Utility of Clinical Biomarkers to Predict Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infections After Congenital Heart Surgery.
Pediatric infectious disease journal
2015; 34 (3): 251-254
Reducing Mortality Related to Adverse Events in Children
PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA
2012; 59 (6): 1293-?
Central line associated bloodstream infections is an important contributor of morbidity and mortality in children recovering from congenital heart surgery. The reliability of commonly used biomarkers to differentiate these patients have not been specifically studied.This was a retrospective cohort study in a university-affiliated children's hospital examining all patients with congenital or acquired heart disease admitted to the cardiovascular intensive care unit following cardiac surgery who underwent evaluation for a catheter-associated bloodstream infection.Among 1260 cardiac surgeries performed, 451 encounters underwent an infection evaluation post-operatively. Twenty-five instances of CLABSI and 227 instances of a negative infection evaluation were the subject of analysis. Patients with CLABSI tended to be younger (1.34 vs 4.56 years, p = 0.011) and underwent more complex surgery (RACHS-1 score 3.79 vs 3.04, p = 0.039). The two groups were indistinguishable in WBC, PMNs and band count at the time of their presentation. On multivariate analysis, CLABSI was associated with fever (adjusted OR 4.78; 95% CI, 1.6 to 5.8) and elevated CRP (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.68) after adjusting for differences between the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated the discriminatory power of both fever and CRP (area under curve 0.7247, 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.74 and 0.58, 95% CI 0.4208 to 0.7408). We calculated multilevel likelihood ratios for a spectrum of temperature and CRP values.We found commonly used serum biomarkers such as fever and CRP not to be helpful discriminators in patients following congenital heart surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0000000000000553
View details for PubMedID 25232780
The Boston Marathon study: A novel approach to research during residency
2006; 117 (5): 1818-1822
Since the launch of the 100,000 Lives Campaign by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), preventing medical adverse events to reduce avoidable mortality has emerged as a central focus for health care providers, institutions, regulators, insurance companies, and patients. Evidence-based interventions targeting the 6 interventions in the campaign have been associated with a reduction in preventable hospital deaths in the United States. The generalizability of the IHI's campaign to the pediatric population is only partly applicable. Pediatric experiences with rapid response teams and preventing central-line infections parallel the published experience of adults, with promise to significantly reduce preventable pediatric mortality.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pcl.2012.09.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000312618600007
View details for PubMedID 23116526
Hyponatremia among runners in the Boston Marathon
NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
2005; 352 (15): 1550-1556
Resident physicians from a pediatric academic training program developed a hospital-wide research project in an effort to enhance their residency research experience. In this model, residents themselves assumed primary responsibility for each stage of a large prospective clinical research study. The project, which was integrated successfully into the residency program, enabled a large group of residents, with mentorship from a dedicated faculty member, to benefit from a structured clinical research experience while providing the flexibility necessary to meet the demands of a busy residency curriculum. Careful topic selection with a well-defined end point, faculty involvement, resident collegiality, and institutional support were factors identified by study leaders as central to the success of this model.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2005-1249
View details for Web of Science ID 000237207300076
View details for PubMedID 16651344
Outcomes Following Cardiac Catheterization After Congenital Heart Surgery
CATHETERIZATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS
2014; 84 (4): 622-628
Sedative and analgesic use on night and day shifts in a pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit.
AACN advanced critical care
2014; 25 (2): 114-118
Hyponatremia has emerged as an important cause of race-related death and life-threatening illness among marathon runners. We studied a cohort of marathon runners to estimate the incidence of hyponatremia and to identify the principal risk factors.Participants in the 2002 Boston Marathon were recruited one or two days before the race. Subjects completed a survey describing demographic information and training history. After the race, runners provided a blood sample and completed a questionnaire detailing their fluid consumption and urine output during the race. Prerace and postrace weights were recorded. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with hyponatremia.Of 766 runners enrolled, 488 runners (64 percent) provided a usable blood sample at the finish line. Thirteen percent had hyponatremia (a serum sodium concentration of 135 mmol per liter or less); 0.6 percent had critical hyponatremia (120 mmol per liter or less). On univariate analyses, hyponatremia was associated with substantial weight gain, consumption of more than 3 liters of fluids during the race, consumption of fluids every mile, a racing time of >4:00 hours, female sex, and low body-mass index. On multivariate analysis, hyponatremia was associated with weight gain (odds ratio, 4.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 8.2), a racing time of >4:00 hours (odds ratio for the comparison with a time of <3:30 hours, 7.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.9 to 23.1), and body-mass-index extremes.Hyponatremia occurs in a substantial fraction of nonelite marathon runners and can be severe. Considerable weight gain while running, a long racing time, and body-mass-index extremes were associated with hyponatremia, whereas female sex, composition of fluids ingested, and use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were not.
View details for Web of Science ID 000228324200007
View details for PubMedID 15829535
Risk prediction of emergency department revisit 30 days post discharge: a prospective study.
2014; 9 (11)
The use of sedative and analgesic medications is directly linked to patient outcomes. The practice of administering as-needed sedative or analgesic medications deserves further exploration. We hypothesized that important variations exist in the practice of administering as-needed medications in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to determine the influence of time of day on the practice of administering as-needed sedative or analgesic medications to children in the ICU.Medication administration records of patients admitted to our pediatric cardiovascular ICU during a 4-month period were reviewed to determine the frequency and timing of as-needed medication usage by shift.A total of 152 ICU admissions (1854 patient days) were reviewed. A significantly greater number of as-needed doses were administered during the night shift (fentanyl, P = .005; lorazepam, P = .03; midazolam, P = .0003; diphenhydramine, P = .0003; and chloral hydrate, P = .0006). These differences remained statistically significant after excluding doses given during the first 6 hours after cardiovascular surgery. Morphine administration was similar between shifts (P = .08).We identified a pattern of increased administration of as-needed sedative or analgesic medications during nights. Further research is needed to identify the underlying causes of this practice variation.
View details for DOI 10.1097/NCI.0000000000000023
View details for PubMedID 24752023
Surgical management of neonatal atrioventricular septal defect with aortic arch obstruction.
Annals of thoracic surgery
2013; 95 (6): 2071-2077
Among patients who are discharged from the Emergency Department (ED), about 3% return within 30 days. Revisits can be related to the nature of the disease, medical errors, and/or inadequate diagnoses and treatment during their initial ED visit. Identification of high-risk patient population can help device new strategies for improved ED care with reduced ED utilization.A decision tree based model with discriminant Electronic Medical Record (EMR) features was developed and validated, estimating patient ED 30 day revisit risk. A retrospective cohort of 293,461 ED encounters from HealthInfoNet (HIN), Maine's Health Information Exchange (HIE), between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012, was assembled with the associated patients' demographic information and one-year clinical histories before the discharge date as the inputs. To validate, a prospective cohort of 193,886 encounters between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013 was constructed. The c-statistics for the retrospective and prospective predictions were 0.710 and 0.704 respectively. Clinical resource utilization, including ED use, was analyzed as a function of the ED risk score. Cluster analysis of high-risk patients identified discrete sub-populations with distinctive demographic, clinical and resource utilization patterns.Our ED 30-day revisit model was prospectively validated on the Maine State HIN secure statewide data system. Future integration of our ED predictive analytics into the ED care work flow may lead to increased opportunities for targeted care intervention to reduce ED resource burden and overall healthcare expense, and improve outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0112944
View details for PubMedID 25393305
Embedding Time-Limited Laboratory Orders Within Computerized Provider Order Entry Reduces Laboratory Utilization
PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
2013; 14 (4): 413-419
For neonates with atrioventricular septal defect and aortic arch obstruction including coarctation of the aorta, we sought to determine whether a difference in outcomes exists after a primary neonatal versus staged surgical repair (neonatal arch repair with delayed intracardiac repair).This retrospective cohort study included consecutive neonates with atrioventricular septal defect and aortic arch obstruction who underwent cardiac surgery before 28 days of age at six centers from 1990 to 2009. Characteristics and outcomes between patients undergoing neonatal versus staged repair were compared.Of 66 study patients, 31 (47%) underwent primary neonatal repair and 35 (53%) underwent staged repair. At baseline echocardiogram, a greater percentage of neonatal repair patients had relative unbalanced ventricular size (56% versus 35%, p = 0.02). There were no other differences in demographic characteristics, cardiac anatomical or functional details, or surgical technique. Those undergoing neonatal repair tended to be more likely to have at least moderate left atrioventricular valve regurgitation early after repair (42% versus 19%, p = 0.05) and to have at least one major in-hospital complication (42% versus 20%, p = 0.06). After the initial cardiac operation, compared with the neonatal repair group, patients undergoing staged repair had greater survival (87% versus 57% at 6 years, log-rank p = 0.02) and freedom from the first unplanned cardiac reoperation (69% versus 45% at 6 years, log-rank p = 0.005).For neonates with atrioventricular septal defect and aortic arch obstruction, when compared with neonatal repair, a staged approach was associated with improved survival and lower morbidity.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.11.069
View details for PubMedID 23415240
Cardiac troponin increases among runners in the Boston Marathon
ANNALS OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE
2007; 49 (2): 137-143
: To test the hypothesis that limits on repeating laboratory studies within computerized provider order entry decrease laboratory utilization.: Cohort study with historical controls.: A 20-bed PICU in a freestanding, quaternary care, academic children's hospital.: This study included all patients admitted to the pediatric ICU between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2009. A total of 818 discharges were evaluated prior to the intervention (January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2008) and 1,021 patient discharges were evaluated postintervention (January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009).: A computerized provider order entry rule limited the ability to schedule repeating complete blood cell counts, chemistry, and coagulation studies to a 24-hour interval in the future. The time limit was designed to ensure daily evaluation of the utility of each test.: Initial analysis with t tests showed significant decreases in tests per patient day in the postintervention period (complete blood cell counts: 1.5 ± 0.1 to 1.0 ± 0.1; chemistry: 10.6 ± 0.9 to 6.9 ± 0.6; coagulation: 3.3 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 0.2; p < 0.01, all variables vs. preintervention period). Even after incorporating a trend toward decreasing laboratory utilization in the preintervention period into our regression analysis, the intervention decreased complete blood cell counts (p = 0.007), chemistry (p = 0.049), and coagulation (p = 0.001) tests per patient day.: Limits on laboratory orders within the context of computerized provider order entry decreased laboratory utilization without adverse affects on mortality or length of stay. Broader application of this strategy might decrease costs, the incidence of iatrogenic anemia, and catheter-associated bloodstream infections.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0b013e318272010c
View details for Web of Science ID 000318680000016
View details for PubMedID 23439456
Aortic atresia or severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with ventricular septal defect: Results of primary biventricular repair in neonates
ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY
2006; 82 (6): 2227-2232
Studies indicate that running a marathon can be associated with increases in serum cardiac troponin levels. The clinical significance of such increases remains unclear. We seek to determine the prevalence of troponin increases and epidemiologic factors associated with these increases in a large and heterogeneous cohort of marathon finishers.Entrants in the 2002 Boston Marathon were recruited 1 to 2 days before the race. Data collected included demographic and training history, symptoms experienced during the run, and postrace troponin T and I levels. Simple descriptive statistics were performed to describe the prevalence of troponin increases and runner characteristics.Of 766 runners enrolled, 482 had blood analyzed at the finish line. In all, 34% were women, 20% were younger than 30 years, and 92% had run at least 1 previous marathon. Most runners (68%) had some degree of postrace troponin increase (troponin T > or = 0.01 ng/mL or troponin I > or = 0.1 ng/mL), and 55 (11%) had significant increases (troponin T > or = 0.075 ng/mL or troponin I > or = 0.5 ng/mL). Running inexperience (< 5 previous marathons) and young age (< 30 years) were associated with elevated troponins. These correlates were robust throughout a wide range of troponin thresholds considered. Health factors, family history, training, race performance, and symptoms were not associated with increases.Troponin increases were relatively common among marathon finishers and can reach levels typically diagnostic for acute myocardial infarction. Less marathon experience and younger age appeared to be associated with troponin increases, whereas race duration and the presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors were not. Further work is needed to determine the clinical significance of these findings.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2006.09.024
View details for Web of Science ID 000243957800002
View details for PubMedID 17145114
Aortic atresia or severe aortic stenosis and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is a frequent component of complex congenital heart disease. Aortic atresia or severe aortic stenosis and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with two adequate ventricles is sometimes treated by Norwood palliation followed by late biventricular repair. We reviewed our experience with primary biventricular repair in this group of neonates.Retrospective review identified 17 neonates (10 males) with aortic atresia or severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with ventricular septal defect and an adequate left ventricle undergoing primary biventricular repair between 1986 and 2002. Mean age was 7.7 +/- 2.9 days, weight 3.3 +/- 0.7 kg, and body surface area 0.21 +/- 0.04 kg/m2. Associated anomalies included arch hypoplasia, 7 (41%); aortic atresia, 7 (41%); and coarctation, 5 (29%). Results are reported as mean +/- standard deviation.Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 1 to 17.7 years). Three of the 17 (18%) died within 30 days. There were no deaths in this series since 1992. Nine patients (38.9%) required one reoperation, 7 of which were for conduit stenosis, 1 for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and 1 for residual ventricular septal defect with left ventricle-to-right atrium shunt. Freedom from death at 10 years was 82% by Kaplan-Meier estimate.Excellent long-term survival can be achieved by primary biventricular repair as corroborated by our survival rate of 82%. Primary biventricular repair is an effective operation for aortic atresia and severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with adequate sized left ventricle that avoids interstage attrition associated with Norwood palliation and is our procedure of choice.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2006.05.124
View details for Web of Science ID 000242297200039
View details for PubMedID 17126139