Research & Scholarship
Assessing Changes in Urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) Levels Before and After Bariatric Surgery (MedScholars Project)
Assessing the functionality and efficacy of a novel neonatal umbilical catheter protection and stabilization device in vitro (MedScholars Project)
Obesity-Related Hormones and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Randomized Trial of Diet plus Either Strength or Aerobic Training versus Diet Alone in Overweight Participants.
Journal of diabetes and obesity
2014; 1 (1): 1-7
There is debate about the additive effects of exercise in conjunction with diet to treat obesity, and not much is known about the differential effects of strength versus aerobic training. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of diet plus strength training, diet plus aerobic training, or diet only on metabolic risk factors associated with obesity. Eighty-one overweight and obese participants completed the 8-week intervention. All participants received an energy-restrictive formula diet with an energy content based on 70% of measured resting metabolic rate (RMR). Participants assigned to an exercise group trained 3 days/week under supervision. Anthropometrics and fasting hormones were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Mean weight loss (8.5 ± 4.3kg SD) did not differ between groups nor did reductions in BMI or body fat, although the diet plus strength training group showed marginally greater lean mass retention. There were significant improvements in the values and number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, and decreases in insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, which did not vary between groups. For men, testosterone increased significantly more in the diet plus aerobic training as compared to the other groups. As compared to diet alone, the addition of strength or aerobic training did not improve changes in BMI, body fat or metabolic risk factors although the diet plus strength training group showed a trend toward preservation of lean mass, and the diet plus aerobic group in men resulted in increased testosterone concentrations.
View details for PubMedID 25599089
Pre-bariatric surgery weight loss requirements and the effect of preoperative weight loss on postoperative outcome
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
2012; 36 (11): 1380-1387
Pre-bariatric surgery requirements vary between surgeons and surgical centers, with standards of practice not yet established. The goal of this systematic review was to summarize and evaluate the available literature on pre-bariatric surgery weight loss requirements and the relation between preoperative weight loss and postoperative outcome. Major databases, including Medline, PubMed and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles. Case studies, studies>20 years old and studies that utilized self-reported body weight data were excluded. Data on the effect of the following was summarized: (1) preoperative requirements on preoperative weight loss; (2) insurance-mandated preoperative requirements; (3) the contingency of receipt of surgery; (4) preoperative weight loss on postoperative weight loss and (5) preoperative weight loss on perioperative and postoperative complication and comorbidity rates. The majority of studies suggest that: (1) current preoperative requirements held by the majority of third party payer organizations in the United States are ineffective in fostering preoperative weight loss; (2) making receipt of surgery contingent upon achieving preoperative weight loss, and meal-replacement diets, may be particularly effective in fostering preoperative weight loss and (3) preoperative weight loss may lead to improvements in at least some relevant postoperative outcomes. However, a preoperative weight loss mandate may lead to the denial of surgery and subsequent health benefits to individuals who are unable to achieve a prespecified amount of weight. Overall, the limited number and quality of prospective studies in this area prohibits the much-needed establishment of standards of practice for pre-bariatric requirements.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ijo.2012.60
View details for Web of Science ID 000311103500002
View details for PubMedID 22508337
The neurohormonal regulation of energy intake in relation to bariatric surgery for obesity
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2010: 549-559
Obesity has reached pandemic proportions, with bariatric surgery representing the only currently available treatment demonstrating long-term effectiveness. Over 200,000 bariatric procedures are performed each year in the US alone. Given the reliable and singular success of bariatric procedures, increased attention is being paid to identifying the accompanying neurohormonal changes that may contribute to the resulting decrease in energy intake. Numerous investigations of postsurgical changes in gut peptides have been conducted, suggesting greater alterations in endocrine function in combination restrictive and malabsorptive procedures (e.g., Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) as compared to purely restrictive procedures (e.g., gastric banding), which may contribute to the increased effectiveness of combination procedures. However, very few studies have been performed and relatively little is known about changes in neural activation that may result from bariatric procedures, which likely interact with changes in gut peptides to influence postsurgical caloric intake. This review provides a background in the neurohormonal regulation of energy intake and discusses how differing forms of bariatric surgery may affect the neurohormonal network, with emphasis on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the most commonly performed procedure worldwide. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.04.032
View details for Web of Science ID 000279988100018
View details for PubMedID 20452367