Magister, University of California Davis (1990)
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Autonoma Mexico (1986)
Endoluminal ultrasound may serve as a minimally invasive option for delivering thermal ablation to pancreatic tumors adjacent to the stomach or duodenum. The objective of this study was to explore the basic feasibility of this treatment strategy through the design, characterization, and evaluation of proof-of-concept endoluminal ultrasound applicators capable of placement in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen for volumetric pancreas ablation under MR guidance.Two variants of the endoluminal applicator, each containing a distinct array of two independently powered transducers (10 × 10 mm 3.2 MHz planar; or 8 × 10 × 20 mm radius of curvature 3.3 MHz curvilinear geometries) at the distal end of a meter long flexible catheter assembly, were designed and fabricated. Transducers and circulatory water flow for acoustic coupling and luminal cooling were contained by a low-profile polyester balloon covering the transducer assembly fixture. Each applicator incorporated miniature spiral MR coils and mechanical features (guiding tips and hinges) to facilitate tracking and insertion through the GI tract under MRI guidance. Acoustic characterization of each device was performed using radiation force balance and hydrophone measurements. Device delivery into the upper GI tract, adjacent to the pancreas, and heating characteristics for treatment of pancreatic tissue were evaluated in MR-guided ex vivo and in vivo porcine experiments. MR guidance was utilized for anatomical target identification, tracking/positioning of the applicator, and MR temperature imaging (MRTI) for PRF-based multislice thermometry, implemented in the real-time RTHawk software environment.Force balance and hydrophone measurements indicated efficiencies of 48.8% and 47.8% and -3 dB intensity beam-widths of 3.2 and 1.2 mm for the planar and curvilinear transducers, respectively. Ex vivo studies on whole-porcine carcasses revealed capabilities of producing ablative temperature rise (ΔT > 15 °C) contours in pancreatic tissue 4-40 mm long and 4-28 mm wide for the planar transducer applicator (1-13 min sonication duration, ∼4 W/cm(2) applied acoustic intensity). Curvilinear transducers produced more selective heating, with a narrower ΔT > 15 °C contour length and width of up to 1-24 mm and 2-7 mm, respectively (1-7 min sonication duration, ∼4 W/cm(2) applied acoustic intensity). Active tracking of the miniature spiral coils was achieved using a Hadamard encoding tracking sequence, enabling real-time determination of each coil's coordinates and automated prescription of imaging planes for thermometry. In vivo MRTI-guided heating trials in three pigs demonstrated capability of ∼20 °C temperature elevation in pancreatic tissue at 2 cm depths from the applicator, with 5-7 W/cm(2) applied intensity and 6-16 min sonication duration. Dimensions of thermal lesions in the pancreas ranged from 12 to 28 mm, 3 to 10 mm, and 5 to 10 mm in length, width, and depth, respectively, as verified through histological analysis of tissue sections. Multiple-baseline reconstruction and respiratory-gated acquisition were demonstrated to be effective strategies in suppressing motion artifacts for clear evolution of temperature profiles during MRTI in the in vivo studies.This study demonstrates the technical feasibility of generating volumetric ablation in pancreatic tissue using endoluminal ultrasound applicators positioned in the stomach lumen. MR guidance facilitates target identification, device tracking/positioning, and treatment monitoring through real-time multislice PRF-based thermometry.
View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4953632
View details for Web of Science ID 000379171900027
View details for PubMedID 27370138
Evaluate whether a decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), associated with loss of tissue viability (LOTV), can be observed during the course of thermal ablation of the prostate.Thermal ablation was performed in a healthy in vivo canine prostate model (N = 2, ages: 5 yr healthy, mixed breed, weights: 13-14 kg) using a transurethral high-intensity ultrasound catheter and was monitored using a strategy that interleaves diffusion weighted images and gradient-echo images. The two sequences were used to measure ADC and changes in temperature during the treatment. Changes in temperature were used to compute expected changes in ADC. The difference between expected and measured ADC, ADCDIFF, was analyzed in regions ranging from moderate hyperthermia to heat fixation. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to select a threshold of detection of LOTV. Time of threshold activation, tLOTV, was compared with time to reach CEM43 = 240, tDOSE.The observed relationship between temperature and ADC in vivo (2.2%/ °C, 1.94%-2.47%/ °C 95% confidence interval) was not significantly different than the previously reported value of 2.4%/ °C in phantom. ADCDIFF changes after correction for temperature showed a mean decrease of 25% in ADC 60 min post-treatment in regions where sufficient thermal dose (CEM43 > 240) was achieved. Following our ROC analysis, a threshold of 2.25% decrease in ADCDIFF for three consecutive time points was chosen as an indicator of LOTV. The ADCDIFF was found to decrease quickly (1-2 min) after reaching CEM43 = 240 in regions associated with heat fixation and more slowly (10-20 min) in regions that received slower heating.Simultaneous monitoring of ADC and temperature during treatment might allow for a more complete tissue viability assessment of ablative thermal treatments in the prostate. ADCDIFF decreases during the course of treatment may be interpreted as loss of tissue viability.
View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4928155
View details for PubMedID 26328964