Clinical Focus

  • Obstetrics
  • Maternal and Fetal Medicine

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • MQIP Hemorrhage Task Force Committee Meeting, CMQCC (2008 - Present)
  • Pregnancy Related Mortality Review, CMQCC (2007 - Present)
  • California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative, CMQCC (2007 - Present)
  • Co-Director, Johnson Center for Pregnancy and Newborn Services, Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital (1997 - 2013)
  • Director, OBGYN Residency Training Program (2001 - Present)
  • Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, Stanford University School of Medicine (2001 - Present)
  • Vice Chair, Stanford University School of Medicine - Obstetrics & Gynecology (2005 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • APGO/Ortho-McNeil Faculty Development Award, APGO (2007)
  • APGO/Martin L. Stone, MD Fund, Advancement of Medical Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology, APGO (2005)
  • The Franklin G. Ebaugh, Jr. Award for Advising Medical Students, Stanford University (2009)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship:LAC and USC Medical Center (1979) CA
  • Residency:University of Colorado Health Science Center (1977) CO
  • Board Certification: Maternal and Fetal Medicine, American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (1981)
  • Board Certification: Obstetrics and Gynecology, American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (1980)
  • Residency:University of Colorado Health Science Center (1976) CO
  • Internship:Coronation Hospital (1971)
  • Medical Education:University of Witwatersrand (1970) South Africa

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Antepartum and intrapartum fetal monitoring
Prenatal diagnosis
Medical complications of pregnancy, particularly: SLE, hypertension, diabetes, malignancy

A. Medical Complications of Pregnancy Especially:
1. Pregnancies complicated by S.L.E. and the Antiphospholipid Syndrome
2. Recurrent Fetal Loss
3. Diabetes and Pregnancy
4. Prematurity
5. Hypertension

B. Antepartum Fetal Evaluation and Intrapartum Fetal Evaluation by Means of Electronic Fetal Monitoring.

Clinical Trials

  • Progesterone for Maintenance Tocolysis: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial Not Recruiting

    Preterm delivery is the most common cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States. Some women have episodes of preterm labor during their pregnancy which can be temporarily stopped. These women, however, are at high risk for delivering before term. At this time, we do not have sufficient evidence to use any medication to help prevent these women from delivering early. Recently, preliminary studies have shown that progesterone may help prevent some women at high risk for preterm delivery from delivering early. Our study will investigate whether progesterone can help this specific group of women, women with arrested preterm labor, deliver healthy infants at term.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

    View full details

  • Comparison of Ampicillin / Sulbactam vs. Ampicillin / Gentamicin for Treatment of Intrapartum Chorioamnionitis: a Randomized Controlled Trial Not Recruiting

    Chorioamnionitis is an infection of the placenta and amniotic membranes (bag of waters) surrounding the baby inside of a pregnant woman prior to delivery. This infection is somewhat common and is routinely treated with antibiotics given to the mother both before and after the baby is born. Currently it is not known what is the best choice of antibiotics to treat this type of infection, but commonly used treatments include Unasyn (ampicillin/sulbactam) or ampicillin/gentamicin. We plan to compare these two different antibiotic regimens to see if one is better than the other at treating and preventing bad outcomes from chorioamnionitis in women and babies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Mara Greenberg, (415) 867 - 2051.

    View full details

  • Prophylactic Enoxaparin Dosing for Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Pregnancy. Not Recruiting

    Enoxaparin is a type of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), or anticoagulant, used to prevent and treat blood clots. Formation of blood clots, or venous thromboemboli (VTE) in pregnancy can have dangerous and even life-threatening effects on the mother and fetus. Enoxaparin is the preferred medicine to prevent clotting in pregnant patients who are at risk for VTE, because it has been studied to be safe and effective in pregnancy without any harms to the fetus. Although this medication is routinely used and is recommended by several prominent medical groups, the optimal dosing for prevention of VTE is still unclear. The range of standardly prescribed dosing regimens of Enoxaparin includes 40mg daily and 1mg/kg daily, but these two dosing strategies have never been compared in a head to head fashion.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Mara Greenberg, (415) 867 - 2051.

    View full details


2014-15 Courses

Postdoctoral Advisees


Journal Articles

  • High Rate of Preterm Birth in Pregnancies Complicated by Rheumatoid Arthritis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Langen, E. S., Chakravarty, E. F., Liaquat, M., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Druzin, M. L. 2014; 31 (1): 9-13


    Objective To describe the outcomes of pregnancies complicated by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to estimate potential associations between disease characteristics and pregnancy outcomes.Study Design We reviewed all pregnancies complicated by RA delivered at our institution from June 2001 through June 2009. Fisher exact tests were used to calculate odds ratios. Univariable regression was performed using STATA 10.1 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). A p value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results Forty-six pregnancies in 40 women were reviewed. Sixty percent of pregnancies had evidence of disease flare and 28% delivered prior to 37 weeks. We did not identify associations between preterm birth and active disease at conception or during pregnancy. In univariate analysis, discontinuation of medication because of pregnancy was associated with a significantly earlier gestational age at delivery (362/7 versus 383/7 weeks, p = 0.022).Conclusion Women with RA may be at higher risk for preterm delivery.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0033-1333666

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329362900002

    View details for PubMedID 23359233

  • The use of vibro-acoustic stimulation during the abnormal/equivocal biophysical profile Obstet Gynecol Druzin ML, Inglis SR, Wagner WE, Kogut E.
  • Transdisciplinary translational science and the case of preterm birth JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Stevenson, D. K., Shaw, G. M., Wise, P. H., Norton, M. E., Druzin, M. L., Valantine, H. A., McFarland, D. A. 2013; 33 (4): 251-258


    Medical researchers have called for new forms of translational science that can solve complex medical problems. Mainstream science has made complementary calls for heterogeneous teams of collaborators who conduct transdisciplinary research so as to solve complex social problems. Is transdisciplinary translational science what the medical community needs? What challenges must the medical community overcome to successfully implement this new form of translational science? This article makes several contributions. First, it clarifies the concept of transdisciplinary research and distinguishes it from other forms of collaboration. Second, it presents an example of a complex medical problem and a concrete effort to solve it through transdisciplinary collaboration: for example, the problem of preterm birth and the March of Dimes effort to form a transdisciplinary research center that synthesizes knowledge on it. The presentation of this example grounds discussion on new medical research models and reveals potential means by which they can be judged and evaluated. Third, this article identifies the challenges to forming transdisciplines and the practices that overcome them. Departments, universities and disciplines tend to form intellectual silos and adopt reductionist approaches. Forming a more integrated (or 'constructionist'), problem-based science reflective of transdisciplinary research requires the adoption of novel practices to overcome these obstacles.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2012.133

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316833300001

  • Response times for emergency cesarean delivery: use of simulation drills to assess and improve obstetric team performance JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Lipman, S. S., Carvalho, B., Cohen, S. E., Druzin, M. L., Daniels, K. 2013; 33 (4): 259-263


    We documented time to key milestones and determined reasons for transport-related delays during simulated emergency cesarean.Prospective, observational investigation of delivery of care processes by multidisciplinary teams of obstetric providers on the labor and delivery unit at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, CA, USA, during 14 simulated uterine rupture scenarios. The primary outcome measure was the total time from recognition of the emergency (time zero) to that of surgical incision.The median (interquartile range) from time zero until incision was 9 min 27 s (8:55 to 10:27 min:s).In this series of emergency cesarean drills, our teams required approximately nine and a half minutes to move from the labor room to the nearby operating room (OR) and make the surgical incision. Multiple barriers to efficient transport were identified. This study demonstrates the utility of simulation to identify and correct institution-specific barriers that delay transport to the OR and initiation of emergency cesarean delivery.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2012.98

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316833300002

    View details for PubMedID 22858890

  • Transient, Inducible, Placenta-Specific Gene Expression in Mice ENDOCRINOLOGY Fan, X., Petitt, M., Gamboa, M., Huang, M., Dhal, S., Druzin, M. L., Wu, J. C., Chen-Tsai, Y., Nayak, N. R. 2012; 153 (11): 5637-5644


    Molecular understanding of placental functions and pregnancy disorders is limited by the absence of methods for placenta-specific gene manipulation. Although persistent placenta-specific gene expression has been achieved by lentivirus-based gene delivery methods, developmentally and physiologically important placental genes have highly stage-specific functions, requiring controllable, transient expression systems for functional analysis. Here, we describe an inducible, placenta-specific gene expression system that enables high-level, transient transgene expression and monitoring of gene expression by live bioluminescence imaging in mouse placenta at different stages of pregnancy. We used the third generation tetracycline-responsive tranactivator protein Tet-On 3G, with 10- to 100-fold increased sensitivity to doxycycline (Dox) compared with previous versions, enabling unusually sensitive on-off control of gene expression in vivo. Transgenic mice expressing Tet-On 3G were created using a new integrase-based, site-specific approach, yielding high-level transgene expression driven by a ubiquitous promoter. Blastocysts from these mice were transduced with the Tet-On 3G-response element promoter-driving firefly luciferase using lentivirus-mediated placenta-specific gene delivery and transferred into wild-type pseudopregnant recipients for placenta-specific, Dox-inducible gene expression. Systemic Dox administration at various time points during pregnancy led to transient, placenta-specific firefly luciferase expression as early as d 5 of pregnancy in a Dox dose-dependent manner. This system enables, for the first time, reliable pregnancy stage-specific induction of gene expression in the placenta and live monitoring of gene expression during pregnancy. It will be widely applicable to studies of both placental development and pregnancy, and the site-specific Tet-On G3 mouse will be valuable for studies in a broad range of tissues.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/en.2012-1556

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310359300049

    View details for PubMedID 23011919

  • Postpartum hemorrhage treated with a massive transfusion protocol at a tertiary obstetric center: a retrospective study INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA Gutierrez, M. C., GOODNOUGH, L. T., Druzin, M., Butwick, A. J. 2012; 21 (3): 230-235


    A massive transfusion protocol may offer major advantages for management of postpartum hemorrhage. The etiology of postpartum hemorrhage, transfusion outcomes and laboratory indices in obstetric cases requiring the massive transfusion protocol were retrospectively evaluated in a tertiary obstetric center.We reviewed medical records of obstetric patients requiring the massive transfusion protocol over a 31-month period. Demographic, obstetric, transfusion, laboratory data and adverse maternal outcomes were abstracted.Massive transfusion protocol activation occurred in 31 patients (0.26% of deliveries): 19 patients (61%) had cesarean delivery, 10 patients (32%) had vaginal delivery, and 2 patients (7%) had dilation and evacuation. Twenty-six patients (84%) were transfused with blood products from the massive transfusion protocol. The protocol was activated within 2h of delivery for 17 patients (58%). Median [IQR] total estimated blood loss value was 2842 [800-8000]mL. Median [IQR] number of units of red blood cells, plasma and platelets from the massive transfusion protocol were: 3 [1.75-7], 3 [1.5-5.5], and 1 [0-2.5] units, respectively. Mean (SD) post-resuscitation hematologic indices were: hemoglobin 10.3 (2.4)g/dL, platelet count 126 (44)×10(9)/L, and fibrinogen 325 (125)mg/dL. The incidence of intensive care admission and peripartum hysterectomy was 61% and 19%, respectively.Our massive transfusion protocol provides early access to red blood cells, plasma and platelets for patients experiencing unanticipated or severe postpartum hemorrhage. Favorable hematologic indices were observed post resuscitation. Future outcomes-based studies are needed to compare massive transfusion protocol and non-protocol based transfusion strategies for the management of hemorrhage.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijoa.2012.03.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307685000005

    View details for PubMedID 22647592

  • Obstetric Life Support JOURNAL OF PERINATAL & NEONATAL NURSING Puck, A. L., Oakeson, A. M., Morales-Clark, A., Druzin, M. 2012; 26 (2): 126-135


    The death of a woman during pregnancy is devastating. Although the incidence of maternal cardiac arrest is increasing, it continues to be a comparatively rare event. Obstetric healthcare providers may go through their entire career without participating in a maternal cardiac resuscitation. Concern has been raised that when an arrest does occur in the obstetric unit, providers who are trained in life support skills at 2-year intervals are ill equipped to provide the best possible care. The quality of resuscitation skills provided during cardiopulmonary arrest of inpatients often may be poor, and knowledge of critical steps to be followed during resuscitation may not be retained after life support training. The Obstetric Life Support (ObLS) training program is a method of obstetric nursing and medical staff training that is relevant, comprehensive, and cost-effective. It takes into consideration both the care needs of the obstetric patient and the adult learning needs of providers. The ObLS program brings obstetric nurses, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists together in multidisciplinary team training that is crucial to developing efficient emergency response.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JPN.0b013e318252ce3e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303605700008

    View details for PubMedID 22551860

  • Decreased Circulating Soluble Tie2 Levels in Preeclampsia May Result from Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Signaling JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM Sung, J. F., Fan, X., Dhal, S., Dwyer, B. K., Jafari, A., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Druzin, M. L., Nayak, N. R. 2011; 96 (7): E1148-E1152


    Recent studies have found dysregulation in circulating levels of a number of angiogenic factors and their soluble receptors in preeclampsia. In this study, we examined the mechanism of production of soluble Tie2 (sTie2) and its potential connection to the failure of vascular remodeling in preeclamptic pregnancies.Serum samples were collected prospectively from 41 pregnant subjects at five different time points throughout pregnancy. Five of these subjects developed preeclampsia. For a second study, serum and placental samples were collected at delivery from preeclamptic and gestational age-matched controls. We examined serum sTie2 levels, and angiopoietin 1, angiopoietin 2, and Tie2 mRNA expression and localization in placental samples from the central basal plate area. We also examined the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor on proteolytic shedding of Tie2 in uterine microvascular endothelial cells.Serum sTie2 levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic subjects starting at 24-28 wk of gestation and continued to be lower through the time of delivery. In culture experiments, VEGF treatment significantly increased sTie2 levels in conditioned media, whereas the MMP inhibitor completely blocked this increase, suggesting that VEGF-induced Tie2 release is MMP dependent.Our data suggest, for the first time, an interaction between VEGF and Tie2 in uterine endothelial cells and a potential mechanism for the decrease in circulating sTie2 levels in preeclampsia, likely through inhibition of VEGF signaling. Further studies on VEGF-Tie2 interactions during pregnancy should provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the failure of vascular remodeling in preeclampsia and other pregnancy complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/jc.2011-0063

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292454500015

    View details for PubMedID 21525162

  • Serum relaxin levels and kidney function in late pregnancy with or without preeclampsia CLINICAL NEPHROLOGY Lafayette, R. A., Hladunewich, M. A., Derby, G., Blouch, K., Druzin, M. L., Myers, B. D. 2011; 75 (3): 226-232


    Relaxin, a potent pregnancy-related hormone, has been proposed to be a major mediator of renal physiology in normal pregnancy. We wished to test relaxin levels in pregnancy and preeclampsia.We performed precise physiologic measurements of kidney function in 38 normal peripartum women and 58 women with preeclampsia. We measured serum relaxin levels prior to delivery and over the first 4 postpartum weeks utilizing a modern, validated ELISA. Results were compared to those of 18 normal women of childbearing age.Relaxin levels were substantially elevated in women prior to delivery (364 ± 268 vs. 15 ± 16 pg/ml) and fell rapidly over the first postpartum week reaching normal non pregnant levels by Week 2 (32 ± 64 vs. 15 ± 16 pg/ml). No differences were seen between relaxin levels in normal pregnancy as compared to preeclampsia (364 ± 268 vs. 376 ± 241 pg/ml) despite substantial and persistent abnormalities in GFR (149 ± 33 vs. 89 ± 25 ml/min), albuminuria (14 vs. 687 mg/g) and mean arterial pressure (80 ± 8 vs. 111 ± 18). Furthermore no correlation could be established between physiologic measures (GFR, MAP, RBF, RVR) and relaxin levels (p > 0.3), either in the overall population or any of the subgroups.Relaxin is indeed significantly elevated in the serum of women during late pregnancy and the early puerperium. However, serum relaxin does not appear to influence BP, renal vascular resistance, renal blood flow or GFR in late pregnancy or in women with preeclampsia.

    View details for DOI 10.5414/CNP75226

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288817800007

    View details for PubMedID 21329633

  • Noninvasive Monitoring of Placenta-Specific Transgene Expression by Bioluminescence Imaging PLOS ONE Fan, X., Ren, P., Dhal, S., Bejerano, G., Goodman, S. B., Druzin, M. L., Gambhir, S. S., Nayak, N. R. 2011; 6 (1)


    Placental dysfunction underlies numerous complications of pregnancy. A major obstacle to understanding the roles of potential mediators of placental pathology has been the absence of suitable methods for tissue-specific gene manipulation and sensitive assays for studying gene functions in the placentas of intact animals. We describe a sensitive and noninvasive method of repetitively tracking placenta-specific gene expression throughout pregnancy using lentivirus-mediated transduction of optical reporter genes in mouse blastocysts.Zona-free blastocysts were incubated with lentivirus expressing firefly luciferase (Fluc) and Tomato fluorescent fusion protein for trophectoderm-specific infection and transplanted into day 3 pseudopregnant recipients (GD3). Animals were examined for Fluc expression by live bioluminescence imaging (BLI) at different points during pregnancy, and the placentas were examined for tomato expression in different cell types on GD18. In another set of experiments, blastocysts with maximum photon fluxes in the range of 2.0E+4 to 6.0E+4 p/s/cm(2)/sr were transferred. Fluc expression was detectable in all surrogate dams by day 5 of pregnancy by live imaging, and the signal increased dramatically thereafter each day until GD12, reaching a peak at GD16 and maintaining that level through GD18. All of the placentas, but none of the fetuses, analyzed on GD18 by BLI showed different degrees of Fluc expression. However, only placentas of dams transferred with selected blastocysts showed uniform photon distribution with no significant variability of photon intensity among placentas of the same litter. Tomato expression in the placentas was limited to only trophoblast cell lineages.These results, for the first time, demonstrate the feasibility of selecting lentivirally-transduced blastocysts for uniform gene expression in all placentas of the same litter and early detection and quantitative analysis of gene expression throughout pregnancy by live BLI. This method may be useful for a wide range of applications involving trophoblast-specific gene manipulations in utero.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0016348

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286522300037

    View details for PubMedID 21283713

  • Deficits in the provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during simulated obstetric crises AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lipman, S. S., Daniels, K. I., Carvalho, B., Arafeh, J., Harney, K., Puck, A., Cohen, S. E., Druzin, M. 2010; 203 (2)


    Previous work suggests the potential for suboptimal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the parturient but did not directly assess actual performance.We evaluated 18 videotaped simulations of maternal amniotic fluid embolus and resultant cardiac arrest. A checklist containing 10 current American Heart Association recommendations for advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) in obstetric patients was utilized. We evaluated which tasks were completed correctly and the time required to perform key actions.Proper compressions were delivered by our teams 56% of the time and ventilations 50% of the time. Critical interventions such as left uterine displacement and placing a firm back support prior to compressions were frequently neglected (in 44% and 22% of cases, respectively). The mean +/- SD overall composite score for the tasks was 45 +/- 12% (range, 20-60%). The neonatal team was called in a median (interquartile range) of 1:42 (0:44-2:18) minutes:seconds; 15 of 18 (83%) teams called only after the patient was completely unresponsive. Fifty percent of teams did not provide basic information to the neonatal teams as required by neonatal resuscitation provider guidelines.Multiple deficits were noted in the provision of CPR to parturients during simulated arrests, despite current ACLS certification for all participants. Current requirements for ACLS certification and training for obstetric staff may require revision.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2010.02.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280234500037

    View details for PubMedID 20417476

  • Variable expression of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 in patients at high risk for preeclampsia JOURNAL OF MATERNAL-FETAL & NEONATAL MEDICINE Dwyer, B. K., Krieg, S., Balise, R., Carroll, I. R., Chueh, J., Nayak, N., Druzin, M. 2010; 23 (7): 705-711


    To explore angiogenic factor differences in preeclamptic patients according to the absence or presence of underlying vascular disease.We prospectively compared serum soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), soluble endoglin, and placental growth factor (PlGF) from 41 normal-risk and 32 high-risk (preexisting conditions) subjects at serial gestational ages.Median sFlt1 was lower at delivery in preeclamptic patients with underlying chronic hypertension and/or chronic proteinuria (5115 pg/ml) compared with normal risk preeclamptic patients (16375 pg/ml). PlGF was consistently low in patients who developed preeclampsia.Effects of sFlt1 may be contextual, varying according to the health or disease state of vascular endothelium.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/14767050903258753

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279865300024

    View details for PubMedID 19895348

  • The Effects of Respiratory Failure on Delivery in Pregnant Patients With H1N1 2009 Influenza OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Jafari, A., Langen, E. S., Aziz, N., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Mihm, F., Druzin, M. L. 2010; 115 (5): 1033-1035


    The majority of hospitalizations for H1N1 complications have been in people with high-risk comorbidities, including pregnancy. Here we describe the obstetric and critical care treatment of three patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza virus infection complicated by acute respiratory failure.We describe the clinical and therapeutic courses of three patients with confirmed H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection complicating singleton, twin, and triplet gestations, each of which were complicated by respiratory failure.These three cases illustrate that a high index of suspicion, prompt treatment, timing and mode of delivery considerations, and interdisciplinary treatment are integral to the care of pregnant patients with H1N1 influenza infections complicated by acute respiratory failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181da85fc

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277185800022

    View details for PubMedID 20410779

  • Acupuncture for Depression During Pregnancy A Randomized Controlled Trial OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Manber, R., Schnyer, R. N., Lyell, D., Chambers, A. S., Caughey, A. B., Druzin, M., Carlyle, E., Celio, C., Gress, J. L., Huang, M. I., Kalista, T., Martin-Okada, R., Allen, J. J. 2010; 115 (3): 511-520


    To estimate the efficacy of acupuncture for depression during pregnancy in a randomized controlled trial.A total of 150 pregnant women who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria for major depressive disorder were randomized to receive either acupuncture specific for depression or one of two active controls: control acupuncture or massage. Treatments lasted 8 weeks (12 sessions). Junior acupuncturists, who were not told about treatment assignment, needled participants at points prescribed by senior acupuncturists. All treatments were standardized. The primary outcome was the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, administered by masked raters at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Continuous data were analyzed using mixed effects models and by intent to treat.Fifty-two women were randomized to acupuncture specific for depression, 49 to control acupuncture, and 49 to massage. Women who received acupuncture specific for depression experienced a greater rate of decrease in symptom severity (P<.05) compared with the combined controls (Cohen's d=0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.77) or control acupuncture alone (P<.05; Cohen's d=0.46, 95% CI 0.01-0.92). They also had significantly greater response rate (63.0%) than the combined controls (44.3%; P<.05; number needed to treat, 5.3; 95% CI 2.8-75.0) and control acupuncture alone (37.5%; P<.05: number needed to treat, 3.9; 95% CI 2.2-19.8). Symptom reduction and response rates did not differ significantly between controls (control acupuncture, 37.5%; massage, 50.0%).The short acupuncture protocol demonstrated symptom reduction and a response rate comparable to those observed in standard depression treatments of similar length and could be a viable treatment option for depression during,, NCT00186654.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181cc0816

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275132300006

    View details for PubMedID 20177281

  • Team Training/Simulation CLINICAL OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Clark, E. A., Fisher, J., Arafeh, J., Druzin, M. 2010; 53 (1): 265-277


    Obstetrical emergencies require the rapid formation of a team with clear communication, strong leadership, and appropriate decision-making to ensure a positive patient outcome. Obstetric teams can improve their emergency response capability and efficiency through team and simulation training. Postpartum hemorrhage is an ideal model for team and simulation training, as postpartum hemorrhage requires a multidisciplinary team with the capability to produce a protocol-driven, rapid response. This article provides an overview of team and simulation training and focuses on applications within obstetrics, particularly preparation for postpartum hemorrhage.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181cc4595

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275407700025

    View details for PubMedID 20142662

  • Acute Liver Failure at 26 Weeks' Gestation in a Patient with Sickle Cell Disease LIVER TRANSPLANTATION Greenberg, M., Daugherty, T. J., Elihu, A., Sharaf, R., Concepcion, W., Druzin, M., Esquivel, C. O. 2009; 15 (10): 1236-1241


    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for acute liver failure (ALF) during pregnancy is an uncommon occurrence with variable outcomes. In pregnancy-related liver failure, prompt diagnosis and immediate delivery are essential for a reversal of the underlying process and for maternal and fetal survival. In rare cases, the reason for ALF during pregnancy is either unknown or irreversible, and thus OLT may be necessary. This case demonstrates the development of cryptogenic ALF during the 26th week of pregnancy in a woman with sickle cell disease. She underwent successful cesarean delivery of a healthy male fetus at 27 weeks with concurrent OLT. This report provides a literature review of OLT in pregnancy and examines the common causes of ALF in the pregnant patient. On the basis of the management and outcome of our case and the literature review, we present an algorithm for the suggested management of ALF in pregnancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/It.21820

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270931500014

    View details for PubMedID 19790148

  • Maintenance Nifedipine Tocolysis Compared With Placebo A Randomized Controlled Trial OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lyell, D. J., Pullen, K. M., Mannan, J., Chitkara, U., Druzin, M. L., Caughey, A. B., El-Sayed, Y. Y. 2008; 112 (6): 1221-1226


    To estimate whether maintenance nifedipine tocolysis after arrested preterm labor prolongs pregnancy and improves neonatal outcomes.A prospective, randomized double-blind, multicenter study was conducted. After successful tocolysis, patients were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg nifedipine or an identical-appearing placebo every 4-6 hours until 37 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was attainment of 37 weeks of gestation. Patients were enrolled between 24 weeks and 34 weeks if they had six or fewer contractions per hour, intact membranes, and less than 4 cm cervical dilation. Exclusion criteria were placental abruption or previa, fetal anomaly incompatible with life, or maternal medical contraindication to tocolysis. Sixty-six patients were required for 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in birth before 37 weeks, with a two-tailed alpha of 0.05. Data were analyzed by intent to treat.Seventy-one patients were randomly assigned. Two patients were excluded after randomization and one was lost to follow-up. Thirty-five patients received placebo, and 33 received nifedipine. There were no maternal demographic differences between groups; the placebo group was significantly more dilated and effaced at study entry. There was no difference in attainment of 37 weeks (39% nifedipine compared with 37% placebo, P>.91), mean delay of delivery (33.5+/-19.9 days nifedipine compared with 32.6+/-21.4 days placebo, P=.81) or delay of delivery for greater than 48 hours or 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks. Neonatal outcomes were similar between groups.When compared with placebo, maintenance nifedipine tocolysis did not confer a large reduction in preterm birth or improvement in neonatal,, NCT00185952I.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261316200006

    View details for PubMedID 19037029

  • Use of Simulation Based Team Training for Obstetric Crises in Resident Education SIMULATION IN HEALTHCARE Daniels, K., Lipman, S., Harney, K., Arafeh, J., Druzin, M. 2008; 3 (3): 154-160


    Obstetric crises are unexpected and random. Traditionally, medical training for these acute events has included lectures combined with arbitrary clinical experiences. This educational paradigm has inherent limitations. During actual crises insufficient time exists for discussion and analysis of patient care. Our objective was to create a simulation program to fill this experiential gap.Ten L&D teams participated in high fidelity simulation training. A team consisted of two or three nurses, one anesthesia resident and one or two obstetric residents. Each team participated in two scenarios; epidural-induced hypotension followed by an amniotic fluid embolism. Each simulation was followed by a facilitated debriefing. All simulations were videotaped. Clinical performances of the obstetric residents were graded by two reviewers using the videotapes and a faculty-developed checklist. Recurrent errors were analyzed and graded using Health Failure Modes Effects Analysis. All team members completed a course evaluation.Performance deficiencies of the obstetric residents were identified by an expert team of reviewers. From this list of errors, the "most valuable lessons" requiring further focused teaching were identified and included 1) Poor communication with the pediatric team, 2) Not assuming a leadership role during the code, 3) Poor distribution of workload, and 4) Lack of proper use of low/outlet forceps. Participants reported the simulation course allowed them to learn new skills needed by teams during a crisis.Simulated obstetric crises training offers the opportunity for educators to identify specific performance deficits of their residents and the subsequent development of teaching modules to address these weaknesses.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SIH.0b013e31818187d9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000207536200005

    View details for PubMedID 19088659

  • Perinatal outcomes among Asian-white interracial couples AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Nystrom, M. J., Caughey, A. B., Lyell, D. J., Druzin, M. L., El-Sayed, Y. Y. 2008; 199 (4)


    To investigate whether perinatal outcomes among interracial Asian-white couples are different than among Asian-Asian and white-white couples.This was a retrospective study of Asian, white, and Asian-white couples delivered at the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital from 2000-2005. Asian-white couples were subdivided into white-mother/Asian-father or Asian-mother/white-father. Perinatal outcomes included gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, birth weight >4000 g and <2500 g, and cesarean delivery.In the study population of 868 Asian-white, 3226 Asian, and 5575 white couples there were significant outcome differences. Compared with white couples, Asian-white couples had an increased incidence of gestational diabetes (aOR 2.4 for white-mother/Asian-father and aOR 2.6 for Asian-mother/white-father), though not as high as Asian couples (aOR 4.7). Asian-white couples had larger babies (median 3360 g for Asian-mother/white-father and 3320 g for white-mother/Asian-father vs 3210 g for Asian, P < .001), but only Asian-mother/white-father couples had an increased rate of cesarean delivery (aOR 1.3-2.0).Significant differences in perinatal outcomes exist between Asian, white, and interracial Asian-white couples.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2008.06.065

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260045700021

    View details for PubMedID 18928981

  • VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium FASEB JOURNAL Fan, X., Krieg, S., Kuo, C. J., Wiegand, S. J., Rabinovitch, M., Druzin, M. L., Brenner, R. M., Giudice, L. C., Nayak, N. R. 2008; 22 (10): 3571-3580


    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2-neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.

    View details for DOI 10.1096/fj.08-111401

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259642600019

    View details for PubMedID 18606863

  • Urinalysis vs urine protein-creatinine ratio to predict significant proteinuria in pregnancy JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Dwyer, B. K., Gorman, M., Carroll, I. R., Druzin, M. 2008; 28 (7): 461-467


    To compare the urine protein-creatinine ratio with urinalysis to predict significant proteinuria (>or=300 mg per day).A total of 116 paired spot urine samples and 24-h urine collections were obtained prospectively from women at risk for preeclampsia. Urine protein-creatinine ratio and urinalysis were compared to the 24-h urine collection.The urine protein-creatinine ratio had better discriminatory power than urinalysis: the receiver operating characteristic curve had a greater area under the curve, 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83 to 0.95) vs 0.71 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.77, P<0.001). When matched for clinically relevant specificity, urine protein-creatinine ratio (cutoff >or=0.28) is more sensitive than urinalysis (cutoff >or=1+): 66 vs 41%, P=0.001 (with 95 and 100% specificity, respectively). Furthermore, the urine protein-creatinine ratio predicted the absence or presence of proteinuria in 64% of patients; urinalysis predicted this in only 19%.The urine protein-creatinine ratio is a better screening test. It provides early information for more patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2008.4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257271500003

    View details for PubMedID 18288120

  • Editorial summary of symposium on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy CURRENT OPINION IN OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY Druzin, M. L., Charles, B., Johnson, A. L. 2008; 20 (2): 91-91


    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, particularly the preeclampsia/eclampsia syndrome, remain the leading causes of worldwide pregnancy-related maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. This group of conditions are a 'riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma' to quote Winston Churchill. We are fortunate to have contributions from leading clinical experts who have devoted many years of their professional careers attempting to solve this conundrum.Dr Jack Moodley has provided us with a perspective on clinical management in underresourced countries. Referral to experts, aggressive treatment of hypertension and use of magnesium sulfate improves care. Dr Shennan focuses on the assessment of risk, close antenatal surveillance and timely delivery. Dr Uzan continues to champion the use of aspirin for prevention of preeclampsia, even though the evidence is contradictory. Dr Sibai addresses the lack of evidence for calcium, vitamin C and E in prevention of preeclampsia. Dr Von Dadelszen is developing a new paradigm for the classification of these disorders and emphasizes the importance of evidence-based intervention.Evidence suggests that treatment of severe hypertension, seizure prophylaxis with magnesium sulfate, and management by experienced healthcare professionals will improve maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. Well designed studies will lead to evidence-based improvement in caring for mothers and babies worldwide.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254572900001

    View details for PubMedID 18388804

  • Course of preeclamptic glomerular injury after delivery AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-RENAL PHYSIOLOGY Hladunewich, M. A., Myers, B. D., Derby, G. C., Blouch, K. L., Druzin, M. L., Deen, W. M., Naimark, D. M., Lafayette, R. A. 2008; 294 (3): F614-F620


    We evaluated the early postpartum recovery of glomerular function over 4 wk in 57 women with preeclampsia. We used physiological techniques to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow, and oncotic pressure (pi(A)) and computed a value for the two-kidney ultrafiltration coefficient (K(f)). Compared with healthy, postpartum controls, GFR was depressed by 40% on postpartum day 1, but by only 19% and 8% in the second and fourth postpartum weeks, respectively. Hypofiltration was attributable solely to depression, at corresponding postpartum times, of K(f) by 55%, 30%, and 18%, respectively. Improvement in glomerular filtration capacity was accompanied by recovery of hypertension to near-normal levels and significant improvement in albuminuria. We conclude that the functional manifestations of the glomerular endothelial injury of preeclampsia largely resolve within the first postpartum month.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/ajprenal.00470.2007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253574500019

    View details for PubMedID 18199600

  • Bacterial flora-typing with targeted, chip-based Pyrosequencing BMC MICROBIOLOGY Sundquist, A., Bigdeli, S., Jalili, R., Druzin, M. L., Waller, S., Pullen, K. M., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Taslimi, M. M., Batzoglou, S., Ronaghi, M. 2007; 7


    The metagenomic analysis of microbial communities holds the potential to improve our understanding of the role of microbes in clinical conditions. Recent, dramatic improvements in DNA sequencing throughput and cost will enable such analyses on individuals. However, such advances in throughput generally come at the cost of shorter read-lengths, limiting the discriminatory power of each read. In particular, classifying the microbial content of samples by sequencing the < 1,600 bp 16S rRNA gene will be affected by such limitations.We describe a method for identifying the phylogenetic content of bacterial samples using high-throughput Pyrosequencing targeted at the 16S rRNA gene. Our analysis is adapted to the shorter read-lengths of such technology and uses a database of 16S rDNA to determine the most specific phylogenetic classification for reads, resulting in a weighted phylogenetic tree characterizing the content of the sample. We present results for six samples obtained from the human vagina during pregnancy that corroborates previous studies using conventional techniques.Next, we analyze the power of our method to classify reads at each level of the phylogeny using simulation experiments. We assess the impacts of read-length and database completeness on our method, and predict how we do as technology improves and more bacteria are sequenced. Finally, we study the utility of targeting specific 16S variable regions and show that such an approach considerably improves results for certain types of microbial samples. Using simulation, our method can be used to determine the most informative variable region.This study provides positive validation of the effectiveness of targeting 16S metagenomes using short-read sequencing technology. Our methodology allows us to infer the most specific assignment of the sequence reads within the phylogeny, and to identify the most discriminative variable region to target. The analysis of high-throughput Pyrosequencing on human flora samples will accelerate the study of the relationship between the microbial world and ourselves.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2180-7-108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253968300001

    View details for PubMedID 18047683

  • Randomized comparison of intravenous terbutaline vs nitroglycerin for acute intrapartum fetal resuscitation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Pullen, K. M., Riley, E. T., Waller, S. A., Taylor, L., Caughey, A. B., Druzin, M. L., El-Sayed, Y. Y. 2007; 197 (4)


    The purpose of this study was to compare terbutaline and nitroglycerin for acute intrapartum fetal resuscitation.Women between 32-, 42 weeks' gestation were assigned randomly to 250 microg of terbutaline or 400 microg nitroglycerin intravenously for nonreassuring fetal heart rate tracings in labor. The rate of successful acute intrapartum fetal resuscitation and the maternal hemodynamic changes were compared. Assuming a 50% failure rate in the terbutaline arm, we calculated that a total of 110 patients would be required to detect a 50% reduction in failure in the nitroglycerin group (50% to 25%), with an alpha value of .05, a beta value of .20, and a power of 80%.One hundred ten women had nonreassuring fetal heart rate tracings in labor; 57 women received terbutaline, and 53 women received nitroglycerin. Successful acute resuscitation rates were similar (terbutaline 71.9% and nitroglycerin 64.2%; P = .38). Terbutaline resulted in lower median contraction frequency per 10 minutes (2.9 [25-75 percentile, 1.7- 3.3] vs 4 [25-75 percentile, 2.5- 5]; P < .002) and reduced tachysystole (1.8% vs 18.9%; P = .003). Maternal mean arterial pressures decreased with nitroglycerin (81-76 mm Hg; P = .02), but not terbutaline (82-81 mm Hg; P = .73).Although terbutaline provided more effective tocolysis with less impact on maternal blood pressure, no difference was noted between nitroglycerin and terbutaline in successful acute intrapartum fetal resuscitation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2007.06.063

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250097300031

    View details for PubMedID 17904983

  • How we treat: management of life-threatening primary postpartum hemorrhage with a standardized massive transfusion protocol TRANSFUSION Burtelow, M., Riley, E., Druzin, M., Fontaine, M., Viele, M., Goodnough, L. T. 2007; 47 (9): 1564-1572


    Management of massive, life-threatening primary postpartum hemorrhage in the labor and delivery service is a challenge for the clinical team and hospital transfusion service. Because severe postpartum obstetrical hemorrhage is uncommon, its occurrence can result in emergent but variable and nonstandard requests for blood products. The implementation of a standardized massive transfusion protocol for the labor and delivery department at our institution after a maternal death caused by amniotic fluid embolism is described. This guideline was modeled on a existing protocol used by the trauma service mandating emergency release of 6 units of group O D- red cells (RBCs), 4 units of fresh frozen or liquid plasma, and 1 apheresis unit of platelets (PLTs). The 6:4:1 fixed ratio of uncrossmatched RBCs, plasma, and PLTs allows the transfusion service to quickly provide blood products during the acute phase of resuscitation and allows the clinical team to anticipate and prevent dilutional coagulopathy. The successful management of three cases of massive primary postpartum hemorrhage after the implementation of our new massive transfusion protocol in the maternal and fetal medicine service is described.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2007.01404.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249330500002

    View details for PubMedID 17725718

  • Magnesium sulfate compared with nifedipine for acute tocolysis of preterm labor - A randomized controlled trial OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lyell, D. J., Pullen, K., Campbell, L., Ching, S., Druzin, M. L., Chitkara, U., Burrs, D., Caughey, A. B., El-Sayed, Y. Y. 2007; 110 (1): 61-67


    To compare the efficacy and side effects of intravenous magnesium to oral nifedipine for acute tocolysis of preterm labor.A multicenter randomized trial was performed. Patients in active preterm labor who were at 24 to 33 weeks and 6 days of gestation were randomly assigned to receive magnesium sulfate or nifedipine. The primary outcome was arrest of preterm labor, defined as prevention of delivery for 48 hours with uterine quiescence.One hundred ninety-two patients were enrolled. More patients assigned to magnesium sulfate achieved the primary outcome (87% compared with 72%, P=.01). There were no differences in delivery within 48 hours (7.6% magnesium sulfate compared with 8.0% nifedipine, P=.92), gestational age at delivery (35.8 compared with 36.0 weeks, P=.61), birth before 37 and 32 weeks (57% compared with 57%, P=.97, and 11% compared with 8%, P=.39), and episodes of recurrent preterm labor. Mild and severe maternal adverse effects were significantly more frequent with magnesium sulfate. Birth weight, birth weight less than 2,500 g, and neonatal morbidities were similar between groups, but newborns in the magnesium sulfate group spent longer in the neonatal intensive care unit (8.8+/-17.7 compared with 4.2+/-8.2 days, P=.007).Patients who received magnesium sulfate achieved the primary outcome more frequently. However, delay of delivery, gestational age at delivery, and neonatal outcomes were similar between groups. Nifedipine was associated with fewer maternal adverse effects.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247572700011

    View details for PubMedID 17601897

  • Perinatal outcomes after successful and failed trials of labor after cesarean delivery. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology El-Sayed, Y. Y., Watkins, M. M., Fix, M., Druzin, M. L., Pullen, K. M., Caughey, A. B. 2007; 196 (6): 583 e1-5


    To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes after successful and failed trials of labor after cesarean in women at term, excluding uterine ruptures, and to examine predictors of successful and failed trials of labor.Matched maternal and neonatal data from 1993-1999 in women with singleton term pregnancies with prior cesarean undergoing trial of labor were reviewed. Women with uterine rupture were excluded. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed for successful and failed trials. Predictors of success and failure were examined.1284 women and their neonates were available for analysis. 1094 (85.2%) had a vaginal birth and 190 (14.8%) underwent repeat cesarean. Failed trials of labor were associated with higher incidence of choriamnionitis (25.8% vs. 5.5%, P<.001), postpartum hemorrhage (35.8% vs. 15.8%, P<.001), hysterectomy (1% vs. 0%, P=.022), neonatal jaundice (17.4% vs.10.2%, P=.004) and composite major neonatal morbidities (6.3% vs. 2.8%, P=.014).Failed trial of labor in women at term with prior cesarean is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidities.

    View details for PubMedID 17547905

  • Perinatal outcomes after successful and failed trials of labor after cesarean delivery AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY El-Sayed, Y. Y., Watkins, M. M., Fix, M., Druzin, M. L., Pullen, K. M., Caughey, A. B. 2007; 196 (6): 583-585
  • Use of a community mobile health van to increase early access to prenatal care MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL Edgerley, L. P., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Druzin, M. L., Kiernan, M., Daniels, K. I. 2007; 11 (3): 235-239


    To examine whether the use of a community mobile health van (the Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital Women's Health Van) in an underserved population allows for earlier access to prenatal care and increased rate of adequate prenatal care, as compared to prenatal care initiated in community clinics.We studied 108 patients who initiated prenatal care on the van and delivered their babies at our University Hospital from September 1999 to July 2004. One hundred and twenty-seven patients who initiated prenatal care in sites other than the Women's Health Van, had the same city of residence and source of payment as the study group, and also delivered their babies at our hospital during the same time period, were selected as the comparison group. Gestational age at which prenatal care was initiated and the adequacy of prenatal care - as defined by Revised Graduated Index of Prenatal Care Utilization (RGINDEX) - were compared between cases and comparisons.Underserved women utilizing the van services for prenatal care initiated care three weeks earlier than women using other services (10.2 +/- 6.9 weeks vs. 13.2 +/- 6.9 weeks, P = 0.001). In addition, the data showed that van patients and non-van patients were equally likely to receive adequate prenatal care as defined by R-GINDEX (P = 0.125).Women who initiated prenatal care on the Women's Health Van achieved earlier access to prenatal care when compared to women initiating care at other community health clinics.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10995-006-0174-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246578900005

    View details for PubMedID 17243022

  • Cesarean delivery on maternal request: Wise use of finite resources? A view from the trenches SEMINARS IN PERINATOLOGY Druzin, M. L., El-Sayed, Y. Y. 2006; 30 (5): 305-308


    Cesarean section rates are rising in the United States and were at an all time high of 29 percent in 2004. Within this context, the issue of cesarean section on maternal request has been described as being part of a "perfect storm" of medical, legal and personal choice issues, and the lack of an opposing view. An increasing cesarean section rate adds an economic burden on already highly stressed medical systems. There is an incremental cost of cesarean section compared to vaginal delivery. The issue of cost must also be considered more broadly. Rising cesarean section rates are associated with a longer length of stay and a higher occupancy rate. This high occupancy rate leads to the diversion of critical care obstetric transports and has dramatically reduced patient satisfaction. These diversions, and the resultant inability to provide needed care to pregnant women, represent a profound societal cost. These critical care diversions and reduced patient satisfaction also negatively impact a health care institution's financial bottom line and competitiveness. The impact of a rising cesarean section rate on both short and long-term maternal and neonatal complications, and their associated costs, must also be taken into account. The incidence of placenta accreta is increasing in conjunction with the rising cesarean section rate. The added costs associated with this complication (MRI, Interventional Radiology, transfusion, hysterectomy, and intensive care admission) can be prohibitive. It has also been demonstrated that infants born by scheduled cesarean delivery are more likely to require advanced nursery support (with all its associated expense) than infants born to mothers attempting vaginal delivery. The practice of maternal request cesarean section, with limited good data and obvious inherent risk and expense, is increasing in the USA. Patient autonomy and a woman's right to choose her mode of delivery should be respected. However, in our opinion, based on the current evidence regarding cesarean delivery on maternal request, promotion of primary cesarean section on request as a standard of care or as a mandated part of patient counseling for delivery will result in a highly questionable use of finite resources. As of 2004, 46 million Americans did not even have basic health insurance. It is critical that we not allow ourselves to be dragged into the eye of a "perfect storm." This conference is an important step in the rational and objective analysis of this issue.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.semperi.2006.07.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241449600013

    View details for PubMedID 17011403

  • Postural equilibrium during pregnancy: Decreased stability with an increased reliance on visual cues AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Butler, E. E., Colon, I., Druzin, M. L., Rose, J. 2006; 195 (4): 1104-1108


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are changes in postural equilibrium during pregnancy and to examine whether the incidence of falls increases during pregnancy.Static postural balance measures were collected from 12 pregnant women at 11 to 14, 19 to 22, and 36 to 39 weeks gestation and at 6 to 8 weeks after delivery and from 12 nulligravid control subjects who were matched for age, height, weight, and body mass index. Subjects were asked to stand quietly on a stable force platform for 30 seconds with eyes open and closed. Path length and average radial displacement were computed on the basis of the average of 3 trials for each condition. The women were asked at each session if they had sustained a fall in the previous 3 months.Postural stability remained relatively stable during the first trimester; however, second and third trimester and postpartum values for path length and average radial displacement with eyes open and closed were increased significantly compared with the control subjects, which indicates diminished postural balance. The difference between the eyes open and closed values of path length increased as pregnancy progressed. Although 25% of pregnant women sustained falls, none of the control subjects had fallen in the past year.These data suggest that postural stability declines during pregnancy and remains diminished at 6 to 8 weeks after delivery. The study also indicates that there is an increased reliance on visual cues to maintain balance during pregnancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241123500034

    View details for PubMedID 16846574

  • Gene expression patterns in human placenta PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Sood, R., Zehnder, J. L., Druzin, M. L., Brown, P. O. 2006; 103 (14): 5478-5483


    The placenta is the principal metabolic, respiratory, excretory, and endocrine organ for the first 9 months of fetal life. Its role in fetal and maternal physiology is remarkably diverse. Because of the central role that the placenta has in fetal and maternal physiology and development, the possibility that variation in placental gene expression patterns might be linked to important abnormalities in maternal or fetal health, or even variations in later life, warrants investigation. As an initial step, we used DNA microarrays to analyze gene expression patterns in 72 samples of amnion, chorion, umbilical cord, and sections of villus parenchyma from 19 human placentas from successful full-term pregnancies. The umbilical cord, chorion, amnion, and villus parenchyma samples were readily distinguished by differences in their global gene-expression patterns, many of which seemed to be related to physiology and histology. Differentially expressed genes have roles that include placental trophoblast secretion, signal transduction, metabolism, immune regulation, cell adhesion, and structure. We found interindividual differences in expression patterns in villus parenchyma and systematic differences between the maternal, fetal, and intermediate layers. A group of genes that was expressed in both the maternal and fetal villus parenchyma sections of placenta included genes that may be associated with preeclampsia. We identified sets of genes whose expression in placenta was significantly correlated with the sex of the fetus. This study provides a rich and diverse picture of the molecular variation in the placenta from healthy pregnancies.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0508035103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236636400044

    View details for PubMedID 16567644

  • Effect of L-arginine therapy on the glomerular injury of preeclampsia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and gynecology Hladunewich, M. A., Derby, G. C., Lafayette, R. A., Blouch, K. L., Druzin, M. L., Myers, B. D. 2006; 107 (4): 886-895


    To assess the benefit of l-arginine, the precursor to nitric oxide, on blood pressure and recovery of the glomerular lesion in preeclampsia.Forty-five women with preeclampsia were randomized to receive either l-arginine or placebo until day 10 postpartum. Primary outcome measures including mean arterial pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria were assessed on the third and 10th days postpartum by inulin clearance and albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Nitric oxide, cyclic guanosine 3'5' monophosphate, endothelin-1, and asymmetric-dimethyl-arginine and arginine levels were assayed before delivery and on the third and 10th days postpartum. Healthy gravid women provided control values. Assuming a standard deviation of 10 mm Hg, the study was powered to detect a 10-mm Hg difference in mean arterial pressure (alpha .05, beta .20) between the study groups.No significant differences existed between the groups with preeclampsia before randomization. Compared with the gravid control group, women with preeclampsia exhibited significantly increased serum levels of endothelin-1, cyclic guanosine 3'5' monophosphate, and asymmetric-dimethyl-arginine before delivery. Despite a significant increase in postpartum serum arginine levels due to treatment, no differences were found in the corresponding levels of nitric oxide, endothelin-1, cyclic guanosine 3'5' monophosphate, or asymmetric-dimethyl-arginine between the two groups with preeclampsia. Further, there were no significant differences in any of the primary outcome measures with both groups demonstrating similar levels in glomerular filtration rate and equivalent improvements in both blood pressure and proteinuria.Blood pressure and kidney function improve markedly in preeclampsia by the 10th day postpartum. Supplementation with l-arginine does not hasten this recovery.I.

    View details for PubMedID 16582128

  • Outcome of pregnancies complicated by systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease LUPUS Chung, L., Flyckt, R. L., Colon, I., Shah, A. A., Druzin, M., Chakravarty, E. F. 2006; 15 (9): 595-599


    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) are rare autoimmune diseases which share the common feature of non-inflammatory vasculopathy. Studies evaluating pregnancy outcomes in these patients have yielded conflicting results. We sought to describe the outcomes of pregnancies associated with SSc and MCTD followed at our center utilizing a retrospective review of all pregnant women with SSc and MCTD followed at Stanford University from 1993 to 2003. We identified 20 pregnancies occurring in 13 women with SSc or MCTD. Twelve pregnancies occurred in seven women with SSc and eight pregnancies occurred in six women with MCTD. The overall preterm delivery rate was 39% and small for gestational age infants occurred in 50% and 63% of pregnancies associated with SSc and MCTD, respectively. Fetal loss complicated two pregnancies in women with severe diffuse SSc and the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. There were no cases of congenital heartblock among infants, and only one case of pre-eclampsia was observed. Maternal flares of disease during pregnancy were generally mild. Most pregnancies in women with SSc and MCTD in this cohort were uncomplicated. The high rates of prematurity and small for gestational age infants underscore the risk for growth restriction consistent with the vasculopathy associated with these diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0961203306071915

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241996300007

    View details for PubMedID 17080915

  • Comparison of rapid intrapartum screening methods for group B streptococcal vaginal colonization JOURNAL OF MATERNAL-FETAL & NEONATAL MEDICINE Aziz, N., Baron, E. J., D'Souza, H., Nourbakhsh, M., Druzin, M. L., Benitz, W. E. 2005; 18 (4): 225-229


    To compare optical immunoassay (OIA) and rapid polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) with enrichment broth culture for intrapartum detection of vaginal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization.Paired vaginal swabs from 315 consecutive term pregnant women at the time of presentation for delivery to a university medical center were tested for GBS by OIA, PCR, and culture. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated.Vaginal colonization was identified by culture in 56 subjects (17.8%). The sensitivity of OIA (7.1%, 95% confidence interval 5.1-9.5%) was significantly less than that of unenhanced rapid PCR (62.5%, 95% CI 48.5-74.8%).Neither PCR nor OIA is sufficiently sensitive for intrapartum detection of vaginal GBS colonization. Rapid PCR is more sensitive, but further improvements in technique to increase sensitivity will be necessary if PCR is to have a useful role in the management of women at time of presentation for delivery.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/14767050500278048

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234009900003

    View details for PubMedID 16318971

  • Factors that predict prematurity and preeclampsia in pregnancies that are complicated by systemic lupus erythematosus AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Chakravarty, E. F., Colon, I., Langen, E. S., Nix, D. A., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Genovese, M. C., Druzin, M. L. 2005; 192 (6): 1897-1904


    The purpose of this study was to describe the outcomes of a 10-year cohort of pregnancies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and to evaluate clinical and laboratory markers for adverse outcomes.We reviewed all pregnancies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who were seen at Stanford University from 1991 to 2001. Univariate analyses were performed to identify potential risk factors for adverse outcomes.Sixty-three pregnancies in 48 women were identified. Approximately 35% of the pregnancies occurred in women with previous renal disease and 10% in women with previous central nervous system disease. Flares occurred in 68% of the pregnancies, the majority of which were mild to moderate. Preeclampsia complicated 12 pregnancies. Factors that were associated with premature delivery included prednisone use at conception (relative risk, 1.8), the use of antihypertensive medications (relative risk, 1.8), and a severe flare during pregnancy (relative risk, 2.0). Thrombocytopenia was associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia (relative risk, 3.2).Flares, most of which were mild to moderate, occurred most of the pregnancies in our cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Thrombocytopenia, hypertension, and prednisone use may be predictive factors for particular adverse outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2005.02.063

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230037600034

    View details for PubMedID 15970846

  • Detection of sonographic markers of fetal aneuploidy depends on maternal and fetal characteristics JOURNAL OF ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE Taslimi, M. M., Acosta, R., Chueh, J., Hudgins, L., Hunter, K., Druzin, M. L., Chitkara, U. 2005; 24 (6): 811-815


    The purpose of this study was to determine factors that influence the detection rate of sonographic markers of fetal aneuploidy (SMFA).We reviewed the sonographic images of 160 consecutive second-trimester trisomic fetuses for the presence of SMFA, either structural anomalies or sonographic soft markers.One hundred forty-nine (93.1%) records were complete and analyzed; 78 cases (52.3%) were identified with 1 or more SMFA. Sonographic markers of fetal aneuploidy were detected in 42.7%, 75.0%, and 90.9% of trisomies 21, 18, and 13, respectively (P<.005). The detection rate of SMFA had a positive linear correlation with gestational age (adjusted R(2)=0.64; P<.002). Sonographic markers of fetal aneuploidy were detected in 43.7% of fetuses of less than 18.0 weeks' gestation and 64.5% of fetuses of 18.0 weeks' gestation or greater (likelihood ratio=6.4; P<.01). Sonographic markers of fetal aneuploidy were detected in 23.5% of patients with suboptimal image quality versus 58.3% of the others (likelihood ratio=7.5; P<.05). The rate of structural malformation was similar between the male and female fetuses, whereas that of soft markers was 49.4% in male and 30.0% in female fetuses (odds ratio=2.3; range, 1.2-4.5; P<.02). Factor analysis showed that some soft markers and some structural anomalies tended to appear together.The type of fetal trisomy, gestational age, sex, and quality of images influence the detection rate of SMFA. The highest detection rate for SMFA in the second trimester is at or above 18 weeks' gestational age. Certain markers are detected in clusters. These findings may explain, in part, the variability in reported rates of detection of SMFA among trisomic fetuses. These findings need to be prospectively tested in the general population of pregnancies for applicability to sonographic risk calculations for fetal trisomies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229461900009

    View details for PubMedID 15914685

  • Prospective randomized clinical trial of inpatient cervical ripening with stepwise oral misoprostol vs vaginal misoprostot AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Colon, I., Clawson, K., Hunter, K., Druzin, M. L., Taslimi, M. M. 2005; 192 (3): 747-752


    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of stepwise oral misoprostol vs vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening before induction of labor.Two hundred and four women between 32 to 42 weeks of gestation with an unfavorable cervix (Bishop score < or = 6) and an indication for labor induction were randomized to receive oral or vaginal misoprostol every 4 hours up to 4 doses. The oral misoprostol group received 50 microg initially followed by 100 microg in each subsequent dose. The vaginal group received 25 microg in each dose. The primary outcome was the interval from first misoprostol dose to delivery. Patient satisfaction and side effects were assessed by surveys completed after delivery.Ninety-three (45.6%) women received oral misoprostol; 111 (54.4%) received vaginal misoprostol. There was no difference in the average interval from the first dose of misoprostol to delivery in the oral (21.1 + 7.9 hrs) and vaginal (21.5 + 11.0 hrs, P = NS) misoprostol groups. The incidence of hyperstimulation in the oral group was 2.2% vs 5.4% in the vaginal group, P = NS. Eighteen patients in the oral group (19.4%) and 36 (32.4%) in the vaginal group underwent cesarean section (P < .05). This difference was attributed to better tolerance of more doses of misoprostol by the women in the oral group. There was no difference in side effects (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, shivering) between groups. Fourteen percent of women in the vaginal group versus 7.5% in the oral group were dissatisfied with the use of misoprostol (P = NS).Stepwise oral misoprostol (50 microg followed by 100 microg) appears to be as effective as vaginal misoprostol (25 microg) for cervical ripening with a low incidence of hyperstimulation, no increase in side effects, a high rate of patient satisfaction, and is associated with a lower cesarean section rate.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2004.12.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227477600014

    View details for PubMedID 15746667

  • Randomized comparison of intravenous nitroglycerin and subcutaneous terbutaline for external cephalic version under tocolysis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY El-Sayed, Y. Y., Pullen, K., Riley, E. T., Lyell, D., Druzin, M. L., Cohen, S. E., Chitkara, U. 2004; 191 (6): 2051-2055


    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous nitroglycerin with that of subcutaneous terbutaline as a tocolytic agent for external cephalic version at term.We performed a prospective randomized trial. Patients between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation were assigned randomly to receive either 200 microg of intravenous nitroglycerin therapy or 0.25 mg of subcutaneous terbutaline therapy for tocolysis during external cephalic version. The rate of successful external cephalic version and side effects were compared between groups.Of 59 randomly assigned patients, 30 patients received intravenous nitroglycerin, and 29 patients received subcutaneous terbutaline. The overall success rate of external cephalic version in the study was 39%. The rate of successful external cephalic version was significantly higher in the terbutaline group (55% vs 23%; P = .01). The incidence of palpitations was significantly higher in patients who received terbutaline therapy (17.2% vs 0%; P = .02), as was the mean maternal heart rate at multiple time periods.Compared with intravenous nitroglycerin, subcutaneous terbutaline was associated with a significantly higher rate of successful external cephalic version at term.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2004.04.040

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225925800030

    View details for PubMedID 15592291

  • Vaginal versus ultrasound examination of fetal occiput position during the second stage of labor AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Chou, M. R., Kreiser, D., Taslimi, M. M., Druzin, M. L., El-Sayed, Y. Y. 2004; 191 (2): 521-524


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether ultrasonography is more accurate than vaginal examination in the determination of fetal occiput position in the second stage of labor.Eighty-eight patients in the second stage of labor were evaluated by vaginal examination and by combined transabdominal and transperineal ultrasound examination to determine occiput position. These predictions of position were compared with the actual delivery position at vaginal delivery after spontaneous restitution or at cesarean delivery. Different examiners performed the vaginal examinations and the ultrasound examinations. Each examiner was blinded to the determination of the other examiner.Vaginal examination determined fetal occiput position correctly 71.6% of the time; ultrasound examination determined fetal occiput position correctly 92.0% of the time (P=.018).Ultrasound examination is more accurate than vaginal examination in the diagnosis of fetal occiput position in the second stage of labor.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2004.01.029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000203976500020

    View details for PubMedID 15343230

  • Cost-effectiveness of a trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery depends on the a priori chance of success CLINICAL OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Macario, A., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Druzin, M. L. 2004; 47 (2): 378-385

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231530600009

    View details for PubMedID 15166861

  • End-tidal breath carbon monoxide measurements are lower in pregnant women with uterine contractions. Journal of perinatology Hendler, I., Baum, M., Kreiser, D., Schiff, E., Druzin, M., Stevenson, D. K., Seidman, D. S. 2004; 24 (5): 275-278


    To compare the levels of end-tidal carbon monoxide (ETCOc) among women with and without uterine contractions in term and preterm pregnancies.In all, 55 nonsmoking healthy pregnant women were enrolled. ETCOc levels were compared among women with contractions (10 preterm and 13 term) and 32 women without contractions (34-41 weeks gestation).Maternal age, gravidity and parity were similar among study and control groups. ETCOc levels were significantly lower among women that had uterine contractions (0.99+/-0.38 parts per million (ppm) and 1.15+/-0.34 p.p.m. respectively), compared to women with no contractions (1.70+/-0.52 p.p.m., P<0.002). However, there was no significant difference in the ETCOc levels between women with preterm or term contractions (P=0.48).Low levels of ETCOc are associated with preterm and term uterine contractions.

    View details for PubMedID 15042112

  • End tidal carbon monoxide levels are lower in women with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Journal of perinatology Kreiser, D., Baum, M., Seidman, D. S., Fanaroff, A., Shah, D., Hendler, I., Stevenson, D. K., Schiff, E., Druzin, M. L. 2004; 24 (4): 213-217


    The possible role of heme oxygenase and its byproduct carbon monoxide (CO) in the regulation of blood pressure is under investigation. The aim of this study was to compare end tidal breath CO (ETCO) levels in women with gestational hypertension (GH) or pre-eclampsia to the levels in healthy pregnant and nonpregnant women.We prospectively performed ETCO measurements corrected for ambient CO (ETCOc) in two medical centers (Stanford, CA and Cleveland, OH). A Natus CO-Stat End Tidal Breath Analyzer (Natus Medical Inc., San Carlos, CA) was used. The study group included a convenience sample of 31 women with GH/pre-eclampsia (PE). Control groups included 46 nonpregnant healthy women, 44 first-trimester and 48 third-trimester pregnant healthy women.Mean+/-SD ETCOc measurements were significantly lower in the GH/PE group compared to first-trimester (p=0.004) and third-trimester (p=0.001) normotensive pregnant and nonpregnant women (p=0.002) (1.36+/-0.30 vs 1.76+/-0.47, 1.72+/-0.42 and 1.78+/-0.54 ppm, respectively). The ETCOc values were < or =1.6 ppm in 89% of GH/PE women compared with, respectively, only 45, 54, and 46% of nonpregnant, first- and third-trimester normotensive pregnant women (p<0.05). ETCO measurements were not influenced by maternal age, parity, ethnicity, body mass index, gestational age or presence of household smokers. In the two centers, the controls had a similar mean ETCOc and the differences found remained significant when results for each center were analyzed separately.ETCOc levels were found to be significantly lower in women with GH/PE. Further investigation is required to determine if the lower CO levels reflect a deficient compensatory response to the increase in blood pressure or whether these are primary changes of significance to our understanding of the pathogenesis of GH/PE.

    View details for PubMedID 15014533

  • The dynamics of glomerular filtration in the puerperium AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-RENAL PHYSIOLOGY Hladunewich, M. A., Lafayette, R. A., Derby, G. C., Blouch, K. L., Bialek, J. W., Druzin, M. L., Deen, W. M., Myers, B. D. 2004; 286 (3): F496-F503


    We evaluated the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during the second postpartum week in 22 healthy women who had completed an uncomplicated pregnancy. We used physiological techniques to measure GFR, renal plasma flow, and oncotic pressure and computed a value for the two-kidney ultrafiltration coefficient (K(f)). We compared these findings with those in pregnant women previously studied on the first postpartum day as well as nongravid women of reproductive age. Healthy female transplant donors of reproductive age permitted the morphometric analysis of glomeruli and computation of the single-nephron K(f). The aforementioned physiological and morphometric measurements were utilized to estimate transcapillary hydraulic pressure (Delta P) from a mathematical model of glomerular ultrafiltration. We conclude that postpartum day 1 is associated with marked glomerular hyperfiltration (+41%). A theoretical analysis of GFR determinants suggests that depression of glomerular capillary oncotic pressure, the force opposing the formation of filtrate, is the predominant determinant of early elevation of postpartum GFR. A reversal of the gestational hypervolemia and hemodilution, still evident on postpartum day 1, eventuates by postpartum week 2. An elevation of oncotic pressure in the plasma that flows axially along the glomerular capillaries to supernormal levels ensues; however, GFR remains modestly elevated (+20%) above nongravid levels. An analysis of filtration dynamics at this time suggests that a significant increase in Delta P by up to 16%, an approximately 50% increase in K(f), or a combination of smaller increments in both must be invoked to account for the persistent hyperfiltration.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/ajprenal.00194.2003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188707500009

    View details for PubMedID 14612381

  • Neonatal chest wall rigidity following the use of remifentanil for cesarean delivery in a patient with autoimmune hepatitis and thrombocytopenia INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA Carvalho, B., Mirikitani, E. J., Lyell, D., Evans, D. A., Druzin, A., Riley, E. T. 2004; 13 (1): 53-56


    Remifentanil is a useful adjunct in general anesthesia for high-risk obstetric patients. It provides effective blunting of the rapid hemodynamic changes that may be associated with airway manipulation and surgical stimulation. There have been no previous reports of opioid-related rigidity in the neonate delivered by a parturient receiving intraoperative remifentanil. We present a case of short-lived neonatal rigidity and respiratory depression following remifentanil administration during cesarean section to a parturient with autoimmune hepatitis complicated by cirrhosis, esophageal varices and thrombocytopenia.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijoa.2003.09.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188228500013

    View details for PubMedID 15321443

  • Prothrombin gene variants in non-Caucasians with fetal loss and intrauterine growth retardation JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS Schrijver, I., Lenzi, T. J., Jones, C. D., Lay, M. J., Druzin, M. L., Zehnder, J. L. 2003; 5 (4): 250-253


    Thrombotic predisposition may affect pregnancy outcome, but in non-Caucasians the contributing genetic factors are poorly characterized. Two recently identified prothrombin gene mutations (20209C>T and 20221C>T) have been observed in non-Caucasian patients with thrombosis. The mutations are located near the commonly identified variant 20210G>A and have not been reported in Caucasian patients. The authors report a novel connection with pregnancy complications. The identification of sequence variants other than 20210G>A in the 3'-untranslated region of the prothrombin gene suggests that additional nucleotide substitutions may contribute to the development of thrombotic events and adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in less well-characterized populations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186292700009

    View details for PubMedID 14573785

  • Training and competency assessment in electronic fetal monitoring: A national survey OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Murphy, A. A., Halamek, L. P., Lyell, D. J., Druzin, M. L. 2003; 101 (6): 1243-1248


    To investigate current patterns of training and competency assessment in electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for obstetrics and gynecology residents and maternal-fetal medicine fellows.A questionnaire was mailed to the directors of all 254 accredited US residencies in obstetrics and gynecology and 61 accredited US fellowships in maternal-fetal medicine. Questions focused on the methods used for teaching and assessing competency in EFM.Two hundred thirty-nine programs (76%) responded to the survey. Clinical experience is used by 219 programs (92%) to teach EFM, both initially and on an ongoing basis. Significantly more residencies than fellowships use written materials and lectures to teach EFM. More than half of all programs require trainees to participate in some type of EFM training at least every 6 months; 23 programs (10%) have no requirement at all. Subjective evaluation is used by 174 programs (73%) to assess competency in EFM. Written or oral examinations, skills checklists, and logbooks are used exclusively by residencies as means of competency assessment. Two thirds of all programs assess EFM skills at least every 6 months; 40 programs (17%), the majority of which are fellowships, have no formal requirement.Most US training programs use supervised clinical experience as both their primary source of teaching EFM and their principal competency assessment tool. Residencies are more likely to have formal instruction and assessment than are fellowships. Few programs are using novel strategies (eg, computers or simulators) in their curriculum.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0029-7844(03)00351-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183293300018

    View details for PubMedID 12798531

  • Evaluation of a novel electronic fetal monitor simulator MEDICINE MEETS VIRTUAL REALITY 11 Murphy, A. A., Halamek, L. P., Lyell, D. J., Druzin, M. L. 2003; 94: 240-244


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the content validity and construct validity of a novel electronic fetal monitor (EFM) simulator. Fourteen residents in Gynecology and Obstetrics (OB/GYN) and 7 medical students in their OB/GYN clerkship interpreted 10 fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings and 4 clinical scenarios generated by the EFM simulator. Their responses were scored by experts in maternal-fetal medicine. Construct validity was determined by comparing subjects' scores to their level of experience. Subjects assessed content validity of the EFM simulator by rating the realism of its various elements on a 4-point Likert scale. Residents achieved statistically significant higher mean scores in the description of FHR tracings generated by the simulator than medical students and statistically significant higher mean scores in the correct interpretation of and interventions in 2 of 4 clinical scenarios. Two-thirds of the residents rated the simulator-generated FHR tracings and clinical scenarios as "real" or "very real." The EFM simulator exhibited both content and construct validity, supporting its use in an educational setting.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000189484800048

    View details for PubMedID 15455900

  • Central nervous system lupus and pregnancy: 11-year experience at a single center. journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine El-Sayed, Y. Y., Lu, E. J., Genovese, M. C., Lambert, R. E., Chitkara, U., Druzin, M. L. 2002; 12 (2): 99-103


    To describe the pregnancy outcomes in women with central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of lupus.Between 1991 and 2002, the outcome of five pregnancies in four patients with CNS lupus were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had an established history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and either a history of CNS lupus or active CNS lupus. Pregnancy outcomes assessed included term and preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, abnormal antepartum testing, perinatal mortality, pre-eclampsia and other maternal morbidities.Evidence of active CNS lupus symptoms developed in three of the five pregnancies. Two pregnancies were complicated by early onset pre-eclampsia, abnormal antepartum testing and extreme prematurity, with one subsequent neonatal death. The remaining three pregnancies had good neonatal outcomes, but were complicated by severe maternal post-pregnancy exacerbations, and the eventual death of one patient.CNS lupus in pregnancy represents an especially severe manifestation of SLE, and may involve great maternal and fetal risks.

    View details for PubMedID 12420839

  • Fetal ear length measurement: a useful predictor of aneuploidy? ULTRASOUND IN OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY Chitkara, U., Lee, L., Oehlert, J. W., Bloch, D. A., Holbrook, R. H., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Druzin, M. L. 2002; 19 (2): 131-135


    To determine the usefulness of short ear length (EL) measurement in the prenatal detection of fetuses with chromosomal abnormalities.Fetal EL measurements, routine biometry and complete anatomic survey for fetal abnormalities were prospectively performed by antenatal sonography.One thousand eight hundred and forty-eight patients with singleton pregnancies undergoing genetic amniocentesis in the second or third trimester.Complete data for EL, biometry and anatomic survey for major structural abnormalities and minor sonographic markers of chromosomal abnormality were available in 1311 fetuses. Of these, 48 (3.7%) had an abnormal karyotype and 1263 (96.3%) had a normal karyotype. Using an EL measurement of < or = 10th percentile for corresponding gestational age in normal fetuses as abnormal cut-off values, detection rates for chromosomal abnormalities by short EL were determined.Among the 48 abnormal karyotypes, 34 were considered significant, and 11 of these 34 (32.4%) fetuses had short EL. In 14 cases, the karyotypic abnormality was considered non-significant and fetal EL was normal in all cases. Of the 34 fetuses with significant chromosomal abnormalities, six (17.6%) on antenatal sonography had no detectable abnormal findings, other than short EL. An increased biparietal diameter (BPD)/EL ratio of > or = 4.0 was also noted in fetuses with an abnormal karyotype, but the sensitivity and predictive value of increased BPD/EL ratio alone or increased BPD/EL ratio in combination with short EL was no better than the sensitivity and predictive value of short EL alone. A combination of short EL and abnormal ultrasound, however, gave a much higher positive predictive value (46%) for significant chromosomal abnormalities.Our findings suggest that in women at high risk for fetal chromosomal abnormality, a short fetal EL measurement on prenatal ultrasound, either alone or in combination with other sonographically detectable structural abnormalities, may be a useful parameter in predicting fetal aneuploidy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174123500004

    View details for PubMedID 11876803

  • Decreased amniotic fluid index in low-risk pregnancy JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE Kreiser, D., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Sorem, K. A., Chitkara, U., Holbrook, R. H., Druzin, M. L. 2001; 46 (8): 743-746


    To evaluate the perinatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by isolated decreased amniotic fluid volume (AFI) after 30 weeks' gestation (AFI < or = 5 or > 5 cm but < 2.5th percentile).We retrospectively studied 150 low-risk singleton pregnancies > 30 weeks' gestation with decreased AFI. We also compared the outcomes of 57 pregnancies with AFI < or = 5 cm to those of 93 pregnancies with AFI > 5 cm but < 2.5th percentile (borderline AFI). Pregnancy outcome was assessed with respect to antepartum, intrapartum and neonatal measures. Statistical significance (P < .05) between groups was determined by means of the Student t test and chi 2 analysis.There were no statistically significant differences between pregnancies with AFI < or = 5 cm and those with AFI > 5 cm but < 2.5th percentile with respect to labor induction for an abnormal nonstress test (7.0% vs. 7.5%, overall 7.3%), cesarean sections for fetal heart rate abnormalities (7.0% vs. 7.5%, overall 7.3%), presence of meconium (16.1% vs. 15.7%, overall 16%) and Apgar score < 7 at five minutes (0 vs. 1.1%, overall 0.66%). There were no perinatal deaths in either group. Antepartum variable decelerations were more common in pregnancies with AFI < or = 5 cm as compared to those with AFI > 5 cm but < 2.5th percentile (63.1% vs. 45.1%, P = .007; overall 53.3%).With antepartum monitoring, perinatal outcome in low-risk pregnancies with an isolated decreased AFI after 30 weeks' gestation (< or = 5 or > 5 cm but < 2.5th percentile) appears to be good.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170694100009

    View details for PubMedID 11547649

  • Mask induction with sevoflurane in a parturient with severe tracheal stenosis ANESTHESIOLOGY Ratner, E. F., Cohen, S. E., El Sayed, Y., Druzin, M. 2001; 95 (2): 553-555

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170237800040

    View details for PubMedID 11506134

  • Cost-effectiveness of a trial of labor after previous cesarean OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Chung, A., Macario, A., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Riley, E. T., Duncan, B., Druzin, M. L. 2001; 97 (6): 932-941


    To determine the cost-effective method of delivery, from society's perspective, in patients who have had a previous cesarean.We completed an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis of a trial of labor relative to cesarean using a computerized model for a hypothetical 30-year old parturient. The model incorporated data from peer-reviewed studies, actual hospital costs, and utilities to quantify health-related quality of life. A threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years was used to define cost-effective.The model was most sensitive to the probability of successful vaginal delivery. If the probability of successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) was less than 0.65, elective repeat cesarean was both less costly and more effective than a trial of labor. Between 0.65 and 0.74, elective repeat cesarean was cost-effective (the cost-effectiveness ratio was less than $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years), because, although it cost more than VBAC, it was offset by improved outcomes. Between 0.74 and 0.76, trial of labor was cost-effective. If the probability of successful vaginal delivery exceeded 0.76, trial of labor became less costly and more effective. Costs associated with a moderately morbid neonatal outcome, as well as the probabilities of infant morbidity occurring, heavily impacted our results.The cost-effectiveness of VBAC depends on the likelihood of successful trial of labor. Our modeling suggests that a trial of labor is cost-effective if the probability of successful vaginal delivery is greater than 0.74. Improved algorithms are needed to more precisely estimate the likelihood that a patient with a previous cesarean will have a successful vaginal delivery.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169206300013

    View details for PubMedID 11384699

  • Ultrasonographic ear length measurement in normal second-and third-trimester fetuses AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Chitkara, U., Lee, L., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Holbrook, R. H., Bloch, D. K., Oehlert, J. W., Druzin, M. L. 2000; 183 (1): 230-234


    We sought to develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements from a large population of healthy second- and third-trimester fetuses and to investigate the correlation of fetal ear length with other standard fetal biometry measurements, as follows: biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, and humerus length.Ear length measurement was obtained prospectively in 4240 singleton fetuses between 15 and 40 weeks' gestational age. Either complete data for normal karyotype on amniocentesis or normal infant examination at birth or both were available in 2583 cases. These constituted the final study population.A nomogram was developed by linearly regressing ear length on gestational age (Ear length [in millimeters] = 1.076 x Gestational age [in weeks] - 7. 308). There was a high correlation between ear length and gestational age (r = 0.96; P =.0001).The results of this study provide normative data on growth of fetal ear length from 15 to 40 weeks' gestation. Good correlation was also observed between ear length and other fetal biometric measurements (biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, and humerus length).

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088565500039

    View details for PubMedID 10920337

  • The dynamics of glomerular filtration after caesarean section JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Lafayette, R. A., Malik, T., Druzin, M., Derby, G., Myers, B. D. 1999; 10 (7): 1561-1565


    The objective of this study was to determine whether the glomerular hyperfiltration of pregnancy is maintained even after Caesarean section and, if so, to define the responsible hemodynamics. The dynamics of glomerular filtration were evaluated in 12 healthy women who had just completed an uncomplicated pregnancy and were delivered by Caesarean section. Age-matched but non-gravid female volunteers (n = 22) served as control subjects. GFR in postpartum women was elevated above control values by 41%; 149+/-10 versus 106+/-3 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively (P < 0.001). In contrast, corresponding renal plasma flow was the same in the two groups, such that the postpartum filtration fraction was significantly elevated by 20%. Computation of glomerular intracapillary oncotic pressure (piGC) from knowledge of plasma oncotic pressure and the filtration fraction revealed this quantity to be significantly reduced in postpartum women, 20.6+/-1.7 versus 26.1+/-2.0 mmHg in control subjects (P < 0.001). A theoretical analysis of glomerular ultrafiltration suggests that depression of piGC, the force opposing the formation of filtrate, is predominantly or uniquely responsible for the observed postpartum hyperfiltration.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081143900017

    View details for PubMedID 10405212

  • Risk factors for early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: Estimation of odds ratios by critical literature review PEDIATRICS Benitz, W. E., Gould, J. B., Druzin, M. L. 1999; 103 (6)


    To identify and to establish the prevalence of ORs factors associated with increased risk for early-onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) infection in neonates. streptococcal (EOGBS) infection in neonates.Literature review and reanalysis of published data.Risk factors for EOGBS infection include group B streptococcal (GBS)-positive vaginal culture at delivery (OR: 204), GBS-positive rectovaginal culture at 28 (OR: 9.64) or 36 weeks gestation (OR: 26. 7), vaginal Strep B OIA test positive at delivery (OR: 15.4), birth weight 18 hours (OR: 7.28), intrapartum fever >37.5 degrees C (OR: 4.05), intrapartum fever, PROM, or prematurity (OR: 9.74), intrapartum fever or PROM at term (OR: 11.5), chorioamnionitis (OR: 6.43). Chorioamnionitis is reported in most (88%) cases in which neonatal infection occurred despite intrapartum maternal antibiotic therapy. ORs could not be estimated for maternal GBS bacteriuria during pregnancy, with preterm premature rupture of membranes, or with a sibling or twin with invasive GBS disease, but these findings seem to be associated with a very high risk. Multiple gestation is not an independent risk factor for GBS infection.h Mothers with GBS bacteriuria during pregnancy, with another child with GBS disease, or with chorioamnionitis should receive empirical intrapartum antibiotic treatment. Their infants should have complete diagnostic evaluations and receive empirical treatment until infection is excluded by observation and negative cultures because of their particularly high risk for EOGBS infection. Either screening with cultures at 28 weeks gestation or identification of clinical risk factors, ie, PROM, intrapartum fever, or prematurity, may identify parturients whose infants include 65% of those with EOGBS infection. Intrapartum screening using the Strep B OIA rapid test identifies more at-risk infants (75%) than any other method. These risk identifiers may permit judicious selection of patients for prophylactic interventions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080613400006

    View details for PubMedID 10353974

  • Antimicrobial prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: Estimates of risk reduction based on a critical literature review PEDIATRICS Benitz, W. E., Gould, J. B., Druzin, M. L. 1999; 103 (6)


    To identify interventions that reduce the attack rate for early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis in neonates.Literature review and reanalysis of published data.The rate of early-onset GBS sepsis in high-risk neonates can be reduced by administration of antibiotics. Treatment during pregnancy (antepartum prophylaxis) fails to reduce maternal GBS colonization at delivery. With the administration of intravenous ampicillin, the risk of early-onset infection in infants born to women with preterm premature rupture of membranes is reduced by 56% and the risk of GBS infection is reduced by 36%; addition of gentamicin may increase the efficacy of ampicillin. Treatment of women with chorioamnionitis with ampicillin and gentamicin during labor reduces the likelihood of neonatal sepsis by 82% and reduces the likelihood of GBS infection by 86%. Universal administration of penicillin to neonates shortly after birth (postpartum prophylaxis) reduces the early-onset GBS attack rate by 68% but is associated with a 40% increase in overall mortality and therefore is contraindicated. Intrapartum prophylaxis, alone or combined with postnatal prophylaxis for the infants, reduces the early-onset GBS attack rate by 80% or 95%, respectively.Women with chorioamnionitis or premature rupture of membranes and their infants should be treated with intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin. Intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis may be appropriate for other women whose infants are at increased but less extreme risk, and supplemental postpartum prophylaxis may be indicated for some of their infants. Selection of appropriate candidates and prophylaxis strategies requires careful consideration of costs and benefits for each patient. group B streptococcus, neonatal sepsis, early-onset sepsis, prevention, prophylaxis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080613400007

    View details for PubMedID 10353975

  • Preventing early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: Strategy development using decision analysis PEDIATRICS Benitz, W. E., Gould, J. B., Druzin, M. L. 1999; 103 (6)


    To evaluate recommended strategies for prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal infections (EOGBS) with reference to strategies optimized using decision analysis.The EOGBS attack rate, prevalence and odds ratios for risk factors, and expected effects of prophylaxis were estimated from published data. Population subgroups were defined by gestational age, presence or absence of intrapartum fever or prolonged rupture of membranes, and presence or absence of maternal group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization. The EOGBS prevalence in each subgroup was estimated using decision analysis. The number of EOGBS cases prevented by an intervention was estimated as the product of the expected reduction in attack rate and the number of expected cases in each group selected for treatment. For each strategy, the number of residual EOGBS cases, cost, and numbers of treated patients were calculated based on the composition of the prophylaxis group. Integrated obstetrical-neonatal strategies for EOGBS prevention were developed by targeting the subgroups expected to benefit most from intervention.Reductions in EOGBS rates predicted by this decision analysis were smaller than those previously estimated for the strategies proposed by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1992 (32.9% vs 90.7%), the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in 1992 (53.8% vs 88.8%), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1996 (75.1% vs 86.0%). Strategies based on screening for GBS colonization with rectovaginal cultures at 36 weeks or on use of a rapid test to screen for GBS colonization on presentation for delivery, combining intrapartum prophylaxis for selected mothers and postpartum prophylaxis for some of their infants, would require treatment of fewer patients and prevent more cases (78.4% or 80.1%, respectively) at lower cost.No strategy can prevent all EOGBS cases, but the attack rate can be reduced at a cost <$12 000 per prevented case. Supplementing intrapartum prophylaxis with postpartum ampicillin in a few infants is more effective and less costly than providing intrapartum prophylaxis for more mothers. Better intrapartum screening tests offer the greatest promise for increasing efficacy. Integrated obstetrical and neonatal regimens appropriate to the population served should be adopted by each obstetrical service. Surveillance of costs, complications, and benefits will be essential to guide continued iterative improvement of these strategies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080613400005

    View details for PubMedID 10353973

  • Randomized comparison of intravenous nitroglycerin and magnesium sulfate for treatment of preterm labor OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY El-Sayed, Y. Y., Riley, E. T., Holbrook, R. H., Cohen, S. E., Chitkara, U., Druzin, M. L. 1999; 93 (1): 79-83


    To compare the safety and efficacy of high-dose intravenous (IV) nitroglycerin with those of IV magnesium sulfate for acute tocolysis of preterm labor.Thirty-one women with preterm labor before 35 weeks' gestation were assigned randomly to IV magnesium sulfate or IV nitroglycerin for tocolysis. Preterm labor was defined as the occurrence of at least two contractions in 10 minutes, with cervical change or ruptured membranes. Acute tocolysis was defined as tocolysis for up to 48 hours. Magnesium sulfate was administered as a 4-g bolus, then at a rate of 2-4 g/h. Nitroglycerin was administered as a 100-microg bolus, then at a rate of 1- to 10-microg/kg/min. The primary outcome measure was achievement of at least 12 hours of successful tocolysis.Thirty patients were available for analysis. There were no significant differences in gestational age, cervical dilation, or incidence of ruptured membranes between groups at the initiation of tocolysis. Successful tocolysis was achieved in six of 16 patients receiving nitroglycerin, compared with 11 of 14 receiving magnesium sulfate (37.5 versus 78.6%, P = .033). Tocolytic failures (nitroglycerin versus magnesium sulfate) were due to persistent contractions with cervical change or rupture of previously intact membranes (five of 16 versus two of 14), persistent hypotension (four of 16 versus none of 14), and other severe side effects (one of 16 versus one of 14). Maternal hemodynamic alterations were more pronounced in patients who received nitroglycerin, and 25% of patients assigned to nitroglycerin treatment had hypotension requiring discontinuation of therapy.Tocolytic failures were more common with nitroglycerin than with magnesium sulfate. The hemodynamic alterations noted in patients receiving nitroglycerin, including a 25% incidence of persistent hypotension, might limit the usefulness of IV nitroglycerin for the acute tocolysis of preterm labor.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077885200017

    View details for PubMedID 9916961

  • A new therapeutic approach to the fetus with congenital complete heart block: Preemptive, targeted therapy with dexamethasone OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Rosenthal, D., Druzin, M., Chin, C., Dubin, A. 1998; 92 (4): 689-691


    Therapy of established congenital complete heart block in the fetus has resulted in improved survival but persistence of heart block. This exposes the infant to the morbidity of heart block, including the risk of sudden death and pacemaker implantation.A 35-year-old gravida 2, para 1, with Sjogren syndrome and a previous pregnancy complicated by congenital complete heart block presented during her second pregnancy. Intensive fetal monitoring with echocardiography was employed. Early evidence of myocardial dysfunction and dysrhythmia was found, dexamethasone therapy was initiated, and the dysfunction and dysrhythmia resolved. The pregnancy went to term without further complication.This represents a new and successful strategy to identify very early signs of myocardial disease in a fetus at high risk of congenital complete heart block, enabling targeted, preemptive therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076159900022

    View details for PubMedID 9764666

  • Nature of glomerular dysfunction in pre-eclampsia KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Lafayette, R. A., Druzin, M., Sibley, R., Derby, G., Malik, T., Huie, P., Polhemus, C., Deen, W. M., Myers, B. D. 1998; 54 (4): 1240-1249


    Pre-eclampsia is characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema. Simultaneous studies of kidney function and structure have not been reported. We wished to explore the degree and nature of glomerular dysfunction in pre-eclampsia.Physiologic techniques were used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow and afferent oncotic pressure immediately after delivery in consecutive patients with pre-eclampsia (PET; N = 13). Healthy mothers completing an uncomplicated pregnancy served as functional controls (N = 12). A morphometric analysis of glomeruli obtained by biopsy and mathematical modeling were used to estimate the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient (Kf). Glomeruli from healthy female kidney transplant donors served as structural controls (N = 8).The GFR in PET was depressed below the control level, 91 +/- 23 versus 149 +/- 34 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively (P < 0.0001). In contrast, renal plasma flow and oncotic pressure were similar in the two groups (P = NS). A reduction in the density and size of endothelial fenestrae and subendothelial accumulation of fibrinoid deposits lowered glomerular hydraulic permeability in PET compared to controls, 1.81 versus 2.58 x 10(-9) m/sec/PA. Mesangial cell interposition also curtailed effective filtration surface area. Together, these changes lowered the computed single nephron Kf in PET below control, 4.26 versus 6.78 nl/min x mm Hg, respectively.The proportionate (approximately 40%) depression of Kf for single nephrons and GFR suggests that hypofiltration in PET does not have a hemodynamic basis, but is a consequence of structural changes that lead to impairment of intrinsic glomerular ultrafiltration capacity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076096900022

    View details for PubMedID 9767540

  • Analysis of prenatal and gestational care given to women with epilepsy NEUROLOGY Seale, C. G., Morrell, M. J., Nelson, L., Druzin, M. L. 1998; 51 (4): 1039-1045


    To assess past care practices of neurologists and obstetricians to identify areas in which practice patterns differ from currently accepted optimal care.Retrospective chart review of 155 women identified as having a diagnosis of epilepsy (or seizure disorder) who had been pregnant any time between January 1988 and December 1995 and were admitted to Stanford University Hospital for delivery. A total of 161 pregnancies (132 women) were selected for study.An obstetrician was seen at some point during the pregnancy in 99% of the pregnancies, whereas a neurologist was seen at least once in only 64% of the pregnancies. In the 3 months before conception, an obstetrician was seen in 5% of the pregnancies and a neurologist was seen in 15%. Seventy-five percent of the patients taking antiepileptic medication and 65% of the untreated patients had documentation of folate supplementation at any time during pregnancy. Vitamin K supplementation in the final month of pregnancy was documented for only 41% of those receiving antiepileptic drugs. In over one-third of the pregnancies the mother did not have a maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein measure documented and a similar percentage did not receive genetic counseling. Monitoring of the maternal serum concentration of the non-protein-bound fraction of the prescribed antiepileptic drugs was not documented.We identified specific omissions of appropriate vitamin supplementation, genetic counseling, and drug level monitoring. Educational efforts should be targeted to improve the management of pregnancy in women with epilepsy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076399100024

    View details for PubMedID 9781526

  • Diltiazem for maintenance tocolysis of preterm labor: comparison to nifedipine in a randomized trial. The Journal of maternal-fetal medicine El-Sayed, Y. Y., Holbrook, R. H., Gibson, R., Chitkara, U., Druzin, M. L., Baba, D. 1998; 7 (5): 217-221


    The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of maintenance tocolysis with oral diltiazem to oral nifedipine in achieving 37 weeks gestation. After successful intravenous tocolysis with magnesium sulfate, 69 women with preterm labor at <35 weeks gestation were randomly assigned to nifedipine (20 mg orally every 4-6 hr), or diltiazem (30-60 mg orally every 4-6 hr). The primary outcome was the percentage of patients achieving 37 weeks gestation. Maternal cardiovascular alterations and neonatal outcomes were also assessed. Sixty-nine patients were available for final analysis. Less patients on diltiazem as compared to nifedipine achieved 37 weeks (15.1% vs. 41.7%, P = 0.019). Gestational age at delivery was also less for patients receiving diltiazem (35.5 +/- 3.5 weeks vs. 33.4 +/- 3.9 weeks, P = 0.022). There were fewer days gained in utero from randomization to delivery with diltiazem as compared to nifedipine; however, this difference was not statistically significant (22.4 +/- 16.3 days vs. 31.2 +/- 24.4 days, P = 0.084). Maternal blood pressure and pulse during tocolysis did not differ significantly between groups. Despite the theoretical advantages of diltiazem tocolysis, maintenance tocolysis with diltiazem offered no benefit over nifedipine in achieving 37 weeks gestation. The cardiovascular alterations with either drug in normotensive, pregnant patients appear minimal.

    View details for PubMedID 9775988

  • Obstetric complications in pulmonary and critical care medicine CHEST Rizk, N. W., Kalassian, K. G., Gilligan, T., DRUZIN, M. I., Daniel, D. L. 1996; 110 (3): 791-809

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VG59000039

    View details for PubMedID 8797428

  • Case report: Aa patient with severe CNS lupus during pregnancy ANNALES DE MEDECINE INTERNE KUZIS, C. S., Druzin, M. L., Lambert, R. E. 1996; 147 (4): 274-275

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VH51400007

    View details for PubMedID 8952747

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy ANNALES DE MEDECINE INTERNE Druzin, M. L., VANVOLLENHOVEN, R. F. 1996; 147 (4): 265-273


    SLE is an autoimmune condition primarily affecting females in their reproductive years. Advances in medical management of SLE, improved understanding of pregnancy complications and the improvement in neontal medicine have allowed females with SLE to have successful pregnancies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VH51400006

    View details for PubMedID 8952746

  • PREGNANCY COMPLICATED BY PRIMARY ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODY SYNDROME OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Hochfeld, M., Druzin, M. L., Maia, D., Wright, J., Lambert, R. E., McGuire, J. 1994; 83 (5): 804-805


    Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a clinical entity that may threaten the health of both fetus and mother.We report a fatal case of primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in a woman who developed catastrophic disease due to multisystem thrombosis in the postpartum period following a fetal death. Three years before her admission, primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of high titers of immunoglobulin G anticardiolipin antibody, a positive lupus anticoagulant, a false-positive VDRL, and fibrin deposits in the biopsy of a palmar lesion.The physician must recognize the potentially catastrophic complications of pregnancy and the postpartum period in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies, and appropriate patient counseling should be provided.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NJ17600001

    View details for PubMedID 8159355

  • SHOULD ALL PREGNANT PATIENTS BE OFFERED PRENATAL-DIAGNOSIS REGARDLESS OF AGE OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Druzin, M. L., Chervenak, F., McCullough, L. B., Blatman, R. N., Neidich, J. A. 1993; 81 (4): 615-618


    To assess the acceptance of prenatal genetic diagnosis by patients younger than 35 years old who are therefore not yet at great risk for non-disjunction trisomies based on maternal age.The patients were counseled regarding the following: 1) the age-related risk of chromosomal abnormalities, 2) the procedure-related risk of fetal loss, 3) clinical implications of chromosomal abnormalities, 4) the need for complete counseling by a certified genetic counselor, and 5) the patient expense of $600-1200 if third-party reimbursement was not available. Patients were recruited from the private practice of the senior author at the New York Hospital--Cornell Medical Center. Five hundred ninety-one patients were offered prenatal genetic diagnosis. The outcome measure was the patient's decision to undergo prenatal diagnosis even though the risk of a non-disjunction trisomy was expected to be low based on maternal age. Amniocentesis was performed in 128 patients and chorionic villus sampling in five.One hundred thirty-three patients (22.5%) chose prenatal diagnosis. Karyotype was obtained in 131 procedures, but two were unsuccessful. One of the 131 karyotypes was abnormal and the patient chose to terminate the pregnancy.The data showed the following: 1) Inappropriate influence of patients by the health provider was not evident; 2) routine offering of genetic diagnosis enhanced the autonomy of pregnant women; 3) the potential increase in the loss of pregnancies that accompanies this practice is ethically justified; and 4) there are no compelling cost-benefit objections to such a practice.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KT96500029

    View details for PubMedID 8459978



    Eight hundred and nineteen patients were evaluated at greater than or equal to 280 days' gestation. All patients underwent nonstress test (NST) and breast stimulation to induce contraction stress test (CST), except where contraindicated. If CST was nonqualifying (less than three contractions per ten minutes), Pitocin (oxytocin) was used to complete the CST if there was a nonreactive NST. Delivery was instituted for any abnormal CST, even with a reactive NST, based on the last test within seven days of delivery. There were 747 reactive NST and 72 nonreactive NST. Breast stimulation for CST was done in 655 instances--315 (48 per cent) had nonqualifying CST and 340 (52 per cent) had qualifying CST. There was an increased incidence of induction in the nonqualifying CST group and abnormal CST group. There were no statistically significant differences in perinatal outcomes in the group with reactive NST, irrespective of the CST result. There were no antepartum fetal deaths.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HX30300010

    View details for PubMedID 1595028

  • Condition specific antepartum testing - Sytemic lupus erythematosus and associated serologic abnormaliities Am J Reprod Immun Druzin ML, Adams D, Edersheim T, Bond A, Kogut E. 1992
  • HYPOCALCIURIA IN PREECLAMPSIA NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE TAUFIELD, P. A., ALES, K. L., Resnick, L. M., Druzin, M. L., Gertner, J. M., Laragh, J. H. 1987; 316 (12): 715-718


    We studied 40 women in the third trimester of pregnancy to determine whether alterations in serum calcium levels or in urinary calcium excretion would distinguish patients with preeclampsia from normal pregnant women or women with other forms of gestational hypertension. Our population included 10 normal pregnant women, 5 pregnant women with transient hypertension, 6 with chronic hypertension, 7 with chronic hypertension and superimposed preeclampsia, and 12 with preeclampsia. The serum levels of ionized calcium, phosphate, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were not different among the various groups. In contrast, the mean (+/- SD) 24-hour urinary calcium excretion in the patients with preeclampsia or hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia was significantly lower (42 +/- 29 and 78 +/- 49 mg) than that in normal pregnant women (313 +/- 140 mg per 24 hours), women with transient hypertension (248 +/- 139 mg per 24 hours), or women with chronic hypertension (223 +/- 41 mg per 24 hours) (P less than 0.0001). The hypocalciuria in the women with preeclampsia was associated with a decreased fractional excretion of calcium. Although the mean creatinine clearance was reduced in the women with preeclampsia, the range of values overlapped with those in the other groups. In contrast, we observed little or no overlap with respect to calcium excretion. We conclude that preeclampsia is associated with hypocalciuria due to increased tubular reabsorption of calcium. Measurement of calcium excretion may be useful in distinguishing preeclampsia from other forms of gestational hypertension.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G405500004

    View details for PubMedID 3821810



    Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured in the late third trimester in 26 hypertensive pregnant women and correlated with their infants' birth weights. Seven pre-eclamptics, six chronic hypertensives and 13 chronic hypertensives with superimposed pre-eclampsia were studied. Plasma renin activity was lower in 13 mothers with small for gestational age (SGA) infants (5.2 +/- 0.89 ng/ml per h, compared with 13 mothers with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (16.65 +/- 2.37 ng/ml per h, P less than 0.001. The mean PRA was also lower in mothers with babies weighing less that 2500 g, regardless of gestational age, compared with 11 mothers with babies weighing more than 2500 g, (7.58 +/- 1.61 versus 15.86 +/- 2.73 ng/ml per h, P less than 0.050. Mean PRA was not significantly different in the different hypertensive groups, although women with chronic hypertension appeared to have lower PRA than pre-eclamptics. Our data suggest that in gestational hypertension, low PRA is associated with low infant birth weight, and that late third trimester PRA may therefore identify those at risk for poor fetal outcome.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986G629000031

    View details for PubMedID 3553491

Conference Proceedings

  • A longitudinal analysis of maternal serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total and nonphosphorylated IGF-binding protein-1 in human pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction Bhatia, S., Faessen, G. H., Carland, G., Balise, R. L., Gargosky, S. E., Druzin, M., El-Sayed, Y., Wilson, D. M., Giudice, L. C. ENDOCRINE SOC. 2002: 1864-1870


    In cord blood and late gestation maternal serum, IGF-I is positively correlated with birth weight, whereas IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) is inversely correlated with birth weight. Our goal was to determine whether maternal serum or amniotic fluid concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, or nonphosphorylated IGFBP-1 (npIGFBP-1) in early gestation predict later fetal growth abnormalities. Maternal serum was collected prospectively across gestation (5-40 wk) from 749 pregnant subjects. Amniotic fluid was collected after amniocentesis during wk 15-26 from 207 subjects. We compared median serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, and npIGFBP-1 in 38 subjects who delivered growth-restricted infants with the control group of 236 subjects with normal weight infants for each gestational age grouping, wk 5-12, 13-23, and 24-34. In the control group median IGF-I concentrations were 14.8, 11, and 15.6 nmol/liter for wk 5-12, 13-23, and 24-34, respectively, compared with 13.7, 14.3, and 10.6 nmol/liter in the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) group. Median IGFBP-1 concentrations were 8.5, 30.4, and 24.4 nmol/liter, respectively, in controls, compared with 11.4, 28.6, and 25.5 nmol/liter in the IUGR group. Median npIGFBP-1 concentrations were 6.9, 22, and 17.4 nmol/liter, respectively, in controls, compared with 5.0, 32.1, and 24.2 nmol/liter in the IUGR group. In the control group the median amniotic fluid IGFBP-1 level was 13,160 nmol/liter, and the median npIGFBP-1 level was 15,970 nmol/liter; in the IUGR group these levels were 13,440 and 18,440 nmol/liter, respectively. No clinically useful differences were found between the IUGR and control groups. Our results do not support the use of maternal serum IGF-I or IGFBP-1 or amniotic fluid IGFBP-1 or npIGFBP-1 early in gestation to predict later fetal growth restriction.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174963100066

    View details for PubMedID 11932331

  • Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 at the maternal-fetal interface and insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-II, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in the circulation of women with severe preeclampsia Giudice, L. C., Martina, N. A., CRYSTAL, R. A., Tazuke, S., Druzin, M. MOSBY-YEAR BOOK INC. 1997: 751-757


    Preeclampsia is characterized by maternal hypertension, proteinuria, edema, and shallow placental invasion. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, abundant in maternal decidua, is believed to play a role in limiting trophoblast invasiveness. In this study we addressed the hypothesis that this binding protein is aberrantly expressed in preeclampsia. We also investigated circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-II in subjects with severe preeclampsia compared with controls.Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 was investigated by immunohistochemistry at the maternal-fetal interface of eight pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia and six controls between 21 and 34 weeks of gestation. Cell types were identified with use of cell-specific markers. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin-like growth factor-II in 16 patients with severe preeclampsia and 29 controls at the same gestational age were determined by an immunoradiometric assay and correlated with clinical parameters. Data were analyzed by t test and Pearson's method.Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 was highly expressed on syncytiotrophoblasts, cytotrophoblasts, and decidual cells but not on placental fibroblasts. Immunostaining was greater at the maternal-fetal interface in severe preeclamptic patients compared with controls. Circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels in subjects with severe preeclampsia were 428.3 +/- 85.9 ng/ml compared with 76.6 +/- 11.8 in controls (p = 0.0007). Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I levels were 80.9 +/- 17.2 ng/ml compared with 179.4 +/- 28.2 ng/ml in controls (p = 0.0001). In contrast, insulin-like growth factor-II levels were not significantly different in the two groups. In subjects with severe preeclampsia insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels correlated with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.498, p 0.049) and aspartate transcarbamylase (0.621, p = 0.010).The abundance of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 at the maternal-fetal interface in severely preeclamptic pregnancies suggests that the binding protein may participate in the pathogenesis of the shallow placental invasion observed in this disorder. Low circulating insulin-like growth factor-I and elevated insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels may contribute to restricted placental and therefore fetal growth.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WV55500007

    View details for PubMedID 9125598

  • ABNORMAL 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN-D METABOLISM IN PREECLAMPSIA August, P., MARCACCIO, B., Gertner, J. M., Druzin, M. L., Resnick, L. M., Laragh, J. H. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 1992: 1295-1299


    We previously reported that preeclampsia is associated with hypocalciuria (N Engl J Med 1987; 316:715). The purpose of this study was to determine whether alterations in calcium regulatory hormones are present in preeclampsia and, if so, whether they are responsible for hypocalciuria. Thirty-two pregnant women were studied in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (11 women with preeclampsia, nine with chronic hypertension, and 12 normotensive women). 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D, C-terminal parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium, and urinary calcium excretion were measured. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D was significantly lower in the women with preeclampsia in the third trimester when the disease developed (37.8 +/- 15 pg/ml) than in women with chronic hypertension (75 +/- 15 pg/ml, p less than 0.05) and normal women (65 +/- 10 pg/ml, p less than 0.05). Parathyroid hormone was higher, but not significantly, in those with preeclampsia. Ionized calcium was not significantly different among the three groups. Urinary calcium excretion was abnormally low for pregnancy (less than 50 mg/24 hr) in all but one women with preeclampsia. We conclude that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is reduced in preeclampsia and may lead to hypocalciuria by causing decreased intestinal absorption of calcium, stimulation of parathyroid hormone, and increased distal renal tubular resorption of calcium. The cause of reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in preeclampsia is unknown and may be due to either diminished renal or placental production of the hormone.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HP86900037

    View details for PubMedID 1566788

Stanford Medicine Resources: