Atoh1-dependent rhombic lip neurons are required for temporal delay between independent respiratory oscillators in embryonic mice.
Atoh1 Governs the Migration of Postmitotic Neurons that Shape Respiratory Effectiveness at Birth and Chemoresponsiveness in Adulthood
2012; 75 (5): 799-809
All motor behaviors require precise temporal coordination of different muscle groups. Breathing, for example, involves the sequential activation of numerous muscles hypothesized to be driven by a primary respiratory oscillator, the preBötzinger Complex, and at least one other as-yet unidentified rhythmogenic population. We tested the roles of Atoh1-, Phox2b-, and Dbx1-derived neurons (three groups that have known roles in respiration) in the generation and coordination of respiratory output. We found that Dbx1-derived neurons are necessary for all respiratory behaviors, whereas independent but coupled respiratory rhythms persist from at least three different motor pools after eliminating or silencing Phox2b- or Atoh1-expressing hindbrain neurons. Without Atoh1 neurons, however, the motor pools become temporally disorganized and coupling between independent respiratory oscillators decreases. We propose Atoh1 neurons tune the sequential activation of independent oscillators essential for the fine control of different muscles during breathing.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.02265
View details for PubMedID 24842997
Involvement of topoisomerase III in telomere-telomere recombination
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
2006; 281 (19): 13717-13723
Hindbrain neuronal networks serving respiratory, proprioceptive, and arousal functions share a developmental requirement for the bHLH transcription factor Atoh1. Loss of Atoh1 in mice results in respiratory failure and neonatal lethality; however, the neuronal identity and mechanism by which Atoh1-dependent cells sustain newborn breathing remains unknown. We uncovered that selective loss of Atoh1 from the postmitotic retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) neurons results in severely impaired inspiratory rhythm and pronounced neonatal death. Mice that escape neonatal death develop abnormal chemoresponsiveness as adults. Interestingly, the expression of Atoh1 in the RTN neurons is not required for their specification or maintenance, but is important for their proper localization and to establish essential connections with the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC). These results provide insights into the genetic regulation of neonatal breathing and shed light on the labile sites that might contribute to sudden death in newborn infants and altered chemoresponsiveness in adults.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.06.027
View details for Web of Science ID 000308684300008
View details for PubMedID 22958821
Telomere maintenance is required for chromosome stability, and telomeres are typically replicated by the action of telomerase. In both mammalian tumor and yeast cells that lack telomerase, telomeres are maintained by an alternative (ALT) recombination mechanism. In yeast, Sgs1p and its associated type IA topoisomerase, Top3p, may work coordinately in removing Holliday junction intermediates from a crossover-producing recombination pathway. Previous studies have also indicated that Sgs1 helicase acts in a telomere recombination pathway. Here we show that topoisomerase III is involved in telomere-telomere recombination. The recovery of telomere recombination-dependent survivors in a telomerase-minus yeast strain was dependent on Top3p catalytic activity. Moreover, the RIF1 and RIF2 genes are required for the establishment of TOP3/SGS1-dependent telomere-telomere recombination. In human Saos-2 ALT cells, human topoisomerase IIIalpha (hTOP3alpha) also contributes to telomere recombination. Strikingly, the telomerase activity is clearly enhanced in surviving si-hTOP3alpha Saos-2 ALT cells. Altogether, the present results suggest a potential role for hTOP3alpha in dissociating telomeric structures in telomerase-deficient cells, providing therapeutic implications in human tumors.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M600649200
View details for Web of Science ID 000237336600082
View details for PubMedID 16546998