedID 16800753

  • Sequential comparisons of one-month and three-month depot leuprolide regimens in central precocious puberty JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM Badaru, A., Wilson, D. M., Bachrach, L. K., Fechner, P., Gandrud, L. M., Durham, E., Wintergerst, K., Chi, C., Klein, K. O., Neely, E. K. 2006; 91 (5): 1862-1867


    Dosing of monthly depot leuprolide (DL) in central precocious puberty (CPP) varies considerably. U.S. practitioners use 7.5-15 mg, in contrast with the international standard of 3.75 mg. Pubertal suppression using the newer 3-month DL also has been reported from Europe. To date there have been no direct comparisons of these different DL doses.In an open 12-month protocol, we tested the efficacy of three DL doses (7.5 mg- and 3.75 mg-1 month and 11.25 mg-3 month) given sequentially to subjects treated for CPP. Primary outcome measures were stimulated gonadotropin (Gn) levels at 12-wk intervals. The null hypothesis was no difference among doses.Both existing and new patients with CPP received our standard therapy (DL 7.5 mg every 4 wk) for a minimum of 24 wk. In subjects with DL-stimulated LH 2 IU/liter or less, the dose was changed to 3.75 mg every 4 wk and evaluated 12 wk later. Subjects who met LH criteria (<4.5 IU/liter) on 3.75 mg then received a single dose of 11.25 mg-3 month and were reevaluated 12 wk later. Serum LH/FSH and sex steroids were obtained 40 min after DL injection.Thirty subjects were enrolled (20 naive; 24 girls, 6 boys), and 21 were evaluated on all three DL doses. DL-stimulated LH levels (mean +/- sd) were 1.30 +/- 0.74, 1.73 +/- 0.99, and 2.13 +/- 1.41 on 7.5 mg, 3.75 mg, and 11.25 mg-3 month, respectively (7.5 vs. 3.75 mg, P = 0.019; 7.5 mg vs. 11.25 mg-3 month, P = 0.004, Wilcoxon ranked sign test). Mean FSH levels were 2.86 +/- 1.91, 3.91 +/- 1.98, and 3.96 +/- 1.34, respectively (7.5 vs. 3.75 mg, P = 0.017; 7.5 mg vs. 11.25 mg-3 month, P = 0.020). No differences were detected in mean sex steroid levels.Stimulated LH and FSH levels were significantly higher during therapy with both the 3.75 mg and 11.25 mg-3 month depot leuprolide doses, compared with 7.5 mg, contradicting the null hypothesis of no difference. These data suggest that low-dose 1- and 3-month DL preparations are associated with persistently greater gonadal stimulation in most CPP patients, but the LH/FSH results were not corroborated by differences in sex steroid levels. Whether various DL doses lead to long-term therapeutic differences remains to be determined.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/jc.2005-1500

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237330000037

    View details for PubMedID 16449344

  • Impact of exercise on overnight glycemic control in - Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Tsalikian, E., Mauras, N., Beck, R. W., Tamborlane, W. V., Janz, K. F., Chase, H. P., Wysocki, T., Weinzimer, S. A., Buckingham, B. A., KOLLMAN, C., Xing, D. Y., Ruedy, K. J., Fiallo-Scharer, R., Fisher, J. H., Tallant, B., Tsalikian, E., Tansey, M. J., Larson, L. F., Coffey, J., Wysocki, T., Mauras, N., Fox, L. A., Bird, K., Lofton, K. L., Buckingham, B. A., Wilson, D. M., Block, J. M., Clinton, P., Doyle, E. A., Sikes, K., Kalajian, A., Stockdale, C. R., Steffes, M. W., Bucksa, J. M., Nowicki, M. L., Van Hale, C. A., Makky, V., Grave, G. D., Linder, B., Winer, K. K., Becker, D. M., Cox, C., Ryan, C. M., White, N. H., White, P. C. 2005; 147 (4): 528-534


    To examine the effect of exercise on overnight hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).At 5 clinical sites, 50 subjects with T1DM (age 11 to 17 years) were studied in a clinical research center on 2 separate days. One day included an afternoon exercise session on a treadmill. On both days, frequently sampled blood glucose levels were measured at the DirecNet central laboratory. Insulin doses were similar on both days.During exercise, plasma glucose levels fell in almost all subjects; 11 (22%) developed hypoglycemia. Mean glucose level from 10 pm to 6 am was lower on the exercise day than on the sedentary day (131 vs 154 mg/dL; P=.003). Hypoglycemia developed overnight more often on the exercise nights than on the sedentary nights (P=.009), occurring on the exercise night only in 13 (26%), on the sedentary night only in 3 (6%), on both nights in 11 (22%), and on neither night in 23 (46%). Hypoglycemia was unusual on the sedentary night if the pre-bedtime snack glucose level was>130 mg/dL.These findings indicate that overnight hypoglycemia after exercise is common in children with T1DM and support the importance of modifying diabetes management after afternoon exercise to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.04.065

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232865300024

    View details for PubMedID 16227041

  • Accuracy of newer-generation home blood glucose meters in a Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) inpatient exercise study. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Weinzimer, S. A., Beck, R. W., Chase, H. P., Fox, L. A., Buckingham, B. A., Tamborlane, W. V., Kollman, C., Coffey, J., Xing, D., Ruedy, K. J. 2005; 7 (5): 675-680


    The objective of this study was to assess how the accuracy of the FreeStyle Flash (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) meter compares with that of the One Touch Ultra (Lifescan, Milpitas, CA) home glucose meter (HGM).Fifty children with type 1 diabetes (T1D), 10-17 years old, were admitted for two separate 24-h periods to assess the effect of exercise on subsequent nocturnal hypoglycemia. Resulting data were used in a preplanned analysis of the accuracy of the Ultra and FreeStyle HGMs. Glucose levels were measured throughout the day and night and every 15-20 min during a standardized exercise protocol. Reference samples were assayed in a central laboratory using a hexokinase enzymatic method. These reference glucose measurements were paired with HGM values from venous blood obtained within +/- 5 min.The median relative absolute difference was 5% for both the Ultra and FreeStyle HGMs, and the percentages of pairs meeting the International Organisation for Standardization criteria were 99% and 98%, respectively. The FreeStyle tended to read slightly higher than the reference method (median difference = +3 mg/dL; P < 0.001), and there was trend in this direction for the Ultra (median difference = +2 mg/dL, P = 0.15). Sensitivities for detection of hypoglycemia (reference < or = 60 and HGM < or = 70 mg/dL) were 96% and 100% for the Ultra and FreeStyle, respectively, and corresponding false-positive rates were both 5%.In a controlled clinical setting using venous blood samples, both the Ultra and FreeStyle meters demonstrated a high degree of accuracy compared with the laboratory reference over a broad range of glucose concentrations in children with T1D.

    View details for PubMedID 16241867

  • Real-time continuous glucose monitor use and patient selection: what have we learned and where are we going? Diabetes technology & therapeutics Wilson, D. M., Block, J. 2005; 7 (5): 788-791

    View details for PubMedID 16241884

  • Youth and parent satisfaction with clinical use of the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer in the management of pediatric type 1 diabetes DIABETES CARE Wysocki, T., Beck, R. W., Tamborlane, W. V., Fiallo-Scharer, R., Tansey, M. J., Weinzimer, S. A., KOLLMAN, C., Ruedy, K. J., Xing, D. Y., Davis, B., Chase, H. P., Fiallo-Scharer, R., Fisher, J. H., Tallant, B., Tsalikian, E., Tansey, M. J., Larson, L. F., Coffey, J., Wysocki, T., Mauras, N., Fox, L. A., Bird, K., Lofton, K. L., Buckingham, B. A., Wilson, D. M., Block, J. M., Clinton, P., Weinzimer, S. A., Tamborlane, W. V., Doyle, E. A., Sikes, K., Beck, R. W., Ruedy, K. J., KOLLMAN, C., Xing, D. Y., Kalajian, A., Stockdale, C. R., Grave, G. D., Linder, B., Winer, K. K., Steffes, M. W., Bucksa, J. M., Nowicki, M. L., Van Hale, C. A., Becker, D. M., Cox, C., Ryan, C. M., White, N. H., White, P. C. 2005; 28 (8): 1929-1935


    A continuous glucose monitor satisfaction scale (CGM-SAT) was evaluated during a 6-month randomized controlled trial of the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer (GW2B) in youths with type 1 diabetes.At the end of the 6-month trial, 97 parents and 66 older children who had been randomized to the GW2B group completed the CGM-SAT, which assesses satisfaction on 37 items using a five-point Likert scale. Descriptive analysis, calculation of several reliability estimates, and assessment of concurrent validity were performed.The CGM-SAT demonstrated high internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.95 for parents and 0.94 for youths aged > or = 11 years), split-half reliability (rho = 0.91 for parents and 0.93 for youths), and parent-adolescent agreement (rho = 0.68, P < 0.001). Convergent validity was supported by marginally significant associations with treatment adherence and frequency of GW2B use. CGM-SAT scores did not correlate significantly with changes in treatment adherence, quality of life, or diabetes-related anxiety from baseline to 6 months. Mean scores on CGM-SAT items indicated that 81% of parental responses and 73% of youths' responses were less favorable than "neutral." Descriptive analysis indicated the GW2B requires substantial improvement before it can achieve widespread clinical utility and acceptance.The results supported the psychometric properties of the CGM-SAT. The CGM-SAT warrants further research use and cross-validation with other continuous glucose monitors. This study provides a benchmark for comparison with new glucose sensors.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230869700013

    View details for PubMedID 16043734

  • Diabetes self-management profile for flexible insulin regimens - Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of psychometric properties in a pediatric sample DIABETES CARE Wysocki, T., Xing, D. Y., Fiallo-Scharer, R., Doyle, E. A., Block, J. M., Tsalikian, E., Beck, R. W., Ruedy, K. J., KOLLMAN, C., Harris, M., Tamborlane, W. V. 2005; 28 (8): 2034-2035

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230869700031

    View details for PubMedID 16043752

  • A brief review of the use and utility of growth hormone stimulation testing in the NCGS: Do we need to do provocative GH testing? GROWTH HORMONE & IGF RESEARCH Wilson, D. M., Frane, J. 2005; 15: S21-S25


    True growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in childhood, while rare, has major clinical consequences. GHD is often associated with other pituitary hormone deficiencies, so these children may require multiple hormonal replacement and close clinical follow-up to optimize their outcome. Growth hormone stimulation testing (GHST), as currently conducted, is not a reliable diagnostic tool. Both changes in growth hormone assay methodologies and increases in the diagnostic threshold contribute to the incorrect labeling of a substantial proportion of normal children as having idiopathic GHD. Fortunately, newer imaging technologies and laboratory tests form a more rational basis to diagnose true GHD. The use of GHST among GH-naive subjects (<20 years of age) enrolled in the National Cooperative Growth Study has declined over the past two decades, from a high of 89% between 1987 and 1989 to only 52% in 2002. Given that GH stimulation testing does not meaningfully aid in distinguishing those few children with true growth hormone deficiency from the much more common short normal child and that alternatives are now available, it is time to discontinue the routine use of GHST in children.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ghir.2005.06.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231443900006

    View details for PubMedID 16039892

  • Eight-point glucose testing versus the continuous glucose monitoring system in evaluation of glycemic control in type 1 diabetes JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM Fiallo-Scharer, R., Xing, D. Y., Weinzimer, S., Buckingham, B., Mauras, N., Tansey, M., Chase, P., Beck, R., Ruedy, K., KOLLMAN, C., Tamborlane, W., Chase, H. P., Fiallo-Scharer, R., Fisher, J. H., Tallant, B., Tsalikian, E., Tansey, M. J., Larson, L. F., Coffey, J., Wysocki, T., Mauras, N., Fox, L. A., Bird, K., Lofton, K. L., Buckingham, B. A., Wilson, D. M., Block, J. M., Clinton, P., Weinzimer, S. A., Tamborlane, W. V., Doyle, E. A., Sikes, K., Beck, R. W., Ruedy, K. J., KOLLMAN, C., Xing, D. Y., Kalajian, A., Silvester, C. R., Steffes, M. W., Bucksa, J. M., Nowicki, M. L., Van Hale, C. A., Grave, G. D., Linder, B., Winer, K. K., Becker, D. M., Cox, C., Ryan, C. M., White, N. H., White, P. C. 2005; 90 (6): 3387-3391


    Advantages/disadvantages of continuous vs. discrete glucose monitoring are not well documented.Compare glucose profiles from home meters vs. continuous sensors.Randomized clinical trial conducted by the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) to assess the utility of the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer.Home glucose measurements.Two hundred children (age, 7 to < 18 yr) with type 1 diabetes.At baseline, subjects were asked to wear the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) sensor and perform meter tests at eight prespecified times of the day (eight-point testing) each for 3 d (2 d using both, 1 d eight-point testing only, 1 d CGMS only). Hemoglobin A1c was measured in a central laboratory.Six-month hemoglobin A1c. This analysis looked at baseline glucose profiles/hemoglobin A1c.Only 10% of subjects completed full eight-point testing for 3 d, but median CGMS use was 70 h. Mean glucose was lower when measured by the CGMS compared with eight-point testing (183 +/- 37 vs. 188 +/- 41 mg/dl; 10.2 +/- 2.1 vs.10.4 +/- 2.3 mmol/liter; P = 0.009), especially overnight (2400-0400 h; 174 vs. 199 mg/dl; 9.7 vs. 11.1 mmol/liter; P < 0.001). Associations of hemoglobin A1c with mean glucose were similar for eight-point testing [slope 23 mg/dl per 1% (1.3 mmol/liter); correlation 0.40; P < 0.001] and CGMS [slope 19 mg/dl per 1% (1.1 mmol/liter); correlation 0.39; P < 0.001]. Postprandial excursions were lower for eight-point testing vs. CGMS, especially after dinner (mean excursion -17 vs. 63 mg/dl; -1.0 vs. 3.5 mmol/liter; P < 0.001).Both methods gave similar mean glucose profiles and associations with hemoglobin A1c. Advantages of the CGMS were higher density of data and better detection of postprandial peaks. However, the CGMS may overestimate the frequency of low glucose levels, especially overnight.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/jc.2004-2510

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229351000036

    View details for PubMedID 15784705

  • Response to nocturnal alarms using a real-time glucose sensor. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Buckingham, B., Block, J., Burdick, J., Kalajian, A., Kollman, C., Choy, M., Wilson, D. M., Chase, P. 2005; 7 (3): 440-447


    The objective of this study was to determine how subjects responded to alarms for hypo- and hyperglycemia while they were sleeping.Twenty subjects with type 1 diabetes (4-17 years old) were admitted to a clinical research center for approximately 24 h. Each subject wore two GlucoWatch G2 Biographers (GW2B) (Cygnus, Inc., Redwood City, CA) and was videotaped using an infrared camera from 9 p.m. to 7 a.m. The videotapes were reviewed to determine if the GW2B alarms were audible on the tape and to document the subject's response to the alarms. Because many alarms can occur surrounding a change in blood glucose, GW2B alarm "events" are defined as a one or more alarms separated from previous alarms by more than 30 min.Downloaded data from the biographers identified 240 individual alarms, 75% of which occurred while the subject was sleeping. Of the 240 alarms 68% were audible on the videotape. Subjects awoke to 29% of individual alarms and to 66% of alarm events. Subjects 4-6 years old responded to 17% of alarms, 7-11 year olds responded to 20% of alarms, adolescents responded to 53% of alarms, and parents responded to 37% of alarms. Subjects awoke to 40% of the first alarm during the night, but to only 28% of subsequent alarms. There were 11 events when the glucose was confirmed to be < or = 70 mg/dL, and in each case the subject was awoken. Fifty-five percent of alarm events occurred when there was no hypo- or hyperglycemia confirmed by a reference glucose value.Subjects awoke to 29% of individual alarms and to 66% of alarm events. Subjects awoke during all alarm events when hypoglycemia was confirmed, but there was a high incidence of false alarms.

    View details for PubMedID 15929675

  • A randomized multicenter trial comparing the GlucoWatch Biographer with standard glucose monitoring in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes care Chase, H. P., Beck, R., Tamborlane, W., Buckingham, B., Mauras, N., Tsalikian, E., Wysocki, T., Weinzimer, S., Kollman, C., Ruedy, K., Xing, D. 2005; 28 (5): 1101-1106


    This study assesses whether use of the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer (GW2B) in addition to standard glucose monitoring lowers HbA(1c) and reduces hypoglycemia compared with standard glucose monitoring alone.In all, 200 subjects aged 7 to <18 years with type 1 diabetes were randomly assigned at five centers to standard glucose monitoring (usual care) or standard glucose monitoring plus GW2B use for 6 months. Study outcomes included HbA(1c) values obtained at 6 months and occurrence of severe hypoglycemia.The mean HbA(1c) at baseline was 8.0% in both groups; at 6 months, HbA(1c) was 7.9% in the usual care group and 8.1% in the GW2B group (95% CI for mean reduction in the GW2B group compared with the usual care group -0.4 to 0.1%; P = 0.15). A decrease in HbA(1c) of > or =0.5% was achieved in 21% of the usual care group and 28% of the GW2B group (P = 0.29). Severe hypoglycemia events occurred in 7% of the GW2B group and in 2% of the usual care group (P = 0.10). In the GW2B group, sensor use declined throughout the study from a mean value of 2.1 times/week in the 1st month to 1.5 times/week in the 6th month. Reasons given for declining use included skin irritation (76%), frequent skips (56%), excessive alarms (47%), and inaccurate readings (33%).Use of the GW2B in addition to standard glucose monitoring did not improve glycemic control or reduce the frequency of severe hypoglycemia. Skin reactions and other problems led to decreasing sensor use over time.

    View details for PubMedID 15855573

  • Accuracy of the modified Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) sensor in an outpatient setting: results from a diabetes research in children network (DirecNet) study. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Tansey, M. J., Beck, R. W., Buckingham, B. A., Mauras, N., Fiallo-Scharer, R., Xing, D., Killman, C., Tamborlane, W. V., Ruedy, K. J. 2005; 7 (1): 109-114


    We previously reported the results of an inpatient accuracy study in children with type 1 diabetes using the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS, Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA). During the course of that study, a new process was implemented for manufacturing the CGMS sensor. Accuracy from the resulting modified sensor used by only 14 children was significantly better than the original version [median relative absolute difference (RAD), 11% vs. 19%; P < 0.001]. Baseline data from a subsequent outpatient study provide an opportunity to further assess the accuracy of the modified sensor in a much larger sample of children with type 1 diabetes.As part of a randomized trial to assess the utility of the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer (Cygnus, Inc., Redwood City, CA), 200 children with type 1 diabetes were instructed to wear a CGMS for 48-72 h in an outpatient setting at baseline. Glucose measurements from a OneTouch UltraSmart (Lifescan, Inc., Milpitas, CA) home glucose meter were downloaded and used as reference values to calculate accuracy measures.The overall median RAD was 12%. Accuracy was better during hyperglycemia than during hypoglycemia (median RAD, 10% vs. 20%; P < 0.001) and on optimal versus non-optimal days but did not vary significantly by the number of calibrations entered.These data confirm the improved accuracy previously reported for the modified version of the CGMS sensor.

    View details for PubMedID 15738708

  • A two-center randomized controlled feasibility trial of insulin pump therapy in young children with diabetes DIABETES CARE Wilson, D. M., Buckingham, B. A., Kunselman, E. L., Sullivan, M. M., Paguntalan, H. U., Gitelman, S. E. 2005; 28 (1): 15-19


    Our goals were to determine if continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), compared with those continuing multiple daily injections (MDIs), can be safely used in young children, if those on CSII will have superior glycemic control, if subjects using CSII will have less hypoglycemia for their level of control, and if families using CSII will report an improved quality of life.We conducted a randomized 1-year feasibility trial comparing CSII with continuing MDIs in preschool children with a history of type 1 diabetes for at least 6 months' duration. Prospective outcomes included measures of overall glycemic control (HbA1c and continuous glucose monitoring system), the incidence of severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis, the percent of glucose values below 3.9 mmol/l, and the parents' report of quality of life.The 19 subjects' ages ranged from 1.7 to 6.1 (mean 3.6) years, duration of diabetes ranged from 0.6 to 2.6 (mean 1.4) years, and baseline HbA1c ranged from 6.7 to 9.6% (mean 7.9%). Seven subjects were male. Nine subjects were randomized to start CSII and 10 to continue on MDI. All baseline characteristics were well balanced. Overall metabolic control, diabetes quality of life, and the incidence of hypoglycemia were similar in the two groups. No subject had diabetic ketoacidosis, while one subject in each group had an episode of severe hypoglycemia. No CSII subject discontinued using the pump during or after the study.CSII can be a safe and effective method to deliver insulin in young children.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226247700004

    View details for PubMedID 15616227

  • GlucoWatch G2 Biographer alarm reliability during hypoglycemia in children. Diabetes technology & therapeutics Tsalikian, E., Kollman, C., Mauras, N., Weinzimer, S., Buckingham, B., Xing, D., Beck, R., Ruedy, K., Tamborlane, W., Fiallo-Scharer, R. 2004; 6 (5): 559-566


    The GlucoWatch G2 Biographer (GW2B) (Cygnus, Inc., Redwood City, CA) provides near-continuous monitoring of glucose values in near real time. This device is equipped with two types of alarms to detect hypoglycemia. The hypoglycemia alarm is triggered when the current glucose measurement falls below the level set by the user. The "down alert" alarm is triggered when extrapolation of the current glucose trend anticipates hypoglycemia to occur within the next 20 min.We used data from an inpatient accuracy study to assess the performance of these alarms. During a 24-h clinical research center stay, 89 children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (3.5-17.7 years old) wore 174 GW2B devices and had frequent serum glucose determinations during the day and night.Sensitivity to detect hypoglycemia (reference glucose < or = 60 mg/dL) during an insulin-induced hypoglycemia test was 24% with the hypoglycemia alarm alone and 88% when combined with the down alert alarm. Overnight sensitivity from 11 p.m. to 6 a.m. was 23% with the hypoglycemia alarm alone and 77% when combined with the down alert alarm. For 16% of hypoglycemia alarms, the reference glucose was above 70 mg/dL for 30 min before and after the time of the alarm. For the two alarm types combined, the corresponding false-positive rate increased to 62%.The down alert alarm substantially improves the sensitivity of the GW2B to detect hypoglycemia at the price of a large increase in the false alarm rate. The utility of these alarms in the day-to-day management of children with diabetes remains to be determined.

    View details for PubMedID 15628809

  • Assessing weight-related biochemical cardiovascular risk factors in African-American girls OBESITY RESEARCH Wilson, D. M., Wang, Y., Cullen, K. W., Baranowski, T., Himes, J. H., Gross, M., McClanahan, B. S., Robinson, T. N. 2004; 12: 73S-83S


    Hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance is a risk factor for future type 2 diabetes. Fasting insulin and blood lipids serve as direct indicators of subsequent risk and as biochemical markers of metabolically significant adiposity. We examined the feasibility of obtaining fasting blood samples and report correlates of these biochemical markers in an understudied population sample.Fasting samples were requested from African-American girls, 8.00 to 10.99 years of age, for insulin, glucose, and lipid concentrations. Indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion were calculated and correlated with anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, and body composition data.Samples were obtained from 119 of 210 (57%) girls, varying from 5% to 86% across the four field centers. Glucose ranged from 71 to 104 mg/dL. Eleven percent had insulin concentrations >20 mU/liter. One girl had a triglyceride concentration >130 mg/dL. Thirteen percent had total cholesterol >200 mg/dL, whereas all subjects had high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol of > or =35 mg/dL. Fourteen percent had low-density lipoprotein levels >130 mg/dL. Insulin concentrations showed consistently strong associations with measures of body weight (rs = 0.54 to 0.67); glucose, HDL, and LDL showed weaker correlations (rs = -0.11 to 0.22). Insulin concentration was highly correlated with indices of both insulin secretion and resistance (rs = 0.99).Fasting blood samples in young African-American girls were obtained with reasonable cooperation in three of the four field centers involved in this community-based study. Fasting insulin, glucose, LDL, and HDL concentrations may help evaluate future diabetes and cardiovascular risk in children of this age.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224581800010

    View details for PubMedID 15489470

  • Alternatives to growth hormone stimulation testing in children TRENDS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM Badaru, A., Wilson, D. M. 2004; 15 (6): 252-258


    Despite more than 40 years of pediatric growth hormone (GH) replacement, we are still limited in our ability to make a definitive diagnosis of GH deficiency (GHD) in children. Historically, GH stimulation tests (GHSTs) have been used to discriminate between GHD and idiopathic short stature. Over the years, increases in the peak diagnostic GH cutoffs and the proliferation of GH assays have fundamentally changed the nature of the GHST. In our opinion, today's GHSTs lack reproducibility and accuracy, are expensive, and can be dangerous. Moreover, newer diagnostic tools, such as high-resolution neuroimaging, measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3, and an increasing number of genetic tests, have emerged. We believe that it is no longer appropriate to use GHSTs to diagnose childhood GHD. Instead, diagnosis should be based on a combination of auxological, biochemical, neuroradiological and genetic considerations. Here, we examine the alternatives to the GHST that are currently available and literature that supports their use. We believe that these alternative methods should replace the GHST.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tem.2004.06.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223416400004

    View details for PubMedID 15358277

  • Is growth hormone stimulation testing in children still appropriate? GROWTH HORMONE & IGF RESEARCH Gandrud, L. M., Wilson, D. M. 2004; 14 (3): 185-194


    The diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) historically has relied on measurement of growth hormone (GH) concentrations following stimulation, usually with a non-physiologic provocative agent. Despite the use of more specific GH assays, the peak concentration of GH below which a child is considered GH deficient has risen. We examine the pitfalls associated with GH stimulation tests, specifically, the lack of reliability and accuracy of these tests, and their inability to predict who will benefit from GH therapy. We recommend that GH stimulation tests no longer routinely be used for the diagnosis of GHD in children.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ghir.2003.11.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221740100001

    View details for PubMedID 15125879

  • Lack of accuracy of continuous glucose sensors in healthy, nondiabetic children: Results of the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) Accuracy study JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Mauras, N., Beck, R. W., Ruedy, K. J., KOLLMAN, C., Tamborlane, W. V., Chase, P., Buckingham, B. A., Tsalikian, E., Weinzimer, S. A., Booth, A. D., Xing, D. Y. 2004; 144 (6): 770-775


    The workup of hypoglycemia requires frequent glucose sampling. We designed these studies to determine if the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) and the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer (GW2B) are sufficiently accurate to use in nondiabetic children. Study design Fifteen healthy children (aged 9-17 years, 11 boys) wore a GW2B and a CGMS during a 24-hour period, and reference serum glucose was measured hourly during the day and half-hourly overnight.Compared with the reference glucose, the median absolute difference in concentrations measured by the GW2B (487 pairs) was 13 mg/dL, and the difference measured by the CGMS was 17 mg/dL (668 pairs), with 30% and 42% of values using the GW2B and CGMS, respectively, deviating >20 mg/dL from the reference value. The GW2B reported values <60 mg/dL in 73% of subjects, the CGMS in 60% of subjects. In none of these episodes was serum glucose truly low. Spurious high glucose concentrations also were observed with the sensors. The mean reference glucose was lowest at 5 am (89 mg/dL) and highest at 11:30 pm (106 mg/dL) during the 24-hour period.Neither the CGMS nor the GW2B is accurate enough to establish population standards of the glycemic profile of healthy children and cannot be recommended in the workup of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic youth.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.03.042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222047900017

    View details for PubMedID 15192625

  • Accuracy of the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer and the continuous glucose monitoring system during hypoglycemia - Experience of the Diabetes Research in Children Network DIABETES CARE Tsalikian, E., Beck, R. W., Tamborlane, W. V., Chase, P., Buckingham, B. A., Weinzimer, S. A., Mauras, N., Ruedy, K. J., KOLLMAN, C., Xing, D. Y., Fiallo-Scharer, R., Fisher, J. H., Tsalikian, E., Tansey, M. J., Larson, L. F., Wysocki, T., Gagnon, K. M., Todd, P., Wilson, D. M., Block, J. M., Kunselman, E. L., Tamborlane, W. V., Doyle, E. A., Moke, P. S., Labastie, L. M., Becker, D. M., Cox, C., Ryan, C. M., White, N. H., White, P. C., Steffes, M. W., Bucksa, J. M., Nowicki, M. L., Grave, G. D., Linder, B., Winer, K. K. 2004; 27 (3): 722-726


    The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy of the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer (GW2B) and the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) during hypoglycemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.During a 24-h clinical research center stay, 91 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (aged 3.5-17.7 years) wore one or two CGMSs, and 89 of these subjects wore one or two GW2Bs. Frequent serum glucose determinations were made during the day, overnight, and during insulin-induced hypoglycemia resulting in 192 GW2B reference pairs and 401 CGMS reference pairs during hypoglycemia (reference glucose < or =60 mg/dl).During hypoglycemia, the median absolute difference between the 192 GW2B reference glucose pairs was 26 mg/dl and between the 401 CGMS reference glucose pairs was 19 mg/dl with 31 and 42%, respectively, of the sensor values within 15 mg/dl of the reference glucose. Sensitivity to detect hypoglycemia when the GW2B alarm level was set to 60 mg/dl was 23% with a false-alarm rate of 51%. Analyses suggested that modified CGMS sensors that became available in November 2002 might be more accurate than the original CGMS sensors (median absolute difference 15 vs. 20 mg/dl).These data show that the GW2B and the CGMS do not reliably detect hypoglycemia. Both of these devices perform better at higher glucose levels, suggesting they may be more useful in reducing HbA1c levels than in detecting hypoglycemia.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000189307400014

    View details for PubMedID 14988292

  • Catch-up growth in severe juvenile hypothyroidism: Treatment with a GnRH analog JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM Teng, L., Bui, H., Bachrach, L., Lee, P., Gagne, N., Deal, C., Wilson, D. M. 2004; 17 (3): 345-354


    Anecdotal reports suggest that the addition of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog (GnRHa) in addition to L-thyroxine (LT4) replacement may increase adult stature in children with severe longstanding hypothyroidism by prolonging the pubertal growth period. This retrospective chart review compares the height outcome and body mass index in 33 children (21 treated with LT4 alone and 12 treated with LT4 + GnRHa) with severe longstanding hypothyroidism and bone age delay. Seventeen controls and six GnRHa-treated patients were followed to adult height (BA >14 yr [F]/16 yr [M] and/or growth velocity < 2 cm/yr). At diagnosis, GnRHa-treated patients were 1) older and shorter for chronological age, and 2) more advanced in puberty and bone age. Despite these differences, at adult height, both groups had similar improvements in height Z scores, similar height deficits, and comparable adult heights. Changes in BMI Z score were similar for both groups. Our study suggests that the addition of GnRHa to LT4 may improve interval growth without imposing a risk of obesity in children with longstanding severe hypothyroidism.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220670300009

    View details for PubMedID 15112911

  • Use of the Cygnus GlucoWatch biographer at a diabetes camp PEDIATRICS Gandrud, L. M., Paguntalan, H. U., Van Wyhe, M. M., Kunselman, B. L., Leptien, A. D., Wilson, D. M., Eastman, R. C., Buckingham, B. A. 2004; 113 (1): 108-111


    Detection and prevention of nocturnal hypoglycemia is a major medical concern at diabetes camps.We conducted an open-label trial of the Cygnus GlucoWatch biographer to detect nocturnal hypoglycemia in a diabetes camp, a nonclinical environment with multiple activities.Forty-five campers (7-17 years old) wore a biographer. The biographer was placed on the arm at 6:00 PM, with the low alarm set to 85 mg/dL (4.7 mmol/L). Overnight glucose monitoring occurred per usual camp protocol. Counselors were to check and record blood glucose values if the biographer alarmed.Biographers were worn for 154 nights by 45 campers. After a 3-hour warm-up period, 67% of biographers were calibrated, of which 28% were worn the entire night (12 hours). Thirty-four percent of readings were skipped because of: "data errors" (65%), sweat (20%), and temperature change (16%). Reported biographer values correlated with meter glucose values measured 11 to 20 minutes later (r = 0.90). Of 20 low-glucose alarms with corresponding meter values measured within 20 minutes, there were 10 true-positive alarms, 10 false-positive alarms, and no false-negative alarms. Campers reported sleep disruption 32% of the nights, and 74% found the biographer helpful. Campers reported they would wear the biographer 4 to 5 nights each week.Half of the biographer low-glucose alarms that had corresponding blood meter values were true-positive alarms, and the remaining were false-positive alarms. There was close correlation between the biographer and meter glucose values. The majority of campers found the biographer helpful and would use it at home.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188010600032

    View details for PubMedID 14702457

  • Dance and reducing television viewing to prevent weight gain in African-American girls: the Stanford GEMS pilot study. Ethnicity & disease Robinson, T. N., Killen, J. D., Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, D. M., Matheson, D. M., Haskell, W. L., Pruitt, L. A., Powell, T. M., Owens, A. S., Thompson, N. S., Flint-Moore, N. M., Davis, G. J., Emig, K. A., Brown, R. T., Rochon, J., Green, S., Varady, A. 2003; 13 (1): S65-77


    To test the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of after-school dance classes and a family-based intervention to reduce television viewing, thereby reducing weight gain, among African-American girls.Twelve-week, 2-arm parallel group, randomized controlled trial.Low-income neighborhoods.Sixty-one 8-10-year-old African-American girls and their parents/guardians.The treatment intervention consisted of after-school dance classes at 3 community centers, and a 5-lesson intervention, delivered in participants' homes, and designed to reduce television, videotape, and video game use. The active control intervention consisted of disseminating newsletters and delivering health education lectures.Implementation and process measures, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity measured by accelerometry, self-reported media use, and meals eaten with TV.Recruitment and retention goals were exceeded. High rates of participation were achieved for assessments and intervention activities, except where transportation was lacking. All interventions received high satisfaction ratings. At follow up, girls in the treatment group, as compared to the control group, exhibited trends toward lower body mass index (adjusted difference = -.32 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval [CI] -.77, .12; Cohen's d = .38 standard deviation units) and waist circumference (adjusted difference = -.63 cm, 95% CI -1.92, .67; d = .25); increased after-school physical activity (adjusted difference = 55.1 counts/minute, 95% CI -115.6, 225.8; d = .21); and reduced television, videotape, and video game use (adjusted difference = -4.96 hours/week, 95% CI -11.41, 1.49; d = .40). The treatment group reported significantly reduced household television viewing (d = .73, P = .007) and fewer dinners eaten while watching TV (adjusted difference = -1.60 meals/week, 95% CI -2.99, -.21; d = .59; P = .03). Treatment group girls also reported less concern about weight (d = .60; P = .03), and a trend toward improved school grades (d = .51; P = .07).This study confirmed the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of using dance classes and a family-based intervention to reduce television viewing, thereby reducing weight gain, in African-American girls.

    View details for PubMedID 12713212

  • The accuracy of the CGMS in children with type 1 diabetes: results of the diabetes research in children network (DirecNet) accuracy study. Diabetes technology & therapeutics 2003; 5 (5): 781-789


    The accuracy of the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System, CGMS (Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA) was assessed in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) when compared with reference serum glucose levels during spontaneous fluctuations in glucose levels over 24 h and during acute hyper- and hypoglycemia. Ninety-one subjects with type 1 diabetes (3.5-17.7 years old) wore one or two CGMSs while blood samples were obtained for serum glucose determinations (made at a central laboratory) hourly during the day, every 30 min overnight, and every 5 min during meal-induced hyperglycemia and insulin-induced hypoglycemia tests, resulting in 6778 CGMS-reference glucose pairs. CGMS function was assessed on each of the 3 days of sensor life. The median relative absolute difference (RAD) between the CGMS and reference values was 18% (25th, 75th percentiles = 8%, 34%). Similar results were obtained on each of the 3 days of sensor life. Accuracy was worse during hypoglycemia than during hyperglycemia. Modified sensors that first became available in November 2002 were more accurate than were the original sensors (median RAD = 11% vs. 19%) and had better precision (r = 0.92 vs. r = 0.77) during time periods in which two CGMSs were simultaneously used. The CGMS sensors that have been in clinical use until recently are often inaccurate in quantifying glucose values in children with T1DM. However, recent modifications to the sensor have resulted in substantially better accuracy and reliability. This improved function, if confirmed by additional data, may enhance the clinical utility of the CGMS.

    View details for PubMedID 14633343

  • A multicenter study of the accuracy of the One Touch Ultra home glucose meter in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes technology & therapeutics 2003; 5 (6): 933-941


    Data are not readily available on the accuracy of one of the most commonly used home blood glucose meters, the One Touch Ultra (LifeScan, Milpitas, California). The purpose of this report is to provide information on the accuracy of this home glucose meter in children with type 1 diabetes. During a 24-h clinical research center stay, the accuracy of the Ultra meter was assessed in 91 children, 3-17 years old, with type 1 diabetes by comparing the Ultra glucose values with concurrent reference serum glucose values measured in a central laboratory. The Pearson correlation between the 2,068 paired Ultra and reference values was 0.97, with the median relative absolute difference being 6%. Ninety-four percent of all Ultra values (96% of venous and 84% of capillary samples) met the proposed International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) standard for instruments used for self-monitoring of glucose when compared with venous reference values. Ninety-nine percent of values were in zones A + B of the Modified Error Grid. A high degree of accuracy was seen across the full range of glucose values. For 353 data points during an insulin-induced hypoglycemia test, the Ultra meter was found to have accuracy that was comparable to concurrently used benchmark instruments (Beckman, YSI, or i-STAT); 95% and 96% of readings from the Ultra meter and the benchmark instruments met the proposed ISO criteria, respectively. These results confirm that the One Touch Ultra meter provides accurate glucose measurements for both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes.

    View details for PubMedID 14709195

  • Progress in the treatment of childhood diabetes mellitus and obesity JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM Wilson, D. M. 2002; 15: 745-749


    The 61st Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) in Philadelphia, PA, (June 22-26, 2001) presented many topics of interest to pediatric clinicians. Of particular interest were the results of the insulin injection arm of the Diabetes Prevention Trial for type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (DPT-1). Over 80,000 relatives of patients with type 1 DM were screened. Ultimately, 339 subjects were randomized either to active therapy (twice daily insulin injections plus an annual insulin infusion) or to close observation. Risk prediction algorithms appeared to be accurate. Unfortunately, however, insulin therapy did not decrease the risk of developing DM. Of note, this was primarily a pediatric study with most of those randomized under 21 years of age. As expected, young subjects (<12 years) progressed toward the development of DM at a faster rate than older subjects (>15 years). The second arm of the DPT-1 trial, testing oral insulin in those with intermediate risk (25-50%) for DM, is still recruiting subjects. The controversial topic of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in young children was also addressed. Many investigators presented data strongly supporting the successful use of infusion pumps in young children. In general, glycemic control was improved or remained stable, the incidence of severe hypoglycemia was low, and families reported more flexibility in their lifestyle. Obesity, an increasing problem in pediatric patients, was also addressed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177872800012

    View details for PubMedID 12092689

  • Intensive diabetes management in pediatric patients. Current diabetes reports Buckingham, B., Bluck, B., Wilson, D. M. 2001; 1 (1): 11-18


    Intensive diabetes management requires frequent home glucose monitoring, multiple daily insulin injections or chronic subcutaneous insulin infusion, and adjustments of insulin doses in response to changes in blood glucose levels, food intake, and exercise. It also requires a periodic review of previous glucose results to recognize patterns of hyper- or hypoglycemia. The goals of intensive management are age dependent. In young children, avoidance of severe hypoglycemia is the major goal. In older children and adolescents, lowering hemoglobin A(1c) becomes an increasingly important goal. In children of all ages, the ability to have a flexible lifestyle and meal plan is often a priority. This article provides a brief overview of the rationale for implementing intensive diabetes management in pediatric patients, and practical guidelines for implementation.

    View details for PubMedID 12762952

  • Prevention of type 1a diabetes mellitus*. Pediatric diabetes Wilson, D. M., Buckingham, B. 2001; 2 (1): 17-24


    Type 1 diabetes begins with the progressive autoimmune mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. When sufficient beta cell function is lost, the endocrine phase, characterized by insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia, supervenes. While a genetic predisposition to diabetes is an important precondition, most believe an environmental factor or factors serve as the trigger for initiating this process. In this paper we review trials designed to prevent or delay the clinical onset of diabetes. In these studies, high-risk individuals are identified by their genetic predisposition to diabetes, and/or by the presence of immune markers indicating activation of the autoimmune process directed against islet cells. The Deutsche Nicotinamide Intervention Study (DENIS) randomized 55 high-risk subjects to either nicotinamide or placebo and found no significant benefit. The European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial (ENDIT) completed enrollment in May 1998. ENDIT screened over 40 000 relatives, randomizing 552 to either nicotinamide or placebo. Results are expected in May of 2003. Designed to test if avoidance of cow's milk in infancy will decrease the incidence of diabetes, the Trial to Reduce Type I Diabetes in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR). High-risk infants are randomly assigned to different supplemental formulas in the first 6 months of life. Initial results suggest that removing cow's milk has a protective effect. The ongoing, NIH funded, multicenter Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) is testing two antigen-based (insulin) interventions in relatives at high risk for diabetes. Now in its sixth year, the DPT-1 study group has screened over 84,000 individuals. As of November 2000, 339 subjects have been randomized in the parenteral insulin study, completing the enrollment phase. Enrollment continues in the oral insulin study. Results of this trial are not yet available. Different epitopes of insulin and its analogs, monoclonal antibodies, and cytokine-based therapy, among others, have all been proposed as potential new interventional agents. While a great deal of effort will be required to test these approaches, the potential benefits of prevention justify these research efforts.

    View details for PubMedID 15016206

  • Glucose meters: now what? Diabetes technology & therapeutics Wilson, D. M. 2000; 2 (2): 231-232

    View details for PubMedID 11469263

  • Semi-automated entry of clinical temporal-abstraction knowledge JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL INFORMATICS ASSOCIATION Shahar, Y., Chen, H., Stites, D. P., Basso, L. V., Kaizer, H., Wilson, D. M., Musen, M. A. 1999; 6 (6): 494-511


    The authors discuss the usability of an automated tool that supports entry, by clinical experts, of the knowledge necessary for forming high-level concepts and patterns from raw time-oriented clinical data.Based on their previous work on the RESUME system for forming high-level concepts from raw time-oriented clinical data, the authors designed a graphical knowledge acquisition (KA) tool that acquires the knowledge required by RESUME. This tool was designed using Protégé, a general framework and set of tools for the construction of knowledge-based systems. The usability of the KA tool was evaluated by three expert physicians and three knowledge engineers in three domains-the monitoring of children's growth, the care of patients with diabetes, and protocol-based care in oncology and in experimental therapy for AIDS. The study evaluated the usability of the KA tool for the entry of previously elicited knowledge.The authors recorded the time required to understand the methodology and the KA tool and to enter the knowledge; they examined the subjects' qualitative comments; and they compared the output abstractions with benchmark abstractions computed from the same data and a version of the same knowledge entered manually by RESUME experts.Understanding RESUME required 6 to 20 hours (median, 15 to 20 hours); learning to use the KA tool required 2 to 6 hours (median, 3 to 4 hours). Entry times for physicians varied by domain-2 to 20 hours for growth monitoring (median, 3 hours), 6 and 12 hours for diabetes care, and 5 to 60 hours for protocol-based care (median, 10 hours). An increase in speed of up to 25 times (median, 3 times) was demonstrated for all participants when the KA process was repeated. On their first attempt at using the tool to enter the knowledge, the knowledge engineers recorded entry times similar to those of the expert physicians' second attempt at entering the same knowledge. In all cases RESUME, using knowledge entered by means of the KA tool, generated abstractions that were almost identical to those generated using the same knowledge entered manually.The authors demonstrate that the KA tool is usable and effective for expert physicians and knowledge engineers to enter clinical temporal-abstraction knowledge and that the resulting knowledge bases are as valid as those produced by manual entry.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083688300007

    View details for PubMedID 10579607

  • Diabetes simulators: ready for prime time? Diabetes technology & therapeutics Wilson, D. M. 1999; 1 (1): 55-56

    View details for PubMedID 11475305

  • A comparison of calcaneus ultrasound and dual X-ray absorptiometry in healthy north American youths and young adults JOURNAL OF CLINICAL DENSITOMETRY Lum, C. K., Wang, M. C., Moore, E., Wilson, D. M., Marcus, R., Bachrach, L. K. 1999; 2 (4): 403-411


    Quantitative ultrasound is the newest noninvasive method to be accepted for assessing bone mineral in adults. Heel ultrasound measurements correlate with bone density measurements by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and predict fracture risk in adults. Far less is known about the value of calcaneus ultrasound (CUS) in children. We determine spine, femoral neck, and whole-body bone mineral by DXA and heel bone mass by CUS in 125 youths (69 females, 56 males) ages 9-25 yr. CUS and DXA measurements of bone mass increased with age and pubertal development during adolescence in a parallel fashion. Among females, Tanner stage was a stronger predictor than age for all CUS and DXA measurements, and among males, pubertal stage was a stronger predictor for spine bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and femoral bone mineral density (BMD). CUS measurements correlated moderately well with DXA measurements of the spine, femoral neck, and whole-body BMD and spine BMAD (r = 0.23-0.58, p < 0. 008). CUS warrants further study as a tool for assessing bone mineral acquisition in children.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085084200007

    View details for PubMedID 10677794

  • Prospective study of risk factors for the initiation of cigarette smoking JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Killen, J. D., Robinson, T. N., Haydel, K. F., Hayward, C., Wilson, D. M., Hammer, L. D., Litt, I. F., Taylor, C. B. 1997; 65 (6): 1011-1016


    Risk factors for the initiation of cigarette smoking were examined in 2 consecutive cohorts of teenagers (N = 1,901). Students in Cohort 1 were followed over 4 years from 9th to 12th grade; those in Cohort 2 were followed over 3 years from 9th to 11th grade. Among girls with no history of smoking at baseline, those with more friends who smoked at baseline (p < .001) and those with higher sociability scores (p < .05) were significantly more likely to have tried smoking over the study interval. Among boys with no history of smoking at baseline, those with more friends who smoked at baseline (p < .05) and those with higher depression symptoms scores (p < .01) were significantly more likely to have tried smoking over the study interval. The data suggest that future research is needed to examine potential gender differences that may have implications for the next generation of smoking-prevention programs.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997YJ46300011

    View details for PubMedID 9420362

  • Psychiatric risk associated with early puberty in adolescent girls JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Wilson, D. M., Hammer, L. D., Litt, I. F., Kraemer, H. C., Haydel, F., Varady, A., Taylor, C. B. 1997; 36 (2): 255-262


    This study prospectively evaluated the relationship between early puberty and the onset of internalizing symptoms and disorders in adolescent girls.The sample was drawn from 1,463 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade girls who participated in a longitudinal school-based study of growth and development. Pubertal stage was determined by self-assessment of Tanner stage. Psychiatric assessments included self-report instruments and structured diagnostic interviews. Survival methods were utilized for data analysis.Girls with onset of internalizing symptoms were on average 5 months earlier in pubertal development than those who were asymptomatic (p < .001). In addition, girls with earlier maturation (earliest quartile) were more likely to develop internalizing symptoms than were nonearly matures (hazard ratio = 1.8, confidence interval = 1.2, 2.7). In a subsample of girls followed into high school, early-maturing girls were at marginally higher risk (p < .10) for developing internalizing disorders by the study's end. The highest risk for internalizing disorders was for those girls with both early puberty and prior internalizing symptoms (odds ratio = 3.3).Early puberty increases the risk of internalizing symptoms and perhaps internalizing disorders in adolescent girls.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WD92900017

    View details for PubMedID 9031579

  • Ethnicity and body dissatisfaction: Are Hispanic and Asian girls at increased risk for eating disorders? JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Robinson, T. N., Killen, J. D., Litt, I. F., Hammer, L. D., Wilson, D. M., Haydel, K. F., Hayward, C., Taylor, C. B. 1996; 19 (6): 384-393


    To compare prevalences and correlates of body dissatisfaction among white, Hispanic, and Asian girls.A total of 939 6th and 7th grade girls (mean age 12.4 years) attending four middle schools in northern California completed self-administered assessments of age, ethnicity, desired body shape, parent education levels, mother's and father's body shapes, pubertal stage, and body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction was assessed with the Body Dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory. Height, weight, triceps skinfold thickness, and waist and hip circumferences were measured by trained examiners.Hispanic girls reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction than white girls, with Asian girls in-between. After adjustment for body mass index (weight/height), normal and overweight white, Hispanic, and Asian girls reported similar levels of body dissatisfaction. However, among the leanest 25% of girls, Hispanics and Asians reported significantly more body dissatisfaction than white girls. Body mass index was the strongest independent predictor of increased body dissatisfaction in all three ethnic groups. Shorter height among white girls and taller height among Asian girls also made significant independent contributions. Parent education level, a measure of socioeconomic status, was not significantly associated with body dissatisfaction.Body dissatisfaction is not limited to white girls in middle and upper socioeconomic strata. These findings suggest Hispanic and Asian girls may be at greater risk for adopting eating disorder behaviors than previously recognized.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VY33400005

    View details for PubMedID 8969369

  • Weight concerns influence the development of eating disorders: A 4-year prospective study JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B., Hayward, C., Haydel, K. F., Wilson, D. M., Hammer, L., Kraemer, H., BLAIRGREINER, A., Strachowski, D. 1996; 64 (5): 936-940


    The authors examined factors prospectively associated with age of onset of partial syndrome eating disorders over a 4-year interval in a community sample (N = 877) of high school-age adolescent girls. Four percent developed a partial syndrome eating disorder over the interval. A measure of weight concerns was significantly associated with onset in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis (p < .001). Girls scoring in the highest quartile on the measure of weight concerns had the highest incidence (10%) of partial syndrome onset, whereas none of the girls in the lowest quartile developed eating disorder symptoms. This finding is consistent with both theoretical and clinical perspectives and may represent a useful step toward the establishment of a rational basis for the choice of a prevention intervention target.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VM70000015

    View details for PubMedID 8916622

  • Predicting onset of drinking in a community sample of adolescents: The role of expectancy and temperament ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS Killen, J. D., Hayward, C., Wilson, D. M., Haydel, K. F., Robinson, T. N., Taylor, C. B., Hammer, L. D., Varady, A. 1996; 21 (4): 473-480


    We report results of a prospective examination of the influence of outcome expectancy variables and inherited temperaments on the onset of drinking over a 12-month period in a sample of 1,164 high school students. While univariate prospective analysis indicated that drinkers and nondrinkers were different both on measures of outcome expectancy and temperament, multivariate analysis supported, most strongly, a social learning account of the processes influencing the onset and maintenance of drinking behavior in this sample. The multivariate analysis revealed that only expectancies for enhanced social behavior were consistently associated with the onset of drinking from baseline to 12-month follow-up (p < .001). Among all nondrinkers at baseline, those entertaining higher expectancies about the positive effects of alcohol on social interaction were more likely to begin drinking between baseline and follow-up. At present, few, if any, alcohol abuse prevention studies with adolescents have explicitly attempted to alter alcohol expectancies or to establish a link between expectancy and behavior change. Our results suggest that it may be useful to do so.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UR66600005

    View details for PubMedID 8830905

  • A single-sample, subcutaneous gonadotropin-releasing hormone test for central precocious puberty PEDIATRICS Eckert, K. L., Wilson, D. M., Bachrach, L. K., Anhalt, H., Habiby, R. L., Olney, R. C., Hintz, R. L., Neely, E. K. 1996; 97 (4): 517-519


    We compared a rapid, subcutaneous (SQ), single-sample gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test with the standard multiple-sample, intravenous (IV) GnRH stimulation test used in the evaluation of central precocious puberty (CPP).We evaluated 22 patients presenting with evidence of precocious puberty. GnRH (100 microg) was administered subcutaneously in the clinic setting with single serum luteinizing hormone (LH) measured 40 minutes after injection. A standard IV GnRH stimulation test was performed within 2 weeks, with serum LH obtained at 0, 20, 40, and 60 minutes. LH was assayed by immunochemiluminometric assay.The mean peak LH levels after IV and SQ testing were identical. A significant correlation (r = .88) was found between the LH determined by SQ stimulations and the peak LH determined by IV GnRH testing. CPP was diagnosed (LH, >/- 8 IU/L) by both SQ and IV testing in 7 of 22 patients and was excluded by both tests in 14 of 22 patients. A diagnostic discrepancy between peak IV and SQ results was seen in 1 patient.We conclude that mean GnRH-stimulated LH levels from rapid SQ and standard IV testing are indistinguishable and that individual LH levels by each method are strongly correlated. A rapid SQ GnRH test is a valid tool for laboratory confirmation of CPP.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UC74700013

    View details for PubMedID 8632938

  • Chondrocytes from osteoarthritic cartilage have increased expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and -5, but not IGF-II or IGFBP-4 JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM Olney, R. C., Tsuchiya, K., Wilson, D. M., Mohtai, M., Maloney, W. J., Schurman, D. J., Smith, R. L. 1996; 81 (3): 1096-1103


    Osteoarthritis is a disease in which articular cartilage metabolism is altered, leading to cartilage destruction. As insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is the major anabolic mediator for articular cartilage, and the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are an integral part of the IGF axis, they may play a role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. Chondrocytes isolated from fibrillated and normal appearing areas of osteoarthritic human cartilage and from normal cartilage were studied for IGF and IGFBP expression. IGF and IGFBP messenger ribonucleic acids were analyzed by a RT-quantitative PCR technique and Northern blotting. In osteoarthritic chondrocytes, IGF-I message was increased 3.5-fold, IGFBP-3 was increased 24-fold, and IGFBP-5 was increased 16-fold over normal chondrocytes. Chondrocytes from normal appearing areas of cartilage from osteoarthritic joints had intermediate levels. Message levels for beta-actin, IGF-II, and IGFBP-4 were unchanged between the cartilage types. IGF and IGFBP production were analyzed by Western ligand blots and RIAs of conditioned medium from cartilage cultured in serum-free conditions. IGF-I was undetectable in conditioned medium from normal cartilage and increased in that from osteoarthritic cartilage. Osteoarthritic cartilage samples produced IGFBP-2, -3, and -4; glycosylated IGFBP-4; and IGFBP-5. IGFBP-2, -3, and -5 production was increased in osteoarthritic cartilage. Proteases with activity against IGFBP-3 and -5 were also produced by osteoarthritic cartilage. The observation that IGFBP-3 and -5 expression and production are elevated in osteoarthritic cartilage suggests that they may be acting as a competitor for IGF-I in osteoarthritic cartilage, thus reducing the anabolic stimulation of this tissue and contributing to the net loss of cartilage in this disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TZ90600042

    View details for PubMedID 8772582

  • Is testing for growth hormone release necessary? Kidney international. Supplement Wilson, D. M. 1996; 53: s123-5


    The question of if testing for growth hormone release is necessary in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) is part of a greater debate. The question of what constitutes growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has become more controversial over the past few years. In some ways, the question has been replaced by the question, "Who will have a meaningful response to growth hormone (GH) therapy?" Since children with CRF generally respond to GH therapy, the question should be recast as, "When is testing for growth hormone release necessary in patients with CRF?" Why is the diagnosis of GHD important? A clear diagnosis of class GHD has many important implications for a patient. GHD is an easily treated cause of neonatal hypoglycemia. The diagnosis alerts the clinician to search for etiologies of GHD such as intracranial tumors and should stimulate a search for other pituitary deficiencies. Another important claim is that patients with classic GHD have a better long-term response to GH therapy. Children in other diagnostic categories, such as renal failure and Turner syndrome, also respond to GH therapy. Do diagnostic studies use to determine the function of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis help in the management of these children? Recently, experts have become increasingly interested in what constitutes a useful diagnostic test. To be a "good" diagnostic test, a procedure should have the following properties: (1.) have a rational connection to the disorder; (2.) good concordance with the diagnosis/outcome; (3.) accurate; and (4.) reproducible. Among tests that share these properties, the best test is generally the easiest and/or the least expensive. Many different tests can be used to evaluate the GH-IGF axis. These include GH stimulation tests, 24-hour GH profiles, IGF-I, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). High quality determinations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 can be used to evaluate the GH-IGF axis.

    View details for PubMedID 8771005

  • OXANDROLONE THERAPY IN CONSTITUTIONALLY DELAYED GROWTH AND PUBERTY PEDIATRICS Wilson, D. M., McCauley, E., Brown, D. R., Dudley, R., Ainslie, M., Carey, D., Danney, M. M., Deeb, L. C., DONLAN, M. A., Edidin, D. V., Gonzalez, J., Hansen, I. L., Howard, C. P., Linarelli, L. G., Rubin, K., RUVALCABA, R., Schatz, D., SHULZ, J. S. 1995; 96 (6): 1095-1100


    Male adolescents with constitutional delay of growth and puberty may have significant psychosocial difficulties related to their sexual immaturity and short stature. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that 1 year of oxandrolone therapy would increase growth velocity and thereby improve psychosocial functioning in boys with constitutional delay of growth and pubertal development.Forty boys (ages 11 to 14.7 years) with delayed pubertal development and short stature were recruited from the pediatric endocrine clinics of 14 medical centers. The boys were randomized using a block design stratified for age to receive either oxandrolone (0.1 mg/kg daily for 1 year) or an identical-appearing placebo tablet, using a double-masked design.Growth velocity in the oxandrolone-treated boys was significantly greater than in the control boys (9.5 vs 6.8 cm/y). Likewise, the mean height SD score increased 0.41 in the oxandrolone group, whereas it decreased 0.03 in the control group. Those in the oxandrolone group gained 2.4 kg more than those in the placebo group. Mean predicted adult heights did not change in either group. The mean rates of pubertal progression were equivalent in both groups. Self-image (Piers-Harris Self Concept Scale) and social competence (Child Behavior Profile) were normal at baseline in both groups and did not change significantly over the course of the study in either group. No complications of oxandrolone therapy were identified.This randomized, placebo-controlled trial demonstrates that low-dose oxandrolone can increase both height and weight velocity in boys with delayed puberty safely. Under the conditions of this study, however, the increased growth velocity in the oxandrolone-treated boys was not associated with a greater improvement in psychosocial status compared with the control boys.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TJ13300011

    View details for PubMedID 7491227



    IGF-I is the major anabolic factor for cartilage matrix production. Chondrocytes and cartilage treated with interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), and chondrocytes from several models of inflammatory joint disease, exhibit reduced responsiveness to IGF-I. Since the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) modulate the effects of IGF-I, we examined the effect of IL-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on IGFBP production by normal human articular chondrocytes in primary culture. Western ligand blots and immunoprecipitation of conditioned medium samples showed that articular chondrocytes produced IGFBPs-2, -3 and -4 and glycosylated IGFBP-4. Both IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha increased chondrocyte production of IGFBP-3, but did not alter IGFBP-4 production. The activity of a neutral metalloprotease with the ability to cleave IGFBP-3 was also increased by IL-1 alpha. These data suggest that the cytokines IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha may act to reduce IGF-I access to chondrocytes by increasing production of IGFBP-3. This may be a factor in the decreased matrix production in the inflammatory arthritides.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RM22600013

    View details for PubMedID 7561640

  • NORMAL RANGES FOR IMMUNOCHEMILUMINOMETRIC GONADOTROPIN ASSAYS JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Neely, E. K., Hintz, R. L., Wilson, D. M., Lee, P. A., Gautier, T., Argente, J., Stene, M. 1995; 127 (1): 40-46


    We sought to establish normative data for spontaneous and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels measured by new immunochemiluminometric assays (ICMA) in children and adolescents.Random serum samples were obtained from 375 normal subjects (0.1 to 17.7 years, 230 female subjects). Intravenous GnRH stimulation tests were performed in 41 normal subjects (4.8 to 18 years, 20 female subjects). Normal ranges were calculated by age and Tanner stage. Immunochemiluminometric assays of LH and FSH concentrations were compared with levels obtained by a sensitive immunofluorometric assay and a less sensitive radioimmunoassay.Random gonadotropin concentrations in normal children followed the pattern of transient elevation in infancy, low but measurable prepubertal levels, and markedly increased values at puberty. Spontaneous LH levels were higher in male infants but were not statistically different in boys and girls after infancy. Mean prepubertal LH was 0.04 +/- 0.04 IU/L (n = 66), rising 100-fold during puberty. Spontaneous FSH levels were much higher than LH values, were higher in female infants, and rose threefold at puberty. Peak GnRH-stimulated LH was identical in prepubertal boys and girls (1.8 +/- 1.3 IU/L, n = 17) and increased 20-fold at puberty. Mean peak GnRH-stimulated FSH was highest in prepubertal female subjects. Luteinizing hormone values measured by ICMA and immunofluorometric assay were highly correlated, but radioimmunoassay levels diverged markedly from ICMA levels at lower concentrations. Because absolute levels were higher, FSH values correlated adequately in the three assays throughout the normal physiologic range.Measurement of LH by ICMA is much more sensitive than older assay methods. Spontaneous LH can be accurately measured by ICMA to the very low levels present in normal prepubertal children, providing a potentially important biochemical discriminator of pubertal status. An ICMA GnRH-stimulated LH level greater than 5 IU/L is suggestive of maturing gonadotropin secretion. The ICMA LH assays provide significant enhancement in sensitivity; these assays should be used when levels may be low, and by their accuracy may reduce the time and expense of testing procedures.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RH63700006

    View details for PubMedID 7608809



    We assessed the utility of spontaneous and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels measured by new immunochemiluminometric assays in the evaluation and monitoring of precocious puberty.We evaluated serum gonadotropin values from intravenous GnRH stimulation tests in 49 girls with clinical signs suggesting central precocious puberty (CPP). Because GnRH-stimulated LH has been considered the standard for diagnosing CPP, we used it as the basis for comparison with GnRH-stimulated FSH levels and spontaneous LH and FSH measured by immunochemiluminometric assay.Twenty-six patients had a peak serum LH value above the +2 SD threshold for normal prepubertal female subjects (LH > 5 IU/L). The GnRH-stimulated FSH values had a narrow range and did not discriminate patients with CPP. In contrast, elevations in spontaneous LH and FSH were found to be specific for CPP. Spontaneous LH levels correlated strongly with peak stimulated LH levels in subjects with precocious puberty (r = 0.79) or in control subjects (r = 0.93, both p (0.0001). Spontaneous LH levels in excess of 0.1 IU/L detected true puberty with 94% sensitivity and 88% specificity. Random LH levels in excess of 0.3 IU/L had 100% specificity for CPP.The GnRH-stimulated FSH levels do not adequately differentiate children with and without CPP and have limited utility in the evaluation of precocious puberty. Spontaneous FSH levels are elevated in CPP with fair sensitivity and marked specificity. Elevated random LH, measured by third-generation assay such as immunochemiluminometric assay, is strongly correlated with and highly predictive of elevated peak GnRH-stimulated LH, and is a useful screening tool for CPP.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RH63700007

    View details for PubMedID 7608810



    The quantification of messenger RNA is central in studies of gene expression. We describe a quantitative assay for specific mRNAs (QASM) that measures mRNAs for insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) -2, -3, -4, and -5, and beta-actin. The assay utilizes reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, followed by an ELISA based DNA assay technique. The use of internal (competitive) quantification standards gave poorly linear results, while external standards gave linear and reproducible results. QASM results correlated with IGFBP protein concentrations in conditioned medium and with mRNA levels determined by Northern blotting. QASM was used to study IGFBP expression in human malignant melanoma cells. Messenger RNA for IGFBP-2, -3, and -5 were present, while IGF-I and IGFBP-4 mRNAs were not detected. IGFBP-2 and -3 expression was increased in a dose dependent manner by treatment with IGF-I. Protein concentrations in conditioned media paralleled mRNA levels. QASM is a sensitive, specific, and reproducible approach to determining mRNA levels.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QZ08800025

    View details for PubMedID 7545621

  • Endocrinology of growth and growth factors. Connective tissue research Wilson, D. M. 1995; 31 (4): S3-7


    This review discusses normal growth patterns and the appropriate use of preprinted growth curves. The important roles of thyroid and growth hormone in the modulation of growth are delineated. I present an approach to the evaluation and proper management of children and adolescents with short stature and poor growth.

    View details for PubMedID 15612373

  • Pursuit of thinness and onset of eating disorder symptoms in a community sample of adolescent girls: a three-year prospective analysis. International journal of eating disorders Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B., Hayward, C., Wilson, D. M., Haydel, K. F., Hammer, L. D., SIMMONDS, B., Robinson, T. N., Litt, I., Varady, A. 1994; 16 (3): 227-238


    Community-based prospective studies are needed to shed light on mechanisms that may influence development of eating disorders and identify variables that could serve as potential targets for prevention efforts. In this paper we examine level of weight preoccupation and other variables prospectively associated with age of onset of eating disorder symptoms over a 3-year interval in a community sample (N = 939) of young adolescent girls. 3.6% (32/887) experienced onset of symptoms over the interval. Only one factor, a measure of Weight Concerns, was significantly associated with onset (p < .001). Girls scoring in the highest quartile on the measure of Weight Concerns had the shortest survival time (12% incidence by age 14.5) and those scoring in the lowest quartile had the highest survival time (2% incidence by age 14.5; p < .001). This finding is consistent with both theoretical and clinical perspectives and represents one of the first prospective demonstrations of a linkage between weight and body shape concerns and later onset of eating disorder symptoms. An understanding of the independent variables that predispose girls to development of symptoms is a useful step towards the establishment of a rational basis for the choice of a prevention intervention target.

    View details for PubMedID 7833956

  • TIMING AND RATE OF SEXUAL-MATURATION AND THE ONSET OF CIGARETTE AND ALCOHOL-USE AMONG TEENAGE GIRLS ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Wilson, D. M., Killen, J. D., Hayward, C., Robinson, T. N., Hammer, L. D., Kraemer, H. C., Varady, A., Taylor, C. B. 1994; 148 (8): 789-795


    To test the hypothesis that the patterns of pubertal progression, early vs late puberty and fast vs slow, are associated with the age at which girls start to drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes.The study included 1463 female students, 10.7 to 18.2 years of age, who were assessed five times during the 2.7-year study. Data regarding pubertal stage, alcohol use, and cigarette use were obtained at each assessment. These data were used to calculate two indexes of pubertal development, the age at which the midpoint of puberty was achieved and the rate of progression through puberty, and the ages when each subject first drank, first drank moderate amounts of alcohol, and first smoked.Girls with earlier puberty (midpoint < 12.2 years) first reported drinking any alcohol at a median age of 12.5 years, 0.7 years younger than girls whose puberty was later. Similarly, girls with earlier puberty reported drinking moderate amounts of alcohol at a median age of 13.7 years, 0.9 years younger than girls with later puberty. Girls with earlier puberty further reported first smoking cigarettes at a median age of 12.8 years, 0.6 years younger than girls with later puberty. The rate of pubertal progression was significantly associated only with the age when girls first drank moderate amounts of alcohol.Earlier puberty is associated with a younger age of onset for both drinking and smoking among adolescent girls.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PB26400003

    View details for PubMedID 8044254



    Nine hundred thirty-nine 6th and 7th grade girls participated in the baseline phase of a prospective study designed to examine a set of potential risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Of the 939,839 girls (89%) completed the bulimia nervosa section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R disorders. One girl received the diagnosis of bulimia nervosa, another 35 were classified as a symptomatic group. Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and stage of sexual maturation, symptomatic and asymptomatic groups were compared on the following measures: Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), BMI, triceps skinfold thickness, waist-to-hip ratio, depression symptoms (CES-D and DSRS), Restraint Scale, and a measure of family adaptability and cohesion (FACES). Symptomatic girls were more developmentally mature, significantly heavier, reported greater fear of weight gain, experienced greater dysphoria, indicated increased body dissatisfaction, and reported greater feelings of inadequacy and personal worthlessness. Their status on these dimensions may indicate potential vulnerability to eating disorders and, ultimately, suggest the choice of targets for intervention. Our future goal is to conduct the prospective analyses needed to confirm the hypothesized linkages.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NG59800005

    View details for PubMedID 8032350



    Linear growth results from proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes within the growth plates and is regulated, in part, by the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) also appear to play a significant, but yet unclear, role. To examine IGFBP production by chondrocytes, we isolated bovine chondrocytes from adult articular, fetal articular, and fetal growth plate cartilage, and maintained them in primary culture as high-density monolayers or encapsulated in alginate beads. Cells were cultured in serum-free conditions with human GH (hGH), insulin, hIGF-I, or hIGF-II. Human IGF-I resulted in higher DNA content in all three of the chondrocyte types. Conditioned medium samples were analyzed for IGFBPs by Western ligand blotting. Chondrocytes released IGFBPs of 24, 29, 33, 39, and 43 kilodaltons (kDa). Deglycosylation and immunoblotting identified the 39/43-kDa doublet as IGFBP-3 and the 33-kDa band as IGFBP-2. All chondrocyte types released 29- and 24-kDa IGFBP bands constitutively. Adult articular chondrocytes increased production all IGFBPs in response to IGF-I, but particularly the 29-kDa band (17-fold increase). Fetal articular chondrocytes showed a similar pattern, but with less of an increase when treated with IGF-I. Fetal growth plate chondrocytes primarily showed increases in IGFBP-3 and the 24-kDa form (4.7- and 2.7-fold, respectively) in response to IGF-I. Although the role of IGFBPs in IGF mediation of articular and growth plate chondrocyte metabolism requires further research, we show here that bovine chondrocytes produce IGFBPs, and the IGFs regulate this production.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LQ84600021

    View details for PubMedID 7688290



    To examine the relationships between hours of television viewing and adiposity and physical activity among female adolescents, a cohort study with follow-up assessments 7, 14, and 24 months after baseline was conducted. All sixth- and seventh-grade girls (N = 971) attending four northern California middle schools were eligible to participate. Six hundred seventy-one students had sufficient data for baseline cross-sectional analyses, and 279 students in a no-intervention cohort had sufficient data for longitudinal analyses. The baseline sample had a mean age of 12.4 years and was 43% white, 22% Asian, 21% Latino, 6% Pacific Islander, 4% black, 2% American Indian, and 2% other. Hours of after-school television viewing, level of physical activity, and stage of sexual maturation were assessed with self-report instruments. Height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured and body mass index (ratio of weight [in kilograms] to height [in meters] squared) and triceps skinfold thickness were adjusted by level of sexual maturity for the analyses. Baseline hours of after-school television viewing was not significantly associated with either baseline or longitudinal change in body mass index or triceps skinfold thickness. Baseline hours of after-school television viewing was weakly negatively associated with level of physical activity in cross-sectional analyses but not significantly associated with change in level of physical activity over time. All results were essentially unchanged when adjusted for age, race, parent education, and parent fatness. Among adolescent girls, television viewing time appears to have only weak, if any, meaningful associations with adiposity, physical activity, or change in either over time.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KK57800001

    View details for PubMedID 8424000

  • Knowledge reuse: temporal-abstraction mechanisms for the assessment of children's growth. Proceedings / the ... Annual Symposium on Computer Application [sic] in Medical Care. Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care Kuilboer, M. M., Shahar, Y., Wilson, D. M., Musen, M. A. 1993: 449-453


    Currently, many workers in the field of medical informatics realize the importance of knowledge reuse. The PROTEGE-II project seeks to develop and implement a domain-independent framework that allows system builders to create custom-tailored role-limiting methods from generic reusable components. These new role-limiting methods are used to create domain- and task-specific knowledge-acquisition tools with which an application expert can generate domain- and task-specific decision-support systems. One required set of reusable components embodies the problem-solving knowledge to generate temporal abstractions. Previously, members of the PROTEGE-II project have used these temporal-abstraction mechanisms to infer the presence of myelotoxicity in patients with AIDS. In this paper, we show that these mechanisms are reusable in the domain of assessment of children's growth.

    View details for PubMedID 8130514



    To test the usefulness of estrogen priming to enhance the growth hormone (GH) response following stimulation with clonidine hydrochloride in short children.Randomized and patient series.Pediatric endocrine clinic in a referral center.Seventy-three children (63% male) between 1.8 and 15.4 years of age (mean age, 8.8 years) with growth problems who underwent clonidine GH stimulation tests were randomly assigned to receive either estrogen pretreatment or no pretreatment. An additional 49 subjects, seen before or after the randomized study and who did not receive conjugated estrogen, are also described.Consecutive sample.Estrogen pretreatment consisted of 2.5 mg of conjugated estrogen (Premarin) to be taken the evening before and the morning of the clonidine GH stimulation test. Growth hormone concentrations were determined before and 60 and 90 minutes after the subjects received oral clonidine hydrochloride (5 micrograms/kg) by a laboratory blinded to the subject's estrogen status. Growth hormone concentrations greater than 10 micrograms/L were considered normal.Eight of the 73 subjects failed both clonidine and arginine-insulin GH stimulation tests. We analyzed the GH data from the 65 GH-sufficient subjects to determine the effect of estrogen pretreatment on the specificity of the clonidine GH stimulation test. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean GH concentrations between the two groups at any time point during the test.Our data demonstrate that estrogen priming does not improve the diagnostic yield of clonidine GH stimulation tests.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KG48300017

    View details for PubMedID 8380310

  • 2-YEAR RESULTS OF TREATMENT WITH DEPOT LEUPROLIDE ACETATE FOR CENTRAL PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Neely, E. K., Hintz, R. L., Parker, B., Bachrach, L. K., Cohen, P., Olney, R., Wilson, D. M. 1992; 121 (4): 634-640


    We report results from 2 years of therapy with the long-acting form of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog leuprolide acetate, which was previously reported in short-term trials to be efficacious in the treatment of central precocious puberty. Thirteen girls and two boys, aged 1.9 to 9.7 years, who satisfied clinical criteria including GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) greater than 10 IU/L (mean radioimmunoassay LH, 29.1 +/- 5.54 IU/L), received depot leuprolide, 6 to 15 mg intramuscularly every 4 weeks. Estradiol (or testosterone), insulin-like growth factor I, and GnRH-stimulated gonadotropins were obtained at baseline, at 2 months, and at 6-month intervals with bone age determinations. Pubertal progression ceased in all patients, and menses did not occur. Mean increase in height during therapy was 5.77 +/- 2.0 cm/yr. Predicted adult height increased over baseline by 5.52 +/- 1.16 cm at 18 months. Mean estradiol values in the girls declined from 3.3 +/- 0.6 to 0.60 +/- 0.03 ng/dl, with no overlap of baseline and treatment values. The mean basal LH value was unchanged by therapy; mean basal and peak LH values for all follow-up GnRH stimulation tests were 4.05 +/- 0.57 and 4.95 +/- 0.70 IU/L, respectively. Basal and peak follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were suppressed from 4.10 +/- 0.62 and 10.06 +/- 1.34 IU/L, respectively, to generally undetectable levels (< 1). Comparison with untreated control patients suggested that basal LH did not completely return to prepubertal levels, whereas FSH levels were suppressed below prepubertal levels. Estradiol, FSH, and LH levels reached their nadir by 2 months; in contrast, mean serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I progressively declined from +0.57 +/- 0.19 SD score to -0.06 +/- 0.22 SD score at 24 months. Two girls were withdrawn from the study because of reactions at injection sites, with apparent sterile abscess formation in one patient. This study provides evidence that (1) long-term treatment with depot leuprolide is characterized by immediate and sustained laboratory and clinical suppression, (2) GnRH-stimulated LH and random FSH and estradiol concentrations are useful laboratory measures of efficacy, and (3) the progressive increase in predicted adult height is temporally associated with decreased serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I and striking deceleration of bone age advancement.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JR92000026

    View details for PubMedID 1403402



    Although biotechnology has provided physicians with essentially unlimited supplies of growth hormone (GH), there are currently only a few clear-cut indications for exogenous GH therapy. Data now support the use of GH in the treatment of children with GH deficiency and short girls with Turner syndrome. Tantalizing preliminary data suggest that GH therapy has a role in the management of short, poorly growing children with other causes for their growth failure. Recent studies have examined the utility of GH therapy in GH-deficient adults, whereas other studies suggest that GH improves the clinical status of GH-sufficient older adults. This article explores the recent data underlying these claims.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992LA54200003

    View details for PubMedID 1521510

  • Cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome: utility of MR imaging. Australasian radiology Dawson-Falk, K. L., Wright, A. M., Bakker, B., Pitlick, P. T., Wilson, D. M., Rosenfeld, R. G. 1992; 36 (3): 204-209


    Forty patients with karyotypically proven Turner syndrome were prospectively studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography in order to determine the frequency of cardiovascular anomalies and to assess the utility of both imaging modalities as methods for cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome. Cardiovascular anomalies were found in 45% of patients. A high absolute prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve (17.5%) and aortic coarctation (12.5%) were observed relative to comparable series. Of clinically significant abnormalities, three of five aortic coarctations and four of five ascending aortic dilatations were solely MRI detected and not evident at echocardiographic examination. MRI is thus seen as a valuable adjunct to echocardiography in the cardiovascular evaluation of Turner syndrome patients. The usefulness of MRI primarily relates to its ability to provide excellent visualisation of the entire thoracic aorta where a large proportion of clinically significant anomalies occur in Turner syndrome.

    View details for PubMedID 1445102

  • INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH-FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN-3 IN NORMAL PUBERTAL GIRLS ACTA ENDOCRINOLOGICA Wilson, D. M., STENE, M. A., Killen, J. D., Hammer, L. D., Litt, I. F., Hayward, C., Taylor, C. B. 1992; 126 (5): 381-386


    IGFBP-3 concentrations rise in the second decade of life. To test the hypothesis that the stage of pubertal development, independent of chronological age, was associated with these increases we measured serum IGFBP-3 concentrations by radioimmunoassay in 324 sixth and seventh grade girls (12.3 +/- 0.7 years) at the beginning of a multisite school-based health curriculum. The mean (+/- SD) serum IGFBP-3 among the 242 girls with complete data was 4.0 +/- 0.7 mg/l. Pubertal stage was significantly associated with IGFBP-3 (p less than 0.0001, ANOVA). Mean concentrations rose from 3.5 +/- 0.7 mg/l among those with the earliest pubertal stages to 4.2 +/- 0.7 mg/l among the mature girls. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations were significantly correlated (Spearman's r = 0.43, p less than 0.0001). After controlling for the association between pubertal development and IGFBP-3 concentrations, only the waist/hip ratio, among the various measures of body composition, was significantly associated with IGFBP-3 concentration (Spearman's r = -0.23, p = 0.0002). Likewise, none of the measures of nutrition: intake of total calories, protein, fat and carbohydrate; serum iron; red cell mean corpuscular volume; or cholesterol; were significantly associated with IGFBP-3 concentrations. There was, however, a small, but significant association between IGFBP-3 concentrations and both serum transferrin and blood hemoglobin concentrations. Pubertal stage has a significant impact on IGFBP-3 concentrations and those attempting to utilize IGFBP-3 concentrations during adolescence should be cognizant of the subject's pubertal stage.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HZ93000001

    View details for PubMedID 1377853


    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HM32200004

    View details for PubMedID 1558073

  • IS PUBERTY A RISK FACTOR FOR EATING DISORDERS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DISEASES OF CHILDREN Killen, J. D., Hayward, C., Litt, I., Hammer, L. D., Wilson, D. M., Miner, B., Taylor, B., Varady, A., Shisslak, C. 1992; 146 (3): 323-325


    To examine the association between stage of sexual maturation and eating disorder symptoms in a community-based sample of adolescent girls.All sixth- and seventh-grade girls (N = 971) enrolled in four northern California middle schools. MAIN VARIABLES EXAMINED: Pubertal development measured using self-reported Tanner stage and body mass index (kg/m2). The section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Disorders (SCID) discussing bulimia nervosa was used to evaluate symptoms of bulimia nervosa.Girls manifesting eating disorder symptoms, while not significantly older than their peers without such symptoms, were more developmentally advanced as determined with Tanner self-staging. The odds ratio for the association between sexual maturity and symptoms was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.8); ie, at each age, an increase in sexual maturity of a single point was associated with a 1.8-fold increase in the odds of presenting symptoms. The odds ratio for the association between body mass index (adjusted for sexual maturity) and symptoms was 1.02 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 1.05). There was no independent effect of age or of the interaction between age and the sexual maturity index.These results suggest that (1) puberty may be a risk factor for the development of eating disorders, and (2) prevention efforts might best be directed at prepubertal and peripubertal adolescents.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HG92400016

    View details for PubMedID 1543180

  • Effects of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF receptor antibodies on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Growth factors De Leon, D. D., Wilson, D. M., Powers, M., Rosenfeld, R. G. 1992; 6 (4): 327-336


    It has been shown previously that MCF-7 cells proliferate in response to nanomolar concentrations of IGF-I and IGF-II. It has also been reported that the actions of both peptides are mediated through the IGF-I receptor. To further characterize these observations, we used MCF-7 and Hs578T cell lines in the serum-free/phenol red-free system developed by Ogasawara and Sibarsku, 1988. Cell proliferation was studied in the presence of insulin, IGF-I and -II and a series of growth factor receptor antibodies. No effect was observed on Hs578T cell proliferation with any of the growth factors. However, MCF-7 cells were stimulated 4-5 fold with IGF-I and insulin, while IGF-II was only slightly less potent. alpha IR3, a monoclonal antibody directed against the IGF-I receptor, was stimulatory when added alone. However, alpha IR3 blocked approximately 50% of the IGF-I response, only 5% of the insulin response, and did not block the IGF-II effect on cell proliferation. These data suggest that alpha IR3 and IGF-I are acting as agonists through the IGF-I receptor, but that insulin and IGF-II are acting through other receptors. Two different IGF-II/M-6-P receptor antibodies and an insulin receptor antibody failed to significantly block IGF-II actions. All three antibodies were stimulatory when added alone. beta-gal inhibited 27% of the IGF-II response and had no effect when added alone. Since beta-gal decreases the binding affinity of the IGF-II/M-6-P receptor for IGF-II and does not bind to the IGF-I or insulin receptor, these data suggest the possibility that IGF-II mitogenic action is mediated through the IGF-II/M-6-P receptor. In summary, these data indicate that nanomolar concentration of insulin, IGF-I and IGF-II are potent mitogens in MCF-7 cells and can potentially stimulate cell proliferation through all three receptors.

    View details for PubMedID 1340210



    Large variations in nutritional intake have profound effects on the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis in children and adults, but the effect of normal variations in nutrition on IGF-I concentrations is largely unstudied, particularly during puberty. We measured serum IGF-I concentrations in 325 sixth and seventh grade girls (12.4 +/- 0.7 yr) at the beginning of a multisite school-based health curriculum. The mean serum IGF-I level among the 243 girls with complete data was 573 +/- 244 micrograms/L. Pubertal stage was significantly associated with IGF-I (P less than 0.0001, by analysis of variance). Mean concentrations rose from 427 +/- 198 micrograms/L among those at the earliest pubertal stages to 639 +/- 219 micrograms/L among the mature girls. After adjusting for the association with the stage of pubertal development, serum IGF-I was not significantly associated with measures of body composition (body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness, waist/hip ratio, height, and weight). Additionally, IGF-I concentrations were not associated with nutritional intake (total calories, total protein, total fat, and total carbohydrate) or such measures of nutrition as serum iron, hemoglobin, red cell mean corpuscular volume, white cell count, and cholesterol. IGF-I concentrations, however, were significantly correlated with transferrin concentrations, another possible index of nutritional status (r = 0.29; P less than 0.0001). IGF-I is not a clinically useful index of nutritional status among normal pubertal girls.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GF68400035

    View details for PubMedID 1890162

  • GROWTH-HORMONE THERAPY IN HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DISEASES OF CHILDREN Wilson, D. M., Lee, P. D., Morris, A. H., Reiter, E. O., Gertner, J. M., Marcus, R., QUARMBY, V. E., Rosenfeld, R. G. 1991; 145 (10): 1165-1170


    The effects of growth hormone therapy on the biochemical measures of bone metabolism were studied in 11 children aged 3.5 to 17 years who had familial hypophosphatemic rickets; five were male. Subjects were maintained on a regimen of stable doses of conventional therapy (calcitriol and phosphate). Subjects were studied at baseline receiving conventional therapy and during three sequential treatment periods: no therapy (4 weeks), growth hormone only (0.05 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks), and conventional therapy plus growth hormone (2 weeks). The nine youngest subjects were continued on a regimen of triple therapy for an additional 24 weeks. Serum phosphate averaged 0.93 +/- 0.13 mmol/L (mean +/- SD) at entry and decreased when the subjects were not receiving any therapy. During the 4 weeks of growth hormone only treatment, phosphate rose in all 11 subjects (0.70 +/- 0.08 mmol/L to 0.83 +/- 0.08 mmol/L). With triple therapy, phosphate remained higher than with no therapy. Calcitriol, osteocalcin, and parathyroid hormone increased as the subjects received growth hormone alone. Insulinlike growth factor I z scores rose significantly in response to growth hormone therapy alone. All nine subjects receiving 6 months of triple therapy increased their growth rate z scores. Exogenous growth hormone therapy may be useful in familial hypophosphatemic rickets.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GJ81300029

    View details for PubMedID 1928011



    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II are known to play a major role in fetal and early postnatal growth. The IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) are thought to be important in modulating the actions of the IGFs. In this paper, the effect of malnutrition in the neonatal rat on serum IGFs and IGFBPs and hepatic IGFBP messenger (m) RNA was examined. Control (C) dams (n = 9) were allowed ad libitum intake, whereas restricted (R) dams (n = 9) were limited to 50% of ad libitum intake throughout lactation, which results in decreased milk production and malnutrition of pups suckling on restricted dams. A subset of pups were cross-fostered from the R-dams to the C-dams from days 15-19 postpartum (PP) to investigate the effect of nutritional repletion (refed). Pups were killed on days 8, 12, 15, and 19 PP and liver and blood collected. Serum IGF-I and -II concentrations were measured by RIA after acid-chromatography to remove IGFBPs. Serum IGFBPs were characterized by Western ligand blot. Hepatic mRNA for IGFBP-1, -2, and -3 were determined by northern analysis. Body weight (BW) of R-pups was significantly less than C-pups by day 10 PP (P less than or equal to 0.05), and mean BW at day 19 was 56% of the C-pups. Refeeding from days 15-19 resulted in a significantly greater rate of growth vs. R-pups (3.2 vs. 0.9 g/day), and mean BW of refed pups at day 19 PP was 75% of C-pups. Malnutrition caused a significant reduction in both serum IGF-I and -II after day 12 PP, while causing an elevation in serum IGFBP-2. IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 mRNA expression were not significantly affected at days 8 and 12, but were elevated in livers of day 15 and 19 pups. Malnutrition caused a delay in the development shift from IGFBP-2 to IGFBP-3, which normally occurs between day 15 and 19 in the rat. Refeeding raised serum IGF-I and -II levels to those found in the C-pups and a trend toward normalization of IGFBP profiles. In conclusion, IGFs and IGFBPs are differentially regulated during neonatal malnutrition. The decrease in IGF peptide and induction of IGFBP-1 and -2 may provide protective mechanisms by inhibiting growth during malnutrition.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FT96600023

    View details for PubMedID 1711459



    Variation in the waist/hip ratio (WHR) may be related to changes in hormonal secretion associated with pubertal maturation. We therefore studied the effects of race, pubertal development, and body fatness on WHR during adolescence in a multiethnic population. A total of 688 white, Asian, and Hispanic female adolescents (mean (+/- SD) 12.4 +/- 0.7 years), participating in the evaluation of a multisite school-based health education program, were included in these analyses. Self-assessed stage of puberty and measurements of height, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference were obtained from each participant. The WHR and age-adjusted body mass index were calculated. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that puberty significantly affects hip circumference and WHR but not waist circumference among female adolescents. Age and fatness, as reflected by age-adjusted body mass index, contributed significantly to both circumferences and to the WHR. There was a significant effect of ethnicity on hip circumference but not on waist circumference or the WHR. These results confirm that pubertal stage exerts a significant effect on the hip circumference and WHR in female adolescents, even after the effects of fatness and age are controlled. Studies of body fat distribution during late childhood and adolescence should include assessments of pubertal maturation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FQ10800029

    View details for PubMedID 2040937



    Weight-for-height indexes are often used in the clinical assessment of obesity in children and adolescents. The direct measurement of adiposity, using hydrostatic weighing and other techniques, is not feasible in studies involving young children or with large numbers of older subjects. Ratios of weight relative to height, such as the body-mass index (weight/height), may be used as indirect measures of obesity and correlate with more direct measures of adiposity. Using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Study, 1971 to 1974, standardized percentile curves of body-mass index for white children and adolescents were developed. These curves may be used to monitor the body-mass index of white children and adolescents longitudinally and for comparing an individual with others of the same sex and age.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FA67000013

    View details for PubMedID 1750869



    Normal adult human keratinocytes in monolayer culture and SCL-1, a skin-derived squamous-cell carcinoma cell line, were investigated for the expression of receptors for insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and insulin. As demonstrated by affinity crosslinking, radiolabeled IGF-1, IGF-2, and insulin bound specifically to both cell types. Each cell expressed type I IGF receptors, with affinity for IGF-1 greater than IGF-2 much greater than insulin. Insulin receptors, with highest affinity for insulin, were also present on both cells. However, keratinocytes and SCL-1 cells differed in 125I-IGF-2 binding. 125I-IGF-2-bound to both type I and type II IGF receptors in normal keratinocytes, but bound predominantly to membrane-associated IGF binding proteins in SCL-1. IGF-1 was slightly more potent than IGF-2 in stimulating growth of both keratinocytes and SCL-1 cells. In keratinocytes, concentrations of IGF-1 ranging from 5-100 ng/ml, and of IGF-2 from 50-100 ng/ml, resulted in a significant increase in cell number. At the maximum dose of 100 ng/ml, either IGF-1 or IGF-2 caused a 2.3-times increase in cell number. In SCL-1 cells, IGF-1 was more potent than IGF-2 or insulin at lower concentrations, but either IGF-1 or IGF-2 at the maximal concentration of 333 ng/ml stimulated a 4.7-times increase in thymidine incorporation. The stimulatory effect of insulin in SCL-1 was 10-50 times less potent than that of the IGF. The effect of either IGF on SCL-1 was completely inhibited by the type I IGF receptor antibody alpha IR-3, suggesting that both IGFs are mitogenic through the type I IGF receptor. Insulin action was partially blocked by alpha IR-3, suggesting that insulin can act through both the insulin and type I IGF receptors. It thus appears that IGF-1 and IGF-2 are mitogens for normal and transformed human keratinocytes and that their actions are primarily mediated through the type I IGF receptor, whereas insulin is a mitogen through both the IGF-1 receptor and the insulin receptor.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991ET57300019

    View details for PubMedID 1846163



    IGF-I and -II are peptide growth factors that may be important contributors to the growth-promoting properties associated with milk. IGF in extracellular fluids, including serum and milk, are carried by specific high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP). In this study, the levels of IGF-I and -II in rat serum and milk were quantified by specific RIA, and the IGFBP were characterized using Western ligand blotting and autoradiography throughout lactation. The levels of IGF-I in both milk and maternal serum decreased during lactation. Serum IGF-I decreased from 743 +/- 187 micrograms/L on d 1 to 391 +/- 106 (mean +/- SD) on d 21 of lactation, and milk IGF-I levels fell from 30 +/- 10 to 13 +/- 8 micrograms/L. Levels of IGF-II in serum and milk were much lower than IGF-I, and were unaffected by lactation. In maternal serum, several IGFBP were identified: IGFBP-3, which migrates as four glycosylated bands with apparent Mr from 38 to 42 kD and one to two nonglycosylated bands with apparent Mr of 28 to 29 kD, and an IGFBP with an apparent Mr of 24 kD. In milk, IGFBP-3, the 24-kD binding protein, and a third IGFBP with an apparent Mr of 29 kD were identified. Treatment of milk and serum with Endoglycosidase F reduced the four glycosylated IGFBP-3 bands (38-42 kD) to two bands with apparent Mr of 35 and 32 kD. In rat milk, but not adult rat serum, the IGFBP with an apparent Mr of 29 kD was immunoprecipitable by an antibody that recognizes IGFBP-2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EP11000010

    View details for PubMedID 1705696



    Renin, secreted into the blood by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidneys, is derived from a larger precursor, prorenin. Plasma prorenin activity is increased in patients with insulin-dependent (Type I) diabetes mellitus who have microvascular complications of their disease. We undertook this study to determine prospectively whether rising prorenin activity can predict the development of complications in young patients with Type I diabetes.Plasma prorenin was measured in 135 children and adolescents with Type I diabetes. The mean (+/- SE) plasma prorenin activity among the 32 patients over the age of 10 years who had had uncomplicated diabetes for 0.1 to 5 years was 8.43 +/- 0.58 ng of angiotensin I per liter.second, as compared with 7.06 +/- 0.32 in 37 control subjects of the same age (P less than 0.05). In the 9 patients older than 10 who had retinopathy or overt albuminuria, the mean plasma prorenin activity was 13.09 +/- 1.43 ng of angiotensin I per liter.second (P less than 0.0001). In 34 patients 10 years old or older with uncomplicated diabetes, 3 to 13 measurements of plasma prorenin activity were taken during a follow-up period of 6 to 39 months. Urinary albumin was determined at each visit, and the patients had regular retinal examinations. Only 1 of the 20 patients who had consistently normal plasma prorenin values had overt albuminuria (ratio of urinary albumin to creatinine, greater than 0.017) or retinopathy, whereas one or both of these complications appeared in 8 of the 14 who had at least one high prorenin value. The plasma prorenin value was significantly higher in these eight patients at least 18 months before a complication was found.Increased plasma prorenin activity identifies a group of young patients with diabetes who are at high risk for retinopathy or nephropathy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990ED52700004

    View details for PubMedID 2215578



    Human breast cancer cells (HBCC) secrete at least four different forms of IGFBPs. We have previously demonstrated that hIGFBP-1 is a minor component of IGFBPs secreted by Hs578T cells and is absent in CM from MCF-7 cells. In our present report, we describe the immunological and structural relationship of HBCC IGFBPs to hIGFBP-2 and hIGFBP-3. Analysis of conditioned media (CM) from Hs578T by Western ligand blotting revealed three IGFBPs of apparent Mr = 38K, 28K, and 24K; CM from MCF-7 revealed only two IGFBPs, of apparent Mr = 31K and 24K. Immunoprecipitation studies with polyclonal antibodies raised against hIGFBP-2 and hIGFBP-3 demonstrated that the 38K IGFBP in Hs578T CM is immunologically related to hIGFBP-3, while the 31K IGFBP in MCF-7 cells is related to the hIGFBP-2. Analysis by Northern blot demonstrated that MCF-7 cells contained mRNA for hIGFBP-2, while Hs578T cells contained the mRNA characteristic of the hIGFBP-3. The identity of the 24K IGFBP remains unknown, and may represent a distinct IGFBP. Of note, assay of CM following removal of BPs by acid chromatography demonstrated no detectable IGF-I or -II. The role of these IGFBPs in HBCC is of interest in view of the potential modulation of IGF actions by these proteins.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DT97800042

    View details for PubMedID 1696278



    A high plasma prorenin is a marker of microvascular complications of diabetes. We have followed 56 adults and 120 children with uncomplicated insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes. When plasma prorenin rises above the normal range in an adolescent or adult with type 1 diabetes, signs of nephropathy, retinopathy, or neuropathy follow within one to two years. The earliest sign may be intermittent microalbuminuria, which can often be abolished by improved control of hyperglycemia. The association between increased plasma prorenin and complications of noninsulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes is less reliable in patients with hypertension and in those receiving medication that affects plasma prorenin. The oral hypoglycemic agent, glipizide, lowers plasma prorenin, but its effect on prognosis is unknown. Plasma prorenin and renin decline as blood pressure rises, whereas the prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria increases. Many drugs used to control hypertension affect the level of prorenin. In the majority of our patients with type 2 diabetes who are hypertensive or are taking a medication that affects plasma prorenin, microalbuminuria may prove to be a more reliable warning of vascular complications.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U534300010

    View details for PubMedID 2655663



    An unusual form of X chromosome aneuploidy, 47,XX,psu dic(X)(p11.2), was found during an evaluation for short stature of a prepubertal girl. Unlike 45,X, 47,XXX, 48,XXXX, and 49,XXXXX females, this patient is phenotypically normal except for her short stature, which appears to be unrelated to her chromosome abnormality. X chromosome inactivation studies disclosed inactivation (late replication) of one normal X and the abnormal X chromosome in all cells examined from this patient. Therefore, she is disomic for early-replicating distal Xp loci, found in inactivated X chromosomes, and thought to remain active after lyonization. These data suggest that the presence of three or more copies of the early-replicating, active Xp loci may be responsible for the cognitive deficits and other phenotypic abnormalities seen in and other phenotypic abnormalities seen in polysomy X females.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AC13100021

    View details for PubMedID 2773999



    The insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGF-BPs) are structurally and immunologically distinct from the IGF type 1 or type 2 receptors and are characterized by two major forms: a large, GH-dependent BP found in human plasma (Mr = 150 k) and a small GH-independent BP (Mr = 28-42 k) present in human plasma, amniotic fluid, and HEP G2 cells. Using affinity cross-linking techniques, we have identified several binding proteins secreted by human breast cancer cell lines (Hs578T, MDA-231, T-47D, and MCF-7). Under nonreducing conditions these proteins migrated at an apparent Mr = 35, 28, 27, and 24 k, while reducing conditions revealed bands of apparent Mr = 35, 32, 27, and 24 k. Competitive binding studies in T-47D-conditioned media demonstrated that these BPs bound more IGF-II than IGF-I, and that IGF-II potently inhibited binding of either IGF-I or -II. Immunological studies using a polyclonal antibody against the HEP G2 small BP revealed no immunoreactive BP in conditioned media from MCF-7 and T-47D and only slight immunoreactivity in conditioned media from Hs578T and MDA 231. Analysis by Northern blot, using a probe from the cDNA sequence of the HEP G2 BP, demonstrated that Hs578T and MDA-231 cell lines contained small amounts of the 1.65 kilobase mRNA characteristic of the HEP G2 BP, while MCF-7 and T-47D tested negative.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989T772000017

    View details for PubMedID 2473392



    As part of a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study of dexamethasone therapy in 27 preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, we investigated the effect of 7 days of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Before therapy the median basal cortisol concentration in all infants was 8.2 micrograms/dl (226 nmol/L). After stimulation with 1-24 ACTH, the serum cortisol concentration rose in all infants to a median concentration of 23.5 micrograms/dl (649 nmol/L), resulting in a median rise of 13.4 micrograms/dl (37 nmol/L). Immediately after 7 days of glucocorticoid therapy basal and peak cortisol concentrations were significantly decreased in the dexamethasone group. The rise in serum cortisol following 1-24 ACTH, however, remained equivalent in both groups. Ten days after the end of therapy basal and peak cortisol concentrations in the dexamethasone group had returned to levels equivalent to those seen in the placebo group. Weight gain was markedly diminished while the infants were receiving dexamethasone. Weight gains were, however, equivalent 10 days after the end of treatment. These data indicate that 7 days of dexamethasone therapy has significant but short-term effects on cortisol secretion and possibly on weight gain.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q533800028

    View details for PubMedID 3050006



    We studied 108 subjects (age range, 4 to 76 years) to determine the effect of age on prorenin (inactive renin), active renin, and plasma renin activity in normal children, adolescents, and adults. Children and adolescents had lower prorenin concentrations and higher plasma renin activity and active renin concentrations than did adults. Prorenin concentrations were positively correlated with age over the range of 4 to 76 years, while plasma renin activity and active renin concentration were negatively correlated with age. Plasma prorenin and active renin concentrations from umbilical cord blood samples obtained from 11 newborns and arterial samples obtained from five infants were higher than those in samples obtained from children or adults.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q324900024

    View details for PubMedID 3052031



    The description of the cellular localization of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) remains incomplete, as do the descriptions of changes in their characteristics with respect to different developmental stages. We, therefore, performed affinity labeling studies in microsomal membrane preparations of adult and fetal rat brain and liver tissues with [125I]IGF-I and [125I]IGF-II. These studies demonstrated tissue- and developmental stage-specific structural variants of type I receptor alpha-subunits as well as type II receptors. The adult rat brain type I alpha-subunit had an apparent mol wt (Mr) of 127,000, whereas those of adult and fetal rat liver measured 140,000. Fetal rat brain microsomes, however, had two types of type I receptor alpha-subunits measuring 130,000 and 120,000 Mr. The larger subunit from fetal brain consistently migrated at an apparent Mr of 3,000, greater than subunits from adult brain. Both type I and II receptors were more abundant in fetal liver and brain than in adult tissues. Affinity labeling was also performed directly to monolayers of cultured fetal brain neurons and newborn astrocytes. These studies detected both type I and II receptors on the surfaces of both types of cells. However, only the high Mr (140,000) form of the type I alpha-subunit was detected in cultured CNS cells, suggesting that expression of low Mr variant receptors is altered in vitro. Type II receptors were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in adult rat hypothalamic neurons. However, the majority of neurons did not react with type II receptor antibody. This finding implies that only a minority of hypothalamic neurons are capable of responding to IGF-II via type II receptors. On the other hand, all astrocytes had striking type II receptor immunoreactivity. This signifies a more general biological role for this receptor in astrocytes compared with neurons. These results suggest that different tissue-, developmental stage-, and cell-specific processes are mediated by IGF receptors and suggests new directions in which to explore potential biological actions for these receptor-ligand systems in the CNS.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P507100045

    View details for PubMedID 2969324



    The insulin like growth factors (IGFs), potent mitogens for a variety of normal and transformed cells, have been reported to be secreted by several human breast cancer cell lines (BC). We have investigated the binding characteristics of IGF-I and -II in four human BC: MCF-7, T-47D, MDA 231 and Hs578T. Binding studies in microsomal membrane preparations detected high specific binding for both IGF in all four BC studied. Cross-linking with 125I-IGF-I, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reduced conditions, revealed the presence of an alpha subunit of apparent Mr = 130,000 in MCF-7, T-47D and MDA 213 cells. When 125I-IGF-II was cross-linked, a major band of apparent Mr = 260,000 was seen in all BC. This band was inhibited by IGF-II, but not by insulin. Cross-linking of 125I-IGF-I to conditioned media from BC demonstrated the presence of three binding proteins of apparent Mr = 45,000, 36,000 and 29,000 in all BC but T-47D, in which the 36,000 band was not seen. These data demonstrate that BC possess classical receptors for both IGF-I and -II and, furthermore, that BC produce specific binding proteins for these growth factors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M934800057

    View details for PubMedID 2451917



    To evaluate the effects of growth-promoting therapy on carbohydrate metabolism in girls with Turner syndrome, we determined glucose and insulin concentrations during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) at baseline and after 5 days, 2 months, and 12 months of treatment with growth hormone (GH), oxandrolone, or a combination of GH and oxandrolone, or after the same intervals with no therapy. Before therapy, subjects had a significantly greater glucose response during OGTT than published normal control values. There were no significant changes in mean fasting glucose, cholesterol, or triglyceride concentrations in any of the treatment groups. The integrated glucose concentrations rose significantly over baseline values in the oxandrolone group at 2 and 12 months and in the combination group at 5 days. There were significant increases in the mean integrated insulin concentrations at 2 and 12 months for the group receiving oxandrolone alone and at all three times for the group receiving combination therapy. Thus oxandrolone, alone or in combination with GH, had significant effects on carbohydrate metabolism in subjects with Turner syndrome, whereas GH alone did not.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M131000005

    View details for PubMedID 3276862



    We reviewed the effects of a brief course of testosterone enanthate (four intramuscular injections of 200 mg at three-week intervals) on pubertal advancement and final adult height in 50 male patients with delayed puberty. Although those treated with testosterone were slightly older than a group of 38 untreated subjects, the two groups had similar baseline mean bone age delays, height z scores, Tanner stages, predicted adult heights, growth rates, and midparental heights. Four months after baseline, the treated group had a significantly greater mean increase in the height z score and sexual maturation index. At 12 months, the mean increase in the sexual maturation index remained greater in the treated group. Among treated and untreated subjects older than 17 years, there was no significant difference in the absolute height z score. Over 95% of treated subjects were satisfied with the effects of therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988L526200031

    View details for PubMedID 3341306



    Linear growth retardation and adult short stature are usual characteristics of Prader-Willi syndrome. Several lines of evidence suggest that a deficiency in growth hormone (GH) secretion may contribute to this abnormal growth pattern. We have recently reported observations in 4 children with Prader-Willi syndrome treated with GH. This report extends our observations in 2 of these cases. Both cases had abnormally low growth rate, normal stimulated GH levels, and low somatomedin-C levels prior to therapy. GH treatment led to significant increases in linear growth rate and somatomedin-C levels. An additive effect of oxandrolone therapy on linear growth rate was demonstrated in one case. Our results support the possibility of a neuro-secretory GH deficiency in Prader-Willi syndrome and suggest a need for further investigations.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987K914200010

    View details for PubMedID 3688024



    The treatment of growth failure in children with documented GH deficiency remains the only noncontroversial indication for GH therapy. There are increasing data suggesting that GH may be useful in treating some children with Turner's syndrome and with NVSS. Further studies, however, are necessary to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of GH therapy in these children. The treatment of non-GH deficient children whose heights are within two standard deviations of the mean height for age is clearly inappropriate and should be avoided, despite parental protests.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987J442600004

    View details for PubMedID 3302896



    Using data from the large number of adolescents studied in cycle III of the National Health Examination Survey, we utilized a sexual maturity index to develop a set of growth curves that reduce the distortion caused by commingling height data from adolescents maturing at different rates. We also created a set of correction tables to be used with these curves to permit the calculation of an adjusted height percentile that compensates for the effects of the differing rates of pubertal maturation. These adjusted height percentiles should remain more constant throughout puberty than height percentiles obtained from traditional growth curves; they may thus be used to estimate final adult height with only data obtained during routine physical examinations, by assuming that subjects maintain their adjusted height percentile through adolescence to adulthood. Height predictions made in this manner compare favorably with predictions made using two clinically tested algorithms.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H069200039

    View details for PubMedID 3578172

  • TRANSPLANTATION OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-II-SECRETING TUMORS INTO NUDE RODENTS ENDOCRINOLOGY Wilson, D. M., Thomas, J. A., Hamm, T. E., Wyche, J., Hintz, R. L., Rosenfeld, R. G. 1987; 120 (5): 1896-1901


    Restricted supplies of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) have severely limited investigation of the in vivo actions of this hormone. To circumvent this problem, we have developed an in vivo rodent model in which rat (r) IGF-II-secreting cells (18, 54-SF) are transplanted into congenitally immunodeficient (nude) rats and mice. These cells proliferate and form discrete tumors that contain rIGF-II and abundant IGF-II receptors. The tumors also secrete rIGF-II into the circulation, resulting in plasma rIGF-II concentrations many-fold greater than those in control rodents (81 +/- 19 vs. less than 10 ng/ml, rats; 159 +/- 28 vs. 18 +/- 5 ng/ml, mice; P less than 0.05, both groups). There was no significant difference between the tumor-bearing and control rodents in either body weight or tail length. The tumor-bearing rodents did have significantly lower concentrations of IGF-I (296 +/- 23 vs. 527 +/- 67 ng/ml, rats; 300 +/- 26 vs. 482 +/- 70 ng/ml, mice; P less than 0.05, both groups), suggesting that the increased concentrations of rIGF-II may have inhibited IGF-I production or secretion. This animal model may be used to explore the biological effects of increased plasma IGF-II concentrations.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H165300027

    View details for PubMedID 3569119

  • GROWTH AND INTELLECTUAL-DEVELOPMENT PEDIATRICS Wilson, D. M., Hammer, L. D., Duncan, P. M., DORNBUSCH, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Hintz, R. L., Gross, R. T., Rosenfeld, R. G. 1986; 78 (4): 646-650


    Data from the National Health Examination Survey (cycles II and III) provided a representative sample of 13,887 US youths (6 to 17 years of age) with which to examine the relationship between height (normalized for age and sex) and measures of intellectual development (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and academic achievement (Wide Range Achievement Test). Additionally, 2,177 subjects were studied first in cycle II and 2 to 5 years later in cycle III, forming a well-selected longitudinal study group in which to examine any association between linear growth and change in IQ scores. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and Wide Range Achievement Test scores were significantly correlated with height in both cycle II and cycle III. However, no significant association between change in relative height and change in IQ scores could be detected in the longitudinal group. These data suggest that therapies designed to increase height are unlikely to alter measures of intellectual development or academic achievement.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E252900018

    View details for PubMedID 3763275



    Acromegaly is rarely caused by the ectopic secretion of growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) from peripheral neuroendocrine tumours. We evaluated the ability of a recently developed somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995, Sandoz) to reduce hormone levels and pituitary size in a young woman with acromegaly and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome secondary to a metastatic pancreatic islet cell tumour secreting GRF and gastrin. Gastrin, GRF, and growth hormone (GH) levels declined dramatically following the initiation of therapy with the analogue by continuous iv infusion. Although intermittent sc therapy was not effective in suppressing hormone levels, continuous sc infusion of SMS 201-995 has provided good control of both GRF and GH levels for nine months. Moreover, treatment with SMS 201-995 was associated with a substantial reduction in pituitary enlargement and an improvement in her gastric symptoms. Continuous sc infusion of SMS 201-995 may be useful in treating enlarged pituitaries resistant to other modes of therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E141000005

    View details for PubMedID 2876570



    Plasma samples from 68 growth hormone (GH)-deficient children (provocative serum GH level less than 7 ng/ml), 44 normal short children, and 197 children with normal height were assayed by specific radioimmunoassays for the somatomedin peptides, insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II. Eighteen percent of the GH-deficient children had IGF-I levels within the normal range for age, whereas 32% of normal short children had low IGF-I levels. Low IGF-II levels were found in 52% of GH-deficient children, but also in 35% of normal short children. However, only 4% of GH-deficient children had normal plasma levels of both IGF-I and IGF-II. Furthermore, only 0.5% of normal children and 11% of normal short children had low plasma levels of both IGF-I and IGF-II. We conclude that plasma levels of either IGF-I or IGF-II overlap in GH-deficient and normal short children, but that the combination of radioimmunoassays may permit better discrimination among normal, normal short, and GH-deficient children.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D885600006

    View details for PubMedID 3746530

  • TESTICULAR-TUMORS WITH PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME CANCER Wilson, D. M., Pitts, W. C., Hintz, R. L., Rosenfeld, R. G. 1986; 57 (11): 2238-2240


    The case of a 6-year-old boy with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), gynecomastia, and multifocal and bilateral testicular tumors is described. Females with PJS are known to be at increased risk for developing gonadal tumors. This case and other reports from the literature suggest that males, as well as females, with PJS are at risk for developing gonadal tumors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986C312100027

    View details for PubMedID 3697923



    We have previously shown that serum from young women receiving the same combined mestranol-norethindrone containing oral contraceptive (OC) preparation accelerated the proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC) in tissue culture, and this in vitro effect was not a direct action of either of its estrogenic or progestogenic constituents. To identify the substance(s) which might contribute to this potentially atherogenic action, blood was obtained from 20 OC users and control women for the measurement of growth hormone, insulin, somatomedins (insulin-like growth factor IGF-I and IGF-II), and the platelet alpha-granule constituents platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), beta-thromboglobulin, and platelet factor 4 (PF4). No difference was demonstrable between OC users and controls in the levels of any of these growth-promoting hormones, nor in plasma concentrations of any of the platelet alpha-granule proteins. These studies indicate that the enhanced mitogenicity found in OC sera is probably not attributable directly to these hormones or PDGF, and may instead result from an in vivo OC-induced alteration in other as yet unidentified mediators of cellular growth.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985APA1100003

    View details for PubMedID 2934071



    A young woman with acromegaly and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome associated with a GH-releasing factor (GRF)- and gastrin-secreting metastatic islet cell carcinoma was studied by means of specific antisera which recognize various regions of the GRF molecule. Using specific immunohistochemical techniques, the tumor cells were shown to contain GRF, gastrin, and gastrin-releasing peptide, but not GH. During a 4-h period, plasma GRF levels averaged 5.6 +/- 1.4 ng/ml (+/- SD), while GH levels averaged 148 +/- 71 ng/ml. GH secretion was pulsatile and increased after TRH administration. GRF RIAs may be useful in establishing the diagnosis of acromegaly secondary to the ectopic secretion of GRF.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984TP17300031

    View details for PubMedID 6090497



    Ten unselected, apparently healthy short children who were capable of normal growth hormone secretion were given human growth hormone (0.1 U/kg 1M thrice weekly) for 6 months to determine whether such treatment might lead to an increase in growth velocity. During treatment, all patients increased their growth rate (from 4.3 +/- 0.3 cm/yr to 7.4 +/- 0.5 cm/yr P less than 0.001). No adverse effects were detected. During the four-day IGF generation test, IGF I and IGF II levels rose significantly from 0.32 +/- 0.04 U/ml to 0.62 +/- 0.13 U/ml and from 279 +/- 36 ng/ml to 434 +/- 49 ng/ml, respectively. However, the growth response was not predicted by either the acute rise in IGF I or that in IGF II. Human growth hormone in standard doses may be capable of inducing accelerated growth in some short children without growth hormone deficiency. Measurements of IGF I and II cannot be used to predict which children will respond.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SC70100002

    View details for PubMedID 6363657



    Primary cultures of rat anterior pituitary cells were assessed for the presence of specific receptors for insulin and for the somatomedin peptides, insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II). Specific binding per 100,000 pituitary cells averaged 9.45 +/- 1.69% (mean +/- SD) for [125I]IGF-II, 0.83 +/- 0.06% for [125I]IGF-I, and only 0.11% for [125I]insulin, IGF-II was twice as potent as IGF-I in displacing [125I]IGF-II, while insulin was totally nonreactive, IGF-I was 5-fold more potent than IGF-II at displacing [125I]IGF-I and 1000-fold more potent than insulin. Scatchard analysis of [125I]IGF-II binding revealed a curvilinear plot, which could be resolved into a high affinity receptor with a Ka of 7.0 X 10(8) M-1 and 120,000 receptor sites/cell, and a low affinity receptor with a Ka of 1.1 X 10(8) M-1 and 720,000 receptor sites/cell. The existence of abundant high affinity somatomedin receptors (especially for IGF-II) on rat anterior pituitary cells is consistent with a potential role for these peptides in the regulation of GH secretion.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SP24200014

    View details for PubMedID 6325123



    The clinical and radiological findings in four children with septo-optic dysplasia are reported. All four had growth retardation associated with growth hormone deficiency, as well as varying degrees of ophthalmologic dysfunction. The CT scan findings spanned a spectrum from normal to the expected abnormalities involving the ventricular system and orbits. Only two of the four had an absent septum pellucidum. A third patient had normal CT scans except for optic nerve hypoplasia, while the fourth had entirely normal CT scans of both the brain and orbits. Because the anatomic defects of septo-optic dysplasia may be subtle, an apparently normal CT scan does not invalidate the clinical diagnosis of septo-optic dysplasia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SZ02800005

    View details for PubMedID 6462434



    A 7-year-old girl had hyperaldosteronism due to an adrenal cortical adenoma, a rare, surgically remediable cause of hypertension. Although the plasma potassium concentration was only slightly below normal, and the plasma aldosterone concentration was in a high normal range, the consistently suppressed plasma renin activity suggested primary aldosteronism. This diagnosis was confirmed by the failure of saline infusion to lower the plasma aldosterone concentration. Glucocorticoid-remediable hyperaldosteronism was excluded when dexamethasone did not reduce the high plasma aldosterone concentration. An enlarged left adrenal gland was observed in the computed tomographic scan, and blood from the left adrenal vein contained much more aldosterone than blood from the right adrenal vein. Surgical excision of the left adrenal gland, containing an adenoma, was followed by a return of BP and biochemical measurements to their normal ranges. This case demonstrated the importance of a rational systematic approach in the evaluation of children with sustained unexplained hypertension and the need to obtain plasma renin activity values when either hypokalemia is present or initial investigations fall to provide a diagnosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SY11300015

    View details for PubMedID 6375348



    We have investigated the effects on carbohydrate metabolism of human GH produced by recombinant DNA technology (methionyl-hGH) compared with pituitary hGH. Twelve normal adult male subjects received four daily im injections of either methionyl-hGH or pituitary hGH in a double blind, crossover study. Oral glucose tolerance tests and assays of insulin binding to peripheral monocytes were performed before th initial administration and 12 h after the fourth injection of both hGH preparations. Both methionyl-hGH and pituitary hGH resulted in significant carbohydrate intolerance, with a rise in fasting plasma glucose from 96.6 +/- 2.9 to 105.9 +/- 3.0 mg/ml (mean +/- SEM) after pituitary hGH and from 96.2 +/- 1.5 to 107.5 +/- 3.3 mg/dl after methionyl-hGH (P less than 0.01). The area under the glucose tolerance curve increased by 34% after pituitary hGH and by 37% after methionyl-hGH. With both hGH preparations, carbohydrate intolerance was associated with marked hyperinsulinemia, with a rise in fasting plasma insulin levels from 9.4 +/- 1.2 to 33.2 +/- 7.8 microU/ml after pituitary hGH and from 7.4 +/- 1.1 to 45.8 +/- 11.1 microU/ml after methionyl-hGH (P less than 0.01). The integrated plasma insulin levels during the oral glucose tolerance test tripled after both hGH preparations. The pronounced insulin resistance could not be attributed to an alteration in insulin receptor concentrations. Both hGH preparations were associated with small reductions in insulin binding to monocytes at tracer concentrations, but the decline in binding was not statistically significant. The calculated binding sites per cell and Ke were not significantly altered by hGH administration. We conclude that methionyl-hGH and pituitary hGH are indistinguishable in their ability to induce insulin-resistant carbohydrate intolerance. This decrease in insulin sensitivity cannot be attributed to an alteration in insulin binding, and presumably represents a postreceptor defect in insulin action.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NK24700024

    View details for PubMedID 7037819



    To explore the role of the somatomedins (SM) during human pregnancy, we have measured plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, and SM peptide content (SMPC) in 79 women in various stages of normal pregnancies. IGF-I and IGF-II were measured by specific RIAs, and SMPC was measured by a radioreceptor assay using human placental membranes. IGF-I and SMPC rose during pregnancy, showing a significant positive correlation with the length of gestation. Plasma levels of IGF-I in the third trimester averaged 324 ng/ml, a 33% increase over the first trimester average of 243 ng/ml (P less than 0.05). Although IGF-II did not correlate with the length of gestation, the third trimester average was significantly higher than the first trimester average (780 vs. 630 ng/ml; P less than 0.05). After delivery, both IGF-I and IGF-II levels rapidly dropped to levels significantly below those seen in the third trimester. The gestational rise in SMPC and plasma levels of both IGF-I and IGF-II supports the hypothesis that SM play a role in the regulation of fetal growth.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982PM14600006

    View details for PubMedID 6749878



    The acute effects of synthetic methionyl human growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology were compared with those of pituitary human growth hormone in 22 healthy male volunteers. Both caused increases in somatomedin and triglycerides and decreases in blood urea nitrogen and cholesterol. By all indices measured, synthetic methionyl human growth hormone was equipotent with pituitary human growth hormone. The ability to make biologically active synthetic human growth hormone creates an essentially unlimited supply of growth hormone for the treatment of hypopituitarism and for the study of additional therapeutic indications.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NT14800005


    View details for Web of Science ID A1982PN26100009

    View details for PubMedID 6752325



    Several reports have suggested that heart rate may be regulated by an ultradian biological rhythm with a period of about 90--100 min. Blood pressure and heart rate were collected from 10 Surgical Intensive Care patients at 5-min intervals and analyzed by computer. No 90-min rhthms were found, indicating this rhythm has no significant influence on heart rate or blood pressure in postsurgical patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1977EE81400006

    View details for PubMedID 594287

Conference Proceedings

  • A longitudinal analysis of maternal serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total and nonphosphorylated IGF-binding protein-1 in human pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction Bhatia, S., Faessen, G. H., Carland, G., Balise, R. L., Gargosky, S. E., Druzin, M., El-Sayed, Y., Wilson, D. M., Giudice, L. C. ENDOCRINE SOC. 2002: 1864-1870


    In cord blood and late gestation maternal serum, IGF-I is positively correlated with birth weight, whereas IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) is inversely correlated with birth weight. Our goal was to determine whether maternal serum or amniotic fluid concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, or nonphosphorylated IGFBP-1 (npIGFBP-1) in early gestation predict later fetal growth abnormalities. Maternal serum was collected prospectively across gestation (5-40 wk) from 749 pregnant subjects. Amniotic fluid was collected after amniocentesis during wk 15-26 from 207 subjects. We compared median serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, and npIGFBP-1 in 38 subjects who delivered growth-restricted infants with the control group of 236 subjects with normal weight infants for each gestational age grouping, wk 5-12, 13-23, and 24-34. In the control group median IGF-I concentrations were 14.8, 11, and 15.6 nmol/liter for wk 5-12, 13-23, and 24-34, respectively, compared with 13.7, 14.3, and 10.6 nmol/liter in the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) group. Median IGFBP-1 concentrations were 8.5, 30.4, and 24.4 nmol/liter, respectively, in controls, compared with 11.4, 28.6, and 25.5 nmol/liter in the IUGR group. Median npIGFBP-1 concentrations were 6.9, 22, and 17.4 nmol/liter, respectively, in controls, compared with 5.0, 32.1, and 24.2 nmol/liter in the IUGR group. In the control group the median amniotic fluid IGFBP-1 level was 13,160 nmol/liter, and the median npIGFBP-1 level was 15,970 nmol/liter; in the IUGR group these levels were 13,440 and 18,440 nmol/liter, respectively. No clinically useful differences were found between the IUGR and control groups. Our results do not support the use of maternal serum IGF-I or IGFBP-1 or amniotic fluid IGFBP-1 or npIGFBP-1 early in gestation to predict later fetal growth restriction.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174963100066

    View details for PubMedID 11932331

  • Serum luteinizing hormone rises within minutes after depot leuprolide injection: Implications for monitoring therapy Bhatia, S., Neely, E. K., Wilson, D. M. AMER ACAD PEDIATRICS. 2002


    To find the time of the serum gonadotropin peak after depot leuprolide injection in children and to show that depot leuprolide therapy can be monitored by measuring serum luteinizing hormone (LH) immediately after injections.We measured concentrations of leuprolide, LH, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) at multiple time points before and after the first dose of depot leuprolide in 14 pubertal children beginning therapy. Gonadotropins and sex steroids were measured again after the fourth dose.Serum leuprolide, LH, and FSH levels rose rapidly after initial injection, reaching sustained elevations at 30 to 120 minutes. The median LH level increased from 2.1 mIU/mL at baseline to a peak of 27.5 mIU/mL at 45 minutes, and FSH increased from 5.2 to 16.5 mIU/mL. After 3 months on therapy, median serum LH after depot leuprolide injection was only 0.83 mIU/mL, similar to levels observed after intravenous or subcutaneous gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation in comparable subjects on depot leuprolide.Our pharmacokinetic data demonstrate that free leuprolide present in a depot leuprolide injection is equivalent to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in stimulating a rapid rise in serum gonadotropin concentrations. We propose that a single serum sample for LH obtained 30 to 60 minutes after depot leuprolide injection in children provides a convenient and accurate assessment of treatment efficacy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173601200012

    View details for PubMedID 11826240

  • Growth hormone and hypophosphatemic rickets Wilson, D. M. FREUND PUBLISHING HOUSE LTD. 2000: 993-998


    This review summarizes seven trials of growth hormone (GH) treatment for X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR). These trials range in size from 5 to 30 patients; but despite the limited number of patients enrolled, they represent the largest studies to date of growth hormone in this disorder. Conventional treatment in XLHR, oral phosphate and calcitriol, is often unable to normalize serum phosphate concentration fully and many patients fail to reach normal adult height. The studies reviewed report increased growth velocity when exogenous GH is added to conventional therapy, although the independent effect of GH is difficult to evaluate. Younger patients appear to respond better to GH than do older patients. Disproportionate growth of the trunk may be a problem. Some patients with XLHR have received GH for more than 6 years, yet little is known about the impact of GH on adult height. Reported increases in phosphate concentrations following GH in XLHR are of uncertain clinical benefit. While GH appears to be safe in XLHR, long-term benefits remain unclear.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000090130500005

    View details for PubMedID 11086653

  • Regular monitoring of bone age is not useful in children treated with growth hormone Wilson, D. M. AMER ACAD PEDIATRICS. 1999: 1036-1039


    Although bone age estimates are traditionally used to monitor children receiving growth hormone therapy, few data support this practice. Bone age determination is fraught with technical difficulties, resulting in high interobserver differences. Longitudinal studies show that an individual's bone age can change erratically over time. The resulting errors in predicted adult heights based on these bone age determinations are large. Moreover, growth hormone therapy appears to accelerate bone maturation. The radiographic evidence of this acceleration can be delayed. In this setting, improvements in predicted adult heights can be artifactually large. Routine monitoring of bone age during GH therapy is unnecessary. Bayley and Pinneau, bone age determination, Greulich and Pyle, predicted height, radiography, Tanner and Whitehouse.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000082911900011

    View details for PubMedID 10506260

  • PUBERTAL STAGE AND PANIC ATTACK HISTORY IN 6TH-GRADE AND 7TH-GRADE GIRLS Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Hammer, L. D., Litt, I. F., Wilson, D. M., SIMMONDS, B., Taylor, C. B. AMER PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION. 1992: 1239-1243


    Although the incidence of first panic attacks appears to peak during adolescence, little is known about which features of adolescence contribute to the risk of a first panic episode. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative importance of age and pubertal stage in explaining the occurrence of panic attacks in adolescents.From a school-based sample of sixth- and seventh-grade girls, 754 subjects completed both a structured clinical interview determining history of one or more panic episodes and a self-assessment of Tanner stages of pubertal development. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with panic attack history as the dependent variable and pubertal stage, age, and their interaction as the independent variables.A history of one or more four-symptom panic attacks was found in 5.3% of the girls (N = 40). After age was controlled for, pubertal stage was significantly related to panic attack history. At each age, higher rates of panic attacks were found in the more physically mature girls.Pubertal stage, after adjustment for the effects of age, appears to predict panic attack occurrence in young adolescent girls. Understanding the link between puberty and panic may offer clues regarding the onset and etiology of panic attacks.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JK72200019

    View details for PubMedID 1503139

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