Professor Emeritus, Biology
We purified from pea (Pisum sativum) tissue an approximately 40 kDa reversibly glycosylated polypeptide (RGP1) that can be glycosylated by UDP-Glc, UDP-Xyl, or UDP-Gal, and isolated a cDNA encoding it, apparently derived from a single-copy gene (Rgp1). Its predicted translation product has 364 aminoacyl residues and molecular mass of 41.5 kDa. RGP1 appears to be a membrane-peripheral protein. Immunogold labeling localizes it specifically to trans-Golgi dictyosomal cisternae. Along with other evidence, this suggests that RGP1 is involved in synthesis of xyloglucan and possibly other hemicelluloses. Corn (Zea mays) contains a biochemically similar and structurally homologous RGP1, which has been thought (it now seems mistakenly) to function in starch synthesis. The expressed sequence database also reveals close homologs of pea Rgp1 in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa). Rice possesses, in addition, a distinct but homologous sequence (Rgp2). RGP1 provides a polypeptide marker for Golgi membranes that should be useful in plant membrane studies.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XJ87600100
View details for PubMedID 9207152
From pea plasma membranes isolated by aqueous polymer two-phase partitioning we have purified 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase [glucan synthase-II (GS-II) or callose synthase], an enzyme that several reports have suggested consists of between six and nine different subunits. The procedure involves (a) preliminary removal of peripheral proteins by 0.1% digitonin; (b) solubilization of GS-II with 0.5% digitonin; (c) precipitation of activity-irrelevant proteins from the digitonin extract by Ca2+, spermine and cellobiose, which are GS-II effectors needed in step (d); (d) product entrapment by formation of 1,3-beta-D-glucan from UDP-Glc by GS-II in the presence of the mentioned effectors, followed by centrifugal sedimentation of product micelles and elution of proteins therefrom with buffer; (e) preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF) of product-entrapped proteins; and (f) glycerol gradient centrifugation of the fractions of peak GS-II activity from IEF. The procedure yields 300-fold enrichment of GS-II specific activity over that in isolated plasma membranes, and 5500-fold over that in the original homogenate. Out of approximately six principal polypeptides that occur after the product entrapment step, the glycerol gradient GS-II activity peak contains only two major polypeptides, one of 55 kDa and another of 70 kDa, plus minor amounts of one or two others whose distribution and occurrence indicate are not responsible for GS-II activity. Antisera against either the 55-kDa or the 70-kDa polypeptide adsorb more than 60% of the GS-II activity from a product-entrapped preparation. After native gel electrophoresis, GS-II activity is associated with a single protein band of very large molecular mass, whose principal components are the 55-kDa and 70-kDa polypeptides, accompanied by minor amounts of a few other polypeptides most of which do not occur in enzyme preparations purified by the previously described procedure. The 55-kDa but not the 70-kDa component can be labeled by ultraviolet irradiation of the plasma membranes in the presence of [alpha-32P]UDP-Glc under GS-II assay conditions. It seems likely, therefore, that the 55-kDa and 70-kDa polypeptides form a large catalytic complex of which the 55-kDa component is the UDP-Glc-binding subunit.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NB53000033
View details for PubMedID 8143748
Relative molecular size distributions of pectic and hemicellulosic polysaccharides of pea (Pisum sativum cv Alaska) third internode primary walls were determined by gel filtration chromatography. Pectic polyuronides have a peak molecular mass of about 1100 kilodaltons, relative to dextran standards. This peak may be partly an aggregate of smaller molecular units, because demonstrable aggregation occurred when samples were concentrated by evaporation. About 86% of the neutral sugars (mostly arabinose and galactose) in the pectin cofractionate with polyuronide in gel filtration chromatography and diethylaminoethyl-cellulose chromatography and appear to be attached covalently to polyuronide chains, probably as constituents of rhamnogalacturonans. However, at least 60% of the wall's arabinan/galactan is not linked covalently to the bulk of its rhamnogalacturonan, either glycosidically or by ester links, but occurs in the hemicellulose fraction, accompanied by negligible uronic acid, and has a peak molecular mass of about 1000 kilodaltons. Xyloglucan, the other principal hemicellulosic polymer, has a peak molecular mass of about 30 kilodaltons (with a secondary, usually minor, peak of approximately 300 kilodaltons) and is mostly not linked glycosidically either to pectic polyuronides or to arabinogalactan. The relatively narrow molecular mass distributions of these polymers suggest mechanisms of co- or postsynthetic control of hemicellulose chain length by the cell. Although the macromolecular features of the mentioned polymers individually agree generally with those shown in the widely disseminated sycamore cell primary wall model, the matrix polymers seem to be associated mostly noncovalently rather than in the covalently interlinked meshwork postulated by that model. Xyloglucan and arabinan/galactan may form tightly and more loosely bound layers, respectively, around the cellulose microfibrils, the outer layer interacting with pectic rhamnogalacturonans that occupy interstices between the hemicellulose-coated microfibrils.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992HC42800051
View details for PubMedID 16668637
Effects of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and of turgor changes on the apparent molecular mass (M(r)) distributions of cell wall matrix polysaccharides from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyl segments were determined by gel filtration chromatography. IAA causes a two- to threefold decline in the peak M(r) of xyloglucan, relative to minus-auxin controls, to occur within 0.5 hour. IAA causes an even larger decrease in the peak M(r) concurrently biosynthesized xyloglucan, as determined by [(3)H]fucose labeling, but this effect begins only after 1 hour. In contrast, IAA does not appreciably affect the M(r) distributions of pectic polyuronides or hemicellulosic arabinose/galactose polysaccharides within 1.5 hours. However, after epicotyl segments are cut, their peak polyuronide M(r) increases and later decreases, possibly as part of a wound response. Xyloglucan also undergoes IAA-independent changes in its M(r) distribution after cutting segments. In addition, the peak M(r) of newly deposited xyloglucan increases from about 9 kilodaltons shortly after deposition to about 30 kilodaltons within 0.5 hour. This may represent a process of integration into the cell wall. A step increase in turgor causes the peak M(r) of previously deposited xyloglucan (but not of the other major polymers) to increase about 10-fold within 0.5 hour, returning to its initial value by 1.5 hours. This upshift may comprise a feedback mechanism that decreases wall extensibility when the rate of wall extension suddenly increases. IAA-induced reduction of xyloglucan M(r) might cause wall loosening that leads to cell enlargement, as has been suggested previously, but the lack of a simple relation between xyloglucan M(r) and elongation rate indicates that loosening must also involve other wall factors, one of which might be the deposition of new xyloglucan of much smaller size. Although the M(r) shifts in polyuronides may represent changes in noncovalent association, and for xyloglucan this cannot be completely excluded, xyloglucan seems to participate in a dynamic process that can both decrease and increase its chain length, possible mechanisms for which are suggested.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992HC42800052
View details for PubMedID 16668638
In pea membranes, UDP[14C]Glc glycosylates a approximately 40-kDa polypeptide doublet. This label rapidly disappears if excess unlabeled UDP-Glc, or UDP, is added, indicating that the glycosylation is reversible, and suggesting that the glycosylated polypeptides might be intermediates in a glycosyl transfer reaction. Glycosylation of the doublet requires a divalent cation, the effective ions being the same (except for Zn2+) as those that activate Golgi-localized beta-glucan synthase (GS-I) activity. Treatments that inhibit GS-I also inhibit doublet glycosylation. The doublet is associated with Golgi (and to a minor extent with plasma) membranes and occurs also in the soluble fraction. The Golgi-bound doublet may be a component of the GS-I system. Immunological, inactivation, and fractionation evidence indicates that at least one other polypeptide is required in GS-I activity.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991GP80400098
View details for PubMedID 1834664
Detergent-solubilized plasma membrane proteins from pea (Pisum sativum L.) stem tissue were separated by isoelectric focusing (IEF) using a Bio-Rad Rotofor cell, with the goal of identifying protein(s) involved in beta-1,3-glucan synthase (GS-II) activity. Ordinary IEF procedures result in membrane protein precipitation. Inclusion of 10% glycerol mitigates this problem in digitonin-solubilized preparations, but not in those solubilized in 3-[(-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. Loss of GS-II activity during IEF is minimized by improved cooling of the Rotofor cell. GS-II focuses at pH 5.1. Antiserum against a 55 kilodalton (kD) polypeptide that was recognized from other evidence as involved in GS-II activity, detects this polypeptide in exact correspondence with the GS-II activity peak. A presumptive P-type ATPase, detected using an antibody against corn root plasma membrane 97 kD ATPase, focuses at pH 5.3. In this digitonin/glycerol medium, most of the membrane proteins focus within the relatively narrow pH range of 4.5 to 6, compared to pH 5.5 to 8.5 for IEF in the presence of 9 molar urea, 2% Nonidet P-40 (NP-40), and 5% mercaptoethanol, a medium that inactivates GS-II. This latter medium increases the apparent isoelectric point (pl) values of the abovementioned 55 and 97 kD polypeptides to 5.8 and 7.3, respectively. In the digitonin/glycerol medium, membrane polypeptides apparently focus at pH values lower than their true pls, because of adhering negatively charged phospholipids, which can be at least partially removed by the detergent NP-40 in the presence of urea. These results provide independent evidence that the 55 kD polypeptide is associated with the GS-II activity and indicate that inclusion of urea and a strong nonionic detergent such as NP-40 is necessary if membrane proteins are to be focused at pH values near their true pls.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991FJ06700052
View details for PubMedID 16668130
By glycerol gradient centrifugation of a detergent-solubilized plasma membrane fraction from pea tissue, we find a polypeptide of 55 kDa that copurifies with beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity. An antiserum against this polypeptide adsorbs glucan synthase activity and the 55 kDa polypeptide from digitonin-solubilized plasma membrane. These results indicate that the 55 kDa polypeptide is involved in pea beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991EX38500036
View details for PubMedID 1825066
The epidermis has been considered the site of auxin action on elongation of stems and coleoptiles. To try to identify mRNAs that might mediate auxin stimulation of cell enlargement, we compared, using in vitro translation assays, mRNA enhancement by indoleacetic acid (IAA) in the epidermis, with that in the internal tissues, of pea (Pisum sativum L., cv Alaska) third internode segments. We used seedlings that had been grown under red light, which enables the epidermis to be peeled efficiently from the internode. Most of the ;early' IAA enhancements previously reported using etiolated peas, plus several hitherto undescribed enhancements, occur in both the epidermis and the internal tissue of the light-grown plants after 4 hours of IAA treatment. These enhancements, therefore, do not fulfill the expectation of elongation-specific mRNAs localized to the epidermis. One epidermis-specific IAA enhancement does occur, but begins only subsequent to 1 hour (but before 4 hours) of auxin treatment. Similarly, the previously mentioned IAA enhancements common to epidermis and internal tissue do not begin, in the light-grown plants, within 1 hour of IAA treatment. Since IAA stimulates elongation in light-grown internodes within 15 minutes, it appears that none of these mRNAs can be responsible for auxin induction of elongation. We confirmed, with our methods, the previous reports that some of these mRNAs are enhanced by IAA within 0.5 hour in etiolated internodes. This indicates that we could have detected an early enhancement in light-grown tissue had it occurred.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990DK14100012
View details for PubMedID 16667484
Irradiation of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings with white light affects two proteins, both of monomer molecular mass near 120 kDa. Both proteins have been detected in association with plasma membrane fractions. The first is identifiable in that it becomes heavily phosphorylated when the membranes are incubated with exogenous ATP. The second of these proteins is phytochrome, as determined by electrophoretic transfer (Western) blot analysis. Measurable phosphorylation and phytochrome (the latter detected by antigenicity) decline when the tissue is irradiated with white light prior to membrane isolation and in vitro phosphorylation. The phosphorylated protein is probably not phytochrome for three reasons. (i) It shows a slightly different distribution in sucrose gradients. (ii) Red light causes a gradual decline in the phytochrome that is associated with membrane fractions but has a negligible effect on the phosphorylatable protein; blue light, on the other hand, causes significantly slower loss of phytochrome than does red light but brings about a rapid decline in the phosphorylation signal. (iii) The molecular masses are not identical. The association of both proteins with membrane fractions is probably neither ionic nor, at least for the phosphorylatable protein, the consequence of entrapment of soluble proteins in vesicles formed during tissue extraction. Phytochrome is lost from the membrane fractions during irradiation, as judged by loss of antigenicity. Whether the phosphorylatable protein is lost, a specific kinase is lost, phosphatase activity increases, or phosphorylatable sites are blocked as a consequence of blue light treatment is not known.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q834100037
View details for PubMedID 16593988
Using (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we followed cytoplasmic and vacuolar pH in pea (Pisum sativum cv Alaska) internode segments during treatment with indoleacetic acid (IAA) or fusicoccin (FC) in continuously perfused, oxygenated buffer. Although IAA and FC induced normal H(+) extrusion, elongation, and glucan synthase activity responses during the measurements, neither the cytoplasmic nor the vacuolar pH showed significant change at any time between 5 minutes and 1 to 3 hours of treatment. Changes in cytoplasmic pH as small as about 0.04 pH unit were detected after treatment with 1-naphthyl acetate. Therefore, cytoplasmic pH changes do not appear to mediate IAA or FC stimulation of H(+) extrusion or other metabolic responses to these effectors.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988N466800041
View details for PubMedID 16666105
In pea stem segments whose cuticle has been made permeable by abrading it, actinomycin D (ActD) and 80S ribosomal protein synthesis inhibitors such as cycloheximide (CHI) inhibit enhancement by indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) of the activity of the cell wall biosynthetic enzyme, glucan synthase I (GS). This supersedes earlier, negative results with inhibitors, obtained with segments having an intact cuticle, which prevents adequate inhibitor uptake. Since these inhibitors also block IAA-stimulated H(+) extrusion, which according to earlier results is involved in the GS response, the significance of these inhibitions would be ambiguous without additional evidence. ActD does not inhibit fusicoccin (FC) enhancement of GS activity, which indicates existence of a post-transcriptional control mechanism for GS, but does not preclude involvement of transcription in the GS response to IAA. Although protein synthesis inhibitors such as CHI do not block FC-stimulated H(+) extrusion, they do inhibit FC enhancement of GS activity, indicating an involvement of protein synthesis in the GS response to FC, and presumably also to IAA. However, protein synthesis inhibitors (but not ActD) by themselves paradoxically elevate GS activity, less strongly than IAA does but resembling the IAA enhancement in several characteristics. These results suggest that IAA may enhance GS activity at least in part by inhibiting the synthesis or action of a labile repressor of the transcription of, or a labile destabilizer of, mRNA for GS or some polypeptide that enhances GS activity. However, resemblances between the IAA and FC effects on GS suggest that IAA also has a posttranscriptional GS-enhancing action like that of FC. Lipid biosynthesis may be involved in this aspect of the response since both IAA and FC enhancements of GS activity are inhibited by cerulenin.
View details for Web of Science ID A1987K590400038
View details for PubMedID 16665730
Fusicoccin (FC), like indoleacetic acid (IAA), causes Golgi-localized beta-1,4-glucan synthase (GS) activity to increase when applied to pea third internode segments whose GS activity has declined after isolation from the plant. This suggests that GS activity is modulated by H(+) extrusion; in agreement, vanadate and nigericin inhibit the GS response. The GS response is not due to acidification of the cell wall. Treatment of tissue with heavy water, which in effect raises intracellular pH, mimics the IAA/FC GS response. However, various treatments that tend to raise cytoplasmic pH directly, other than IAA- or FC-induced H(+) extrusion, failed to increase GS activity, suggesting that cytoplasmic pH is not the link between H(+) extrusion and increased GS activity. Although FC stimulates H(+) extrusion more strongly than IAA does, FC enhances GS activity at most only as much as, and often somewhat less than, IAA does. This and other observations indicate that GS enhancement is probably not due to membrane hyperpolarization, stimulated sugar uptake, or changes in ATP level, but leave open the possibility that GS is controlled by H(+) transport-driven changes in intracellular concentrations of ions other than H(+).
View details for Web of Science ID A1985AMN9000007
View details for PubMedID 16664267
(31)P-Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of perfused maize (Zea mays L., hybrid WW x Br 38) root tips, obtained at 10-minute intervals over 12 hours or longer, indicate that no cytoplasmic or vacuolar pH changes occur in these cells in the presence of 25 millimolar K(2)SO(4), which induces extrusion of 4 to 5 microequivalents H(+) per gram per hour. In contrast, hypoxia causes cytoplasmic acidification (0.3-0.6 pH unit) without a detectable change in vacuolar pH. The cytoplasm quickly returns to its original pH on reoxygenation. Dilute NH(4)OH increases the vacuolar pH more than it does the cytoplasmic pH; after NH(4)OH is removed, the vacuole recovers its original pH more slowly than does the cytoplasm. The results indicate that regulation of cytoplasmic pH and that of vacuolar pH in plant cells are separate processes.
View details for Web of Science ID A1982NV81600020
View details for PubMedID 16662399
Polyadenylylated mRNA from etiolated pea stem segments treated with or without 20 muM indoleacetic acid (IAA) for various periods of time was assayed by translating it in a wheat germ extract containing [(35)S]methionine and separating the translation products by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Within 2 hr IAA causes at least five mRNA sequences to increase in translational activity, relative to initial levels and to simultaneous controls; three of these rise significantly within 20 min after exposure of tissue to IAA but are apparently not elevated at 10 min, whereas the others begin to increase at successive times later than 30 min, and still others begin to change only later than 2 hr. These observations indicate an early, highly selective IAA regulation of mRNA amounts or activities, becoming progressively more extensive with time. The earliest detected enhancement seems close to the primary action of IAA but appears not to be rapid enough to be responsible for auxin induction of cell enlargement.
View details for Web of Science ID A1982MZ45200045
View details for PubMedID 16593146
When 3- to 4-day-old dark-grown maize (Zea mays L. WF9 x Bear 38) seedlings are given red light, auxin-binding activity localized on endoplasmic reticulum membranes of the mesocotyl begins to decrease after 4 hours; by 9 hours, it falls to 50 to 60% of that in dark controls, on either a fresh weight or total particulate protein basis. Endoplasmic reticulum-localized NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity decreases in parallel. Loss of binding is due to decrease in number of sites, with no change in their affinity for auxin (K(d) 0.2 micromolar for naphthalene-1-acetic acid). Elongation of mesocotyl segments in response to auxin decreases with a similar time course. Elongation of segments from irradiated plants shows the same apparent affinity for auxin as that of the dark controls. Auxin-binding activity and elongation response also decrease in parallel down the length of the mesocotyl. These observations are consistent with a role of endoplasmic reticulum-localized auxin binding sites as receptors for auxin action in cell elongation.
View details for Web of Science ID A1981MV20300024
View details for PubMedID 16662103
In an effort to detect a pH-dependent release of polymers such as xyloglucans, thought to be involved in auxin-induced cell wall expansion during growth, radioactively labeled cell walls from pea stem tissue were incubated at different pH values, and changes in water-soluble, ethanol- or trichloroacetic acid-insoluble components were determined. This revealed the occurrence, at neutral pH, of a time- and pH-dependent binding of soluble pectin, in the walls, to a heat-labile, presumably protein, wall component, yielding a trichloroacetic acid-insoluble pectin-protein complex. This reaction, which can also be observed between polymers in water extracts of cell walls, is inhibited at low pH and by Ca(2+), and appears to be of a physical, possibly lectin-like, nature. Progressive binding of pectin or of the pectin-protein complex to the insoluble wall structure is also observed. These reactions may be involved in wall assembly during its deposition, and may participate in, or be analogous to pH-dependent physical interactions that participate in, wall extension during cell growth.
View details for Web of Science ID A1981LY62800032
View details for PubMedID 16661862
When radioactive UDP-glucose is supplied to 1-millimeter-thick slices of pea (Pisum sativum) stem tissue, radioactive glucose becomes incorporated into membrane-bound polysaccharides. Evidence is given that this incorporation does not result from breakdown of UDP-glucose and utilization of the resultant free glucose, and that the incorporation most likely takes place at the cell surface, leading to a specific labeling of the plasma membrane. The properties of the plasma membrane that are indicated by this method of recognition, including the association of K(+)-stimulated ATPase activity with the plasma membrane, resemble properties inferred using other approaches. The membrane-associated polysaccharide product formed from UDP-glucose is largely 1,3-linked glucan, presumably callose, and does not behave as a precursor of cell wall polymers. No substantial amount of cellulose is formed from UDP-glucose in this procedure, even though these cells incorporate free glucose rapidly into cellulose. This synthetase system that uses external UDP-glucose may serve for formation of wound callose.
View details for Web of Science ID A1978EZ63500004
View details for PubMedID 16660373
Golgi dictyosomal membranes isolated from pea (Pisum sativum) stem tissue, using a combination of rate zonal and isopycnic sucrose density centrifugation, were shown to bear cytidine diphosphate-choline:diglyceride phosphorylcholinetransferase, CDP-ethanolamine:diglyceride phosphorylethanolaminetransferase, and CTP:phosphorylcholine cytidyltransferase activities. Although the majority of the activity of the phospholipid-synthesizing enzymes was associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, the activity found in the Golgi system was about 25% of the total activity. These results suggest that Golgi dictyosomes probably synthesize at least part of the membrane phospholipids that they may need for their secretory function and for dictyosomal proliferation during cell growth, rather than importing this material entirely from the endoplasmic reticulum.
View details for Web of Science ID A1977CW61600025
View details for PubMedID 16659822
Dissociation coefficients of auxin-binding sites on maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile membranes were measured, for 48 auxins and related ring compounds, by competitive displacement of (14)C-naphthaleneacetic acid from the binding sites. The sites bind with high affinity several ring compounds with acidic side chains 2 to 4 carbons long, and much more weakly bind neutral ring compounds and phenols related to these active acids, most phenoxyalkylcarboxylic acids, and arylcarboxylic acids except benzoic acid, which scarcely binds, and triiodobenzoic acids, which bind strongly. Specificity of the binding is narrowed in the presence of a low molecular weight "supernatant factor" that occurs in maize and other tissues. Activity of many of the analogs as auxin agonists or antagonists in the cell elongation response was determined with maize coleoptiles. These activities on the whole roughly parallel the affinities of the binding sites for the same compounds, especially affinities measured in the presence of supernatant factor, but there are some quantitative discrepancies, especially among phenoxyalkylcarboxylic acids. In view of several factors that can cause receptor affinity and biological activity values to diverge quantitatively among analogs, the findings appear to support the presumption that the auxin-binding sites may be receptors for auxin action.
View details for Web of Science ID A1977DZ19500029
View details for PubMedID 16660143
Characteristics of and optimum conditions for saturable ("specific") binding of [(14)C]naphthaleneacetic acid to sites located on membranous particles from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles are described. Most, if not all, of the specific binding appears to be due to a single kinetic class of binding sites having a K(D) of 5 to 7 x 10(-7)m for naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA). Binding of NAA is insensitive to high monovalent salt concentrations, indicating that binding is not primarily ionic. However, specific binding is inhibited by Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) above 5 mm. Specific binding is improved by organic acids, especially citrate. Binding is heat-labile and is sensitive to agents that act either on proteins or on lipids. Specific binding is reversibly inactivated by reducing agents such as dithioerythritol; a reducible group, possibly a disulfide group, may be located at the binding site and required for its function. The affinity of the specific binding sites for auxins is modified by an unidentified dialyzable, heat-stable, apparently amphoteric, organic factor ("supernatant factor") found in maize tissue.
View details for Web of Science ID A1977CZ72100006
View details for PubMedID 16659851
Sites in maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile homogenates that reversibly bind naphthalene-1-acetic acid with high affinity and may represent receptor sites for auxins are located primarily on cellular membranes that show the enzymic and buoyant density characteristics of membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The sites remain attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes after the ribosomes have been stripped off them. Binding sites for naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin transport, are located on membranes different from those that carry the naphthalene-1-acetic-acid (NAA)-binding sites, and which are probably plasma membrane. The two kinds of binding sites can be largely separated by appropriate density gradient centrifugation. The results raise the possibility that primary auxin action occurs at ER membranes and could represent facilitation of the transfer of hydrogen ions and nascent secretory protein into the ER lumen followed by secretory transport of these products to the cell exterior via the Golgi system.
View details for Web of Science ID A1977DE35700015
View details for PubMedID 16659900
A pH microelectrode has been used to investigate the auxin effect on free space pH and its correlation with auxin-stimulated elongation in segments of pea (Pisum sativum) stem and maize (Zea mays var. Bear Hybrid) coleoptile tissue. Auxin induces a decrease in free space pH in both tissues. In maize coleoptiles, free space pH begins to fall within about 12 minutes of exposure to auxin and decreases by about 1 pH unit by approximately 30 minutes. In pea, pH begins to decrease within an average of 15 to 18 minutes of exposure to auxin and falls by about 0.9 pH unit by approximately 40 minutes. Auxin-stimulated elongation, measured in the same two tissues similarly prepared, appears in maize at the earliest 18 minutes after auxin application, while in pea it appears at the earliest 21 to 24 minutes after auxin application. The auxin analogs p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and phenylacetic acid do not stimulate elongation above control levels in maize or pea tissue segments and do not cause a decrease in free space pH in either tissue. These findings are consistent with the acid secretion theory of auxin action.
View details for Web of Science ID A1976CE11300019
View details for PubMedID 16659648
Like indoleacetic acid, buffers of acidic pH, which stimulate elongation of pea (Pisum sativum var. Alaska) stem tissue, induce the appearance within the tissue of a watersoluble xyloglucan polymer that probably arises from previously deposited wall material. Neutral pH buffers, which inhibit the elongation response to indoleacetic acid in this tissue, inhibit indoleacetic acid-induced increase in soluble xyloglucan. The findings provide further evidence that release of soluble xyloglucan from the cell walls of pea results from the biochemical action on the cell wall that is responsible for wall extension. The data also indicate that treatment of tissue with either auxin or acidic pH has a similar biochemical effect on the cell wall. This is consistent with the H(+) secretion theory of auxin action.
View details for Web of Science ID A1975AQ95600007
View details for PubMedID 16659306
Turnover of cell wall polysaccharides and effects of auxin thereon were examined after prelabeling polysaccharides by feeding pea (Pisum sativum var. Alaska) stem segments (14)C-glucose, then keeping the tissue 7 hours in unlabeled glucose with or without indoleacetic acid. There followed an extraction, hydrolysis, and chromatography procedure by which labeled monosaccharides and uronic acids were released and separated with consistently high recovery. Most wall polymers, including galacturonan and cellulose, did not undergo appreciable turnover. About 20% turnover of starch, which normally contaminates cell wall preparations but which was removed by a preliminary step in this procedure, occurred in 7 hours. Quantitatively, the principal wall polymer turnover process observed was a 50% decrease in galactose in the pectinase-extractable fraction, including galactose attached to a pectinase-resistant rhamnogalacturonan. Other pectinase-resistant galactan(s) did not undergo turnover. No turnover was observed in arabinans, but a doubling of radioactivity in arabinose of the pectinase-resistant, hot-acid-degradable fraction occurred in 7 hours, possibly indicating conversion of galactan into arabinan. None of the above changes was affected by indoleacetic acid, but a quantitatively minor turnover of a pectinase-degradable xyloglucan was found to be consistently promoted by indole-acetic acid. This was accompanied by a reciprocal increase in water-soluble xyloglucan, suggesting that indoleacetic acid induces conversion of wall xyloglucan from insoluble to water-soluble form. The results indicate a highly selective pattern of wall turnover processes with an even more specific influence of auxin.
View details for Web of Science ID A1974T048500001
View details for PubMedID 16658765
Auxin promotes the liberation of a xlyoglucan polymer from the cell walls of elongating pea (Pisum sativum) stem segments. The released polymer can be isolated from the polysaccharide fraction of the water-soluble portion of tissue homogenates, thus providing as assay for this kind of metabolism. Promotion of xyloglucan metabolism by auxin begins within 15 minutes of hormone presentation. The effect increases with auxin concentration in a manner similar to the hormone effect on elongation. However, the xyloglucan effect of auxin occurs perfectly normally when elongation is completely blocked by mannitol. Metabolic inhibitors and Ca(2+), on the other hand, inhibit auxin promotion of elongation and of xyloglucan metabolism in parallel. The results suggest that the changes in xyloglucan reflect the means by which auxin modifies the cell wall to cause elongation.
View details for Web of Science ID A1974U470100014
View details for PubMedID 16658916
The 2- to 4-fold rise in particle-bound beta-glucan synthetase (uridine diphosphate-glucose: beta-1, 4-glucan glucosyltransferase) activity that can be induced by indoleacetic acid in pea stem tissue is not prevented by concentrations of actinomycin D or cycloheximide that inhibit growth and macromolecule synthesis. The rise is concluded to be a hormonally induced activation of previously existing, reversibly deactivated enzyme. The activation is not a direct allosteric effect of indoleacetic acid or sugars. It is blocked by inhibitors of energy metabolism, by 2-deoxyglucose, and by high osmolarity, but not by Ca(2+) at concentrations that inhibit auxin-induced elongation and prevent promotion of sugar uptake by indoleacetic acid, and not by alpha, alpha'-dipyridyl at concentrations that inhibit formation of hydroxyproline. Regulation of the system could be due either to an ATP-dependent activating reaction affecting this enzyme, or to changes in levels of a primer or a lipid cofactor.
View details for Web of Science ID A1973P452500002
View details for PubMedID 16658380
Treatment of pea stem segments with indoleacetic acid (IAA) causes within 1 hour a 2- to 4-fold increase in activity of particulate uridine diphosphoglucose-dependent beta-glucan synthetase obtainable from the tissue. The IAA effect is observable in tissue from all parts of the elongation zone of the pea stem, and also in older tissue that is not capable of a cell enlargement response to IAA. A large increase in activity is caused by IAA only if synthetase activity in the isolated tissue has first been allowed to fall substantially below the intact plant level, and only if sucrose is supplied along with IAA. Treatment of tissue with sucrose alone after a period of sugar starvation causes a transient rise of synthetase activity. The decline in synthetase activity in absence of IAA, the rise caused by IAA, and the transient rise caused by sucrose are all strongly temperature-dependent. IAA and sucrose do not affect the activity of isolated synthetase particles. Synthetase activity in vivo is sensitive to as low as 0.1 mum IAA and is increased by IAA analogues that are active as auxins on elongation but not by nonauxin analogues. Activity begins to rise 10 to 15 minutes after exposure to IAA, which places this among the most rapid enzyme effects of a plant growth regulator heretofore demonstrated, and among the most rapid known metabolic effects of auxins. The effect is seen also with polysaccharide synthetase activity using uridine diphosphate-galactose or uridine diphosphate-xylose as substrates, and to a lesser extent with guanosine diphosphoglucose-dependent glucan synthetase activity. Glucan synthetase from IAA-treated tissue appears to have a higher affinity for uridine diphosphate-glucose than the control.
View details for Web of Science ID A1973P452500001
View details for PubMedID 16658379
A variety of particle-bound synthetases that use sugar nucleotides as glycosyl donors for the formation of polysaccharides similar to those of the cell wall have been demonstrated in mung beans and other plant tissues,(1) but the particles in question have not been previously identified.(2, 3) The polysaccharide synthetase particles from peas that form mainly beta-1,4-glucan from UDPG and GDPG have now been separated from other cell particles by combinations of velocity and isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The particles have an effective density of about 1.15 gm cm(-3), exhibit latent nucleoside diphosphatase activity upon IDP, UDP, GDP, and to a lesser extent upon ADP, and also possess acid phosphatase and weak ATPase activity. The isolated synthetase particles consist of somewhat condensed Golgi dictyosomes and free dictyosomal membranes bearing vesicles. It is concluded that the synthetase particles are Golgi membranes. The nucleoside diphosphatase activity of these particles may represent inactivated polysaccharide synthetase.
View details for Web of Science ID A1969E985200030
View details for PubMedID 16591795