Education & Certifications
Master of Science, Stanford University, BIOE-MS (2014)
Bachelor of Science, University of California at Berkeley, Bioengineering (2012)
Beth Pruitt, Doctoral Dissertation Advisor (AC)
Obtaining high-resolution information from a complex system, while maintaining the global perspective needed to understand system function, represents a key challenge in biology. Here we address this challenge with a method (termed CLARITY) for the transformation of intact tissue into a nanoporous hydrogel-hybridized form (crosslinked to a three-dimensional network of hydrophilic polymers) that is fully assembled but optically transparent and macromolecule-permeable. Using mouse brains, we show intact-tissue imaging of long-range projections, local circuit wiring, cellular relationships, subcellular structures, protein complexes, nucleic acids and neurotransmitters. CLARITY also enables intact-tissue in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry with multiple rounds of staining and de-staining in non-sectioned tissue, and antibody labelling throughout the intact adult mouse brain. Finally, we show that CLARITY enables fine structural analysis of clinical samples, including non-sectioned human tissue from a neuropsychiatric-disease setting, establishing a path for the transmutation of human tissue into a stable, intact and accessible form suitable for probing structural and molecular underpinnings of physiological function and disease.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature12107
View details for PubMedID 23575631
We examine the impact of post-collection sample handling on the protein composition of human tear samples. In particular, we characterize diffusion-based protein extraction from Schirmer strips. These strips of filter paper membrane are the de facto standard for tear fluid collection and storage, with diffusion-based protein elution off the strip being the most widely reported protein extraction strategy. Nevertheless, the diffusion-based protein elution strategy remains uncharacterized regarding downstream functional protein assays. Here, the time-dependence, concentration-dependence, and repeatability of the diffusion-based protein recovery protocol are characterized. Levels of protein irrecoverable from the Schirmer strip and lost during sample handling are isolated and compared for several major tear proteins. Further, the impact of the Schirmer strip and sample handling on the downstream concentration of proteins ranging in molecular weight, surface charge, and surface hydropathicity is quantified. Diffusion-based protein extraction from Schirmer strips was observed to be protein-dependent. Schirmer strips retained tear proteins to varying extents: 14.2% of lysozyme, 9.5% of human serum albumin, 27.7% of secretory IgA, and 30.9% of mucin 4. Tear protein loss during sample handling ranged from 2% (lysozyme) to 41.2% (mucin 4). Strip retention of protein was observed to be associated with protein molecular weight and hydrophobic surface area. Greater sample handling loss was associated with increased hydrophobic surface area of model proteins. Surface charge or surface hydrophilicity was not significantly associated with protein loss. We therefore conclude that, although diffusion-based processing of Schirmer strip-collected tear samples is widely used, these protocols may result in total post-collection protein loss which is considerable, consistent, and protein-dependent. This loss alters the relative and absolute protein concentrations in the sample. A priori prediction of strip-losses for individual proteins does not appear to be facile, based on cursory knowledge of protein surface properties. Thus, we emphasize "spike and recover" control experiments to determine expected elution profiles for target proteins when using diffusion-based protein sample preparation for Schirmer strip-collected tear fluid.
View details for DOI 10.1039/c2an35821b
View details for Web of Science ID 000309427600030
View details for PubMedID 22991688