Clinical Focus

  • Psychiatry
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Behavioral Medicine
  • Eating Disorders

Academic Appointments

  • Emeritus Faculty, Acad Council, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Administrative Appointments

  • Adult Residency Training Director, Department of Psychiatry, Stanford Medical Center (1995 - 2010)
  • Director, Anxiety Disorders Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, Stanford Medical Center (2010 - 2015)

Honors & Awards

  • Member (natural Sciences), The Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters (2002)

Professional Education

  • Residency:Stanford University School of Medicine (1975) CA
  • Residency:University of Utah Medical Center (1971) UT
  • Board Certification: Psychiatry, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (1978)
  • Medical Education:University of Utah Medical Center (1970) UT
  • B.A, Columbia College, Oriental Studies (1967)

Community and International Work

  • Dissemination of Evidence Based Treatments, VA Health Care System, Multiple


    Depression, CBT and ACT,CBT for Insomnia

    Partnering Organization(s)

    U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs Central Office

    Populations Served

    U.S. Veterans



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Developing Evidence Based Medicine/Electronic Interventions


    Evident Based Psychiatry

    Partnering Organization(s)


    Populations Served




    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Comprehensive Health Promotion/Prevention in High School and College Studies


    Universal and targeted prevention

    Partnering Organization(s)


    Populations Served

    High school and college students



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • MoodCare


    Treating depression in patients with heart disease

    Partnering Organization(s)


    Populations Served

    Men, women in Australia who are depressed and have had a heart attack



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Preventing Anorexia Nervosa


    Anorexia, web-based, family intervention

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Dresden University

    Populations Served

    Teens at risk of AN and their families



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Preventing Eating Disorders and Comorbid Conditions


    Eating disorders, depression

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Washingington University

    Populations Served

    College age women


    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Dr. Taylor is developing and evaluating innovative electronic and computer-assisted programs to make treatments, proven effective for treating various lifestyle and psychosocial problems, more cost-effective and available. Research projects include the evaluation and development of computer-assisted and other innovative treatments for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, depression, eating disorders and cardiovascular risk-reduction. Related studies focus on the nature of anxiety and eating disorders.

Dr. Taylor is also developing prevention programs for eating disorders and obesity in college-aged women and in older adolescents. Having identifed risk factors for eating disorders, he is developing and evaluating interactive multimedia interventions assisted with electronic groups and other technologies to help prevent the onset of disorders in high-risk populations. His research group has developed population-based interventions for eating disorders, obesity and healthy weight regulation so that individualized programs can be offered to all participants simultaneously within defined populations.

Studies in this research group have demonstrated the efficacy and effectiveness of an inpatient tobacco use cessation program and have demonstrated methods and models for dissemination/implementation in a variety of hospitals.

Clinical Trials

  • Promoting Healthy Weight With 'Stability Skills First' Not Recruiting

    Losing weight has many health benefits for women such as reducing the risk of heart attacks, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cancer. However, women often struggle with maintaining the weight they have lost. This may be because they need to learn skills for maintaining weight, not just losing weight. When is the optimal time is to learn these maintenance skills? It may be better to lose weight first and then learn maintenance skills since people may feel good about the weight they have lost and be motivated to maintain. Alternatively, it may be better to learn maintenance skills first and then lose weight since they may experience how easy it is to use these maintenance skills and become confident they can maintain a weight loss in the future. Therefore, this study will examine whether learning these maintenance skills--before or after losing weight--helps women succeed at maintaining weight loss.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

    View full details


All Publications

  • National evaluation of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia among older versus younger veterans INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Karlin, B. E., Trockel, M., Spira, A. P., Taylor, C. B., Manber, R. 2015; 30 (3): 308-315


    Limited research has examined the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) among older adults (age >65 years) receiving treatment in real-world clinical settings and even less has examined effects on outcomes beyond reducing insomnia, such as improved quality of life. The current article examines and compares outcomes of older versus younger (age 18-64 years) veterans receiving CBT-I nationally in nonsleep specialty settings.Patient outcomes were assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Therapeutic alliance was assessed using the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised.A total of 536 younger veterans and 121 older veterans received CBT-I; 77% of older and 64% of younger patients completed all sessions or finished early due to symptom relief. Mean insomnia scores declined from 19.5 to 9.7 in the older group and from 20.9 to 11.1 in the younger group. Within-group effect sizes were d = 2.3 and 2.2 for older and younger groups, respectively. CBT-I also yielded significant improvements in depression and quality of life for both age groups. High and increasing levels of therapeutic alliance were observed for both age groups.Older (and younger) patients receiving CBT-I from nonsleep specialists experienced large reductions in insomnia and improvements in depression and quality of life. Effects were similar for both age groups, and the rate of dropout was lower among older adults. The results provide strong support for the effectiveness and acceptability of CBT-I for older adults receiving care in routine treatment settings. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/gps.4143

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349081000010

  • A Population-Wide Screening and Tailored Intervention Platform for Eating Disorders on College Campuses: The Healthy Body Image Program JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH Jones, M., Kass, A. E., Trockel, M., Glass, A. I., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2014; 62 (5): 351-356


    Abstract Objectives: This article presents a new approach to intervention for eating disorders and body image concerns on college campuses, using a model of integrated eating disorder screening and intervention. Formative data on implementation feasibility are presented. Participants: College students enrolled at 2 universities between 2011 and 2012. Methods: The Healthy Body Image program is an evidence-based screening and intervention platform, enacted via community and online resources. An online screen was used to identify students at varying levels of risk or eating disorder symptom status; responses were used to direct students to universal or targeted online interventions or further evaluation. Universal prevention programs to improve healthy weight regulation and body image culture were offered to all students. Results: Formative data from 1,551 students illustrates the application of this model. Conclusions: The Healthy Body Image program is feasible to deliver and provides a comprehensive system of screening, evidence-based intervention, and community culture change.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337571600008

  • A randomized controlled trial of ecological momentary intervention plus brief group therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Psychotherapy Newman, M. G., Przeworski, A., Consoli, A. J., Taylor, C. B. 2014; 51 (2): 198-206


    Momentary intervention has been proposed as a cost-effective, generalizable, and ecologically valid method to increase the efficiency of face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The purpose of the current pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of a six-session palmtop computer-assisted Group CBT for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (CAGT6) in comparison with a six-session Group CBT for GAD without the computer (CBGT6) and typical (12 session) Group CBT for GAD (CBGT12) in a randomized controlled trial. Thirty-four individuals with a primary diagnosis of GAD were randomized to one of the three conditions and completed measures of GAD and anxiety before therapy, after therapy, and at 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Results indicated that CAGT6 was superior to CBGT6 at posttreatment, but not significantly different from CBGT12. At 6- and 12-month follow-ups, CAGT6 was neither significantly different from CBGT6, nor from CBGT12. Percentages of individuals achieving reliable change on two of the three GAD measures favored CAGT6 over CBGT6 at posttreatment, suggesting promise for the added value of the mobile technology.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0032519

    View details for PubMedID 24059730

  • Which symptoms matter? Self-report and observer discrepancies in repressors and high-anxious women with metastatic breast cancer JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE Giese-Davis, J., Tamagawa, R., Yutsis, M., Twirbutt, S., Piemme, K., Neri, E., Taylor, C. B., Spiegel, D. 2014; 37 (1): 22-36


    Clinicians working with cancer patients listen to them, observe their behavior, and monitor their physiology. How do we proceed when these indicators do not align? Under self-relevant stress, non-cancer repressors respond with high arousal but report low anxiety; the high-anxious report high anxiety but often have lower arousal. This study extends discrepancy research on repressors and the high-anxious to a metastatic breast cancer sample and examines physician rating of coping. Before and during a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), we assessed affect, autonomic reactivity, and observers coded emotional expression from TSST videotapes. We compared non-extreme (N = 40), low-anxious (N = 16), high-anxious (N = 19), and repressors (N = 19). Despite reported low anxiety, repressors expressed significantly greater Tension or anxiety cues. Despite reported high anxiety, the high-anxious expressed significantly greater Hostile Affect rather than Tension. Physicians rated both groups as coping significantly better than others. Future research might productively study physician-patient interaction in these groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10865-012-9461-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330784900003

    View details for PubMedID 23085787

  • Healthy Weight Regulation and Eating Disorder Prevention in High School Students: A Universal and Targeted Web-Based Intervention JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH Jones, M., Lynch, K. T., Kass, A. E., Burrows, A., Williams, J., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2014; 16 (2)


    Given the rising rates of obesity in children and adolescents, developing evidence-based weight loss or weight maintenance interventions that can be widely disseminated, well implemented, and are highly scalable is a public health necessity. Such interventions should ensure that adolescents establish healthy weight regulation practices while also reducing eating disorder risk.This study describes an online program, StayingFit, which has two tracks for universal and targeted delivery and was designed to enhance healthy living skills, encourage healthy weight regulation, and improve weight/shape concerns among high school adolescents.Ninth grade students in two high schools in the San Francisco Bay area and in St Louis were invited to participate. Students who were overweight (body mass index [BMI] >85th percentile) were offered the weight management track of StayingFit; students who were normal weight were offered the healthy habits track. The 12-session program included a monitored discussion group and interactive self-monitoring logs. Measures completed pre- and post-intervention included self-report height and weight, used to calculate BMI percentile for age and sex and standardized BMI (zBMI), Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) nutrition data, the Weight Concerns Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.A total of 336 students provided informed consent and were included in the analyses. The racial breakdown of the sample was as follows: 46.7% (157/336) multiracial/other, 31.0% (104/336) Caucasian, 16.7% (56/336) African American, and 5.7% (19/336) did not specify; 43.5% (146/336) of students identified as Hispanic/Latino. BMI percentile and zBMI significantly decreased among students in the weight management track. BMI percentile and zBMI did not significantly change among students in the healthy habits track, demonstrating that these students maintained their weight. Weight/shape concerns significantly decreased among participants in both tracks who had elevated weight/shape concerns at baseline. Fruit and vegetable consumption increased for both tracks. Physical activity increased among participants in the weight management track, while soda consumption and television time decreased.Results suggest that an Internet-based, universally delivered, targeted intervention may support healthy weight regulation, improve weight/shape concerns among participants with eating disorders risk, and increase physical activity in high school students. Tailored content and interactive features to encourage behavior change may lead to sustainable improvements in adolescent health.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/jmir.2995

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332397500004

    View details for PubMedID 24583683

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia with veterans: Evaluation of effectiveness and correlates of treatment outcomes BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Trockel, M., Karlin, B. E., Taylor, C. B., Manber, R. 2014; 53: 41-46


    This paper examines the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in Veterans and the effects of two process measures on CBT-I outcomes: 1) therapist ratings of patient adherence and 2) patient ratings of therapeutic alliance. Data are from 316 therapists in the Department of Veterans Affairs CBT-I Training Program and 696 patients receiving CBT-I from therapists undergoing training. Mixed effects model results indicate Insomnia Severity Index scores decreased from 20.7 at baseline to 10.9 (d = 2.3) during a typical course of CBT-I. Patients with highest tercile compared to those with lowest tercile adherence achieved, on average, 4.1 points greater reduction in ISI scores (d = 0.95). The effect of therapeutic alliance on change in insomnia severity was not significant after adjusting for adherence to CBT-I. These results support the effectiveness and feasibility of large-scale training in and implementation of CBT-I and indicate that greater focus on patient adherence may lead to enhanced outcomes. The current findings suggest that CBT-I therapists and training programs place greater emphasis on attending to and increasing patient adherence.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2013.11.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331680500005

  • The self-rating of the effects of alcohol questionnaire predicts heavy episodic drinking in a high-risk eating disorder population. The International journal of eating disorders Zhang, A., Fisher, A. J., Bailey, J. O., Kass, A. E., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2014


    Heavy episodic drinking (HED) is a serious problem among college women at high-risk for developing eating disorders (EDs). The main objectives of this study are to determine the relationship of the self-rating of the effects of alcohol (SRE) questionnaire and HED over time, and to determine the effects of relationship breakups on HED among college-aged women at high-risk for EDs.Data collected from 163 participants in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an ED prevention program were used in the analyses. Measures included the SRE, obtained at baseline, and self-reports of the number of HED episodes and relationship breakups each month for the past 12 months.Generalized linear mixed-effect regression models with Poisson distribution were conducted to test the effects of several variables on reported HED episodes over 12 months. Analyses demonstrated that SRE scores and the presence of a breakup predicted increased HED over time.The SRE may be useful in identifying individuals at risk of or with EDs who are at increased risk of HED. Furthermore, relationship breakups predict HED. Findings from the current study could be used to inform clinical interventions for this population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2014.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22365

    View details for PubMedID 25359121

  • Psychiatric co-morbidity in women presenting across the continuum of disordered eating. Eating behaviors Aspen, V., Weisman, H., Vannucci, A., Nafiz, N., Gredysa, D., Kass, A. E., Trockel, M., Jacobi, C., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2014; 15 (4): 686-693


    To compare the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric co-morbidity across a large sample of college women without an eating disorder, those at high risk for an eating disorder and women diagnosed using DSM-5 criteria for an eating disorder.549 college women aged 18-25.Data from the Eating Disorder Examination, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders and self-report questionnaires were analyzed using logistic regression for categorical data and ANCOVA for continuous measures.Eating disordered symptomatology was strongly associated with anxiety disorders, mood disorders and insomnia. These co-morbidities (type and severity) tend to increase with eating disorder symptom severity.Prevention and treatment programs for eating disorders need to address the high levels of mood, anxiety and sleep problems in this population. The findings on insomnia are novel and suggest that sleep disturbance may play an integral role in eating-related difficulties.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.08.023

    View details for PubMedID 25462028

  • Internet-based preventive intervention for reducing eating disorder risk: A randomized controlled trial comparing guided with unguided self-help. Behaviour research and therapy Kass, A. E., Trockel, M., Safer, D. L., Sinton, M. M., Cunning, D., Rizk, M. T., Genkin, B. H., Weisman, H. L., Bailey, J. O., Jacobi, C., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2014; 63C: 90-98


    Student Bodies, an internet-based intervention, has successfully reduced weight/shape concerns and prevented eating disorders in a subset of college-age women at highest risk for an eating disorder. Student Bodies includes an online, guided discussion group; however, the clinical utility of this component is unclear. This study investigated whether the guided discussion group improves program efficacy in reducing weight/shape concerns in women at high risk for an eating disorder. Exploratory analyses examined whether baseline variables predicted who benefitted most. Women with high weight/shape concerns (N = 151) were randomized to Student Bodies with a guided discussion group (n = 74) or no discussion group (n = 77). Regression analyses showed weight/shape concerns were reduced significantly more among guided discussion group than no discussion group participants (p = 0.002; d = 0.52); guided discussion group participants had 67% lower odds of having high-risk weight/shape concerns post-intervention (p = 0.02). There were no differences in binge eating at post-intervention between the two groups, and no moderators emerged as significant. Results suggest the guided discussion group improves the efficacy of Student Bodies in reducing weight/shape concerns in college students at high risk for an eating disorder.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2014.09.010

    View details for PubMedID 25461783

  • Moderators and mediators of outcome in Internet-based indicated prevention for eating disorders. Behaviour research and therapy Völker, U., Jacobi, C., Trockel, M. T., Taylor, C. B. 2014; 63C: 114-121


    The objective of this study was to investigate moderators and mediators of the effect of an indicated prevention program for eating disorders (ED) on reduction of dysfunctional attitudes and specific ED symptoms. 126 women (M age = 22.3; range 18-33) reporting subthreshold ED symptoms were randomized to the Student Bodies™+ (SB+) intervention or an assessment-only control condition. Assessments took place at pre-intervention, mid-intervention (mediators), post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. Mixed effects modeling including all available data from all time points were used for the data analysis. Intervention effects on the reduction of binge rate were weaker for participants with higher baseline BMI and for participants with a lower baseline purge rate. Intervention effects on reduction of eating disorder pathology were weaker for participants with higher baseline purge rate and with initial restrictive eating. No moderators of the intervention effect on restrictive eating were identified. An increase in knowledge mediated the beneficial effect of SB+ on binge rate. The results suggest that different moderators should be considered for the reduction of symptoms and change in attitudes of disturbed eating and that SB+ at least partially operates through psychoeducation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2014.09.008

    View details for PubMedID 25461786

  • Telephone-delivered health coaching improves anxiety outcomes after myocardial infarction: the 'ProActive Heart' trial EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY O'Neil, A., Hawkes, A. L., Atherton, J. J., Patrao, T. A., Sanderson, K., Wolfe, R., Taylor, C. B., Oldenburg, B. 2014; 21 (1): 30-38


    Recently, we found a telephone-delivered secondary prevention programme using health coaching ('ProActive Heart') to be effective in improving a range of key behavioural outcomes for myocardial infarction (MI) patients. What remains unclear, however, is the extent to which these treatment effects translate to important psychological outcomes such as depression and anxiety outcomes, an issue of clinical significance due to the substantial proportion of MI patients who experience depression and anxiety. The objective of the study was to investigate, as a secondary hypothesis of a larger trial, the effects of a telephone-delivered health coaching programme on depression and anxiety outcomes of MI patients.Two-arm, parallel-group, randomized, controlled design with six-months outcomes.Patients admitted to one of two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia following MI were assessed for eligibility. Four hundred and thirty patients were recruited and randomly assigned to usual care or an intervention group comprising up to 10 telephone-delivered 'health coaching' sessions (ProActive Heart). Regression analysis compared Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores of completing participants at six months (intervention: n = 141 versus usual care: n = 156).The intervention yielded reductions in anxiety at follow-up (mean difference = -0.7, 95% confidence interval=-1.4,-0.02) compared with usual care. A similar pattern was observed in mean depression scores but was not statistically significant.The ProActive Heart programme effectively improves anxiety outcomes of patients following myocardial infarction. If combined with psychological-specific treatment, this programme could impact anxiety of greater intensity in a clinically meaningful way.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2047487312460515

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328571900004

    View details for PubMedID 22956633

  • National Dissemination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Veterans: Therapist- and Patient-Level Outcomes JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Karlin, B. E., Trockel, M., Taylor, C. B., Gimeno, J., Manber, R. 2013; 81 (5): 912-917


    Objective: To evaluate the effects of national training in and implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system on clinicians' competency and patients' insomnia severity, symptoms of depression, and quality of life. Method: A prospective cohort of 102 VA clinicians (including mental health staff in various mental health and primary care settings) participated in the VA CBT-I Training Program during 2011 and 2012. Patients included 182 veterans treated by clinicians enrolled in the training. Clinicians were rated on taped therapy sessions, using a standardized competency rating form. Patients' symptoms were assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and standardized measures of depression and quality of life. Results: Of 102 clinicians attending workshop training, 94 (92%) met all training requirements, including minimum competency score criteria. Of 182 patients, 122 (67%) completed treatment. The mixed effects model revealed significant reductions in average patient ISI score (from 19.9 to 10.2, standard error = 3.0). Patients also improved on measures of depression and quality of life. Conclusion: National training in and implementation of CBT-I resulted in a significant increase in therapist competency to deliver CBT-I for almost all clinicians and in a large reduction in insomnia severity and improvement in depression and quality of life among veterans. Observed effect sizes are comparable to results of randomized clinical trials. These results suggest CBT-I can be feasibly and effectively disseminated to routine clinical settings, with very favorable patient outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0032554

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324780500017

  • Predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life outcomes among myocardial infarction patients BMC CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS Hawkes, A. L., Patrao, T. A., Ware, R., Atherton, J. J., Taylor, C. B., Oldenburg, B. F. 2013; 13


    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome for patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease. This report describes predictors of physical and mental HRQoL at six months post-hospitalisation for myocardial infarction.Participants were myocardial infarction patients (n=430) admitted to two tertiary referral centres in Brisbane, Australia who completed a six month coronary heart disease secondary prevention trial (ProActive Heart). Outcome variables were HRQoL (Short Form-36) at six months, including a physical and mental summary score. Baseline predictors included demographics and clinical variables, health behaviours, and psychosocial variables. Stepwise forward multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify significant independent predictors of six month HRQoL.Physical HRQoL was lower in participants who: were older (p<0.001); were unemployed (p=0.03); had lower baseline physical and mental HRQoL scores (p<0.001); had lower confidence levels in meeting sufficient physical activity recommendations (p<0.001); had no intention to be physically active in the next six months (p<0.001); and were more sedentary (p=0.001). Mental HRQoL was lower in participants who: were younger (p=0.01); had lower baseline mental HRQoL (p<0.001); were more sedentary (p=0.01) were depressed (p<0.001); and had lower social support (p=0.001).This study has clinical implications as identification of indicators of lower physical and mental HRQoL outcomes for myocardial infarction patients allows for targeted counselling or coronary heart disease secondary prevention efforts.Australian Clinical Trials Registry, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, CTRN12607000595415.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2261-13-69

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324440500001

    View details for PubMedID 24020831

  • Effect of a Telephone-Delivered Coronary Heart Disease Secondary Prevention Program (ProActive Heart) on Quality of Life and Health Behaviours: Primary Outcomes of a Randomised Controlled Trial INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE Hawkes, A. L., Patrao, T. A., Atherton, J., Ware, R. S., Taylor, C. B., O'Neil, A., Foreman, R., Oldenburg, B. F. 2013; 20 (3): 413-424


    Participation in coronary heart disease secondary prevention programs is low. Innovative programs to meet this treatment gap are required.To aim of this study is to describe the effectiveness of a telephone-delivered secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients.Four hundred and thirty adult myocardial infarction patients in Brisbane, Australia were randomised to a 6-month secondary prevention program or usual care. Primary outcomes were health-related quality of life (Short Form-36) and physical activity (Active Australia Survey).Significant intervention effects were observed for health-related quality of life on the mental component summary score (p = 0.02), and the social functioning (p = 0.04) and role-emotional (p = 0.03) subscales, compared with usual care. Intervention participants were also more likely to meet recommended levels of physical activity (p = 0.02), body mass index (p = 0.05), vegetable intake (p = 0.04) and alcohol consumption (p = 0.05).Telephone-delivered secondary prevention programs can significantly improve health outcomes and could meet the treatment gap for myocardial infarction patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12529-012-9250-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324115700012

    View details for PubMedID 23012159

  • Reducing the burden of eating disorders: A model for population-based prevention and treatment for university and college campuses INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Wilfley, D. E., Agras, W. S., Taylor, C. B. 2013; 46 (5): 529-532

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22117

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318779000032

    View details for PubMedID 23658106

  • Preventing Symptom Progression in Women at Risk for AN: Results of a Pilot Study EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW Ohlmer, R., Jacobi, C., Taylor, C. B. 2013; 21 (4): 323-329


    Despite the need, no targeted (indicated) prevention programs for women at risk for anorexia nervosa (AN) or with restrictive eating and normal body weight are available. Therefore, our aim was to develop a prevention program specific for these risk groups and to assess its feasibility and effectiveness in a pilot study.Thirty-six women selected by high weight and shape concerns, low BMI and/or high restrained eating participated in a 10-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioural prevention program for AN.Feasibility, adherence and acceptance were assessed at post-intervention; symptoms of disordered eating and associated psychopathology were assessed at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. The 32 women who finished the study completed 88% of the sessions. Satisfaction with the program was also high. AN-specific eating and associated psychopathology improved significantly and differentially in the three weight-related subgroups.Overall, the results of this pilot study are promising. The efficacy of this indicated preventive intervention should be tested in a larger randomized controlled trial.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/erv.2225

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320116100007

    View details for PubMedID 23520152

  • Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy for depression: Comparison among older and younger veterans AGING & MENTAL HEALTH Karlin, B. E., Walser, R. D., Yesavage, J., Zhang, A., Trockel, M., Taylor, C. B. 2013; 17 (5): 555-563


    Limited data exist on outcomes of older adults receiving psychotherapy for depression in real-world settings. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depression (ACT-D) offers potential utility for older individuals who may experience issues of loss, reduced control, and other life changes. The present article examines and compares outcomes of older and younger Veterans receiving ACT-D nationally in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health care system.Patient outcomes were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Therapeutic alliance was assessed using the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised.Six hundred fifty-five Veterans aged 18-64 and 76 Veterans aged 65+ received ACT-D. Seventy-eight percent of older and 67% of younger patients completed all sessions or finished early. Mean depression scores declined from 28.4 (SD = 11.4) to 17.5 (SD = 12.0) in the older group and 30.3 (SD = 10.6) to 19.1 (SD = 14.3) in the younger group. Within-group effect sizes were d = .95 and d = 1.06 for the two age groups, respectively. Quality of life and therapeutic alliance also increased during treatment.The findings suggest that ACT-D is an effective and acceptable treatment for older Veterans treated in routine clinical settings, including those with high levels of depression.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/13607863.2013.789002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320913300005

    View details for PubMedID 23607328

  • What constitutes clinically significant binge eating? Association between binge features and clinical validators in college-age women INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Vannucci, A., Theim, K. R., Kass, A. E., Trockel, M., Genkin, B., Rizk, M., Weisman, H., Bailey, J. O., Sinton, M. M., Aspen, V., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2013; 46 (3): 226-232


    To investigate the association between binge features and clinical validators.The Eating Disorder Examination assessed binge features in a sample of 549 college-age women: loss of control (LOC) presence, binge frequency, binge size, indicators of impaired control, and LOC severity. Clinical validators were self-reported clinical impairment and current psychiatric comorbidity, as determined via a semistructured interview.Compared with women without LOC, those with LOC had significantly greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and comorbidity (ps < 0.001). Among women with LOC (n = 252), the indicators of impaired control and LOC severity, but not binge size or frequency, were associated with greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and/or comorbidity (ps < 0.05). DICUSSION: Findings confirm that the presence of LOC may be the hallmark feature of binge eating. Further, dimensional ratings about the LOC experience--and possibly the indicators of impaired control--may improve reliable identification of clinically significant binge eating.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22115

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316216100004

    View details for PubMedID 23386591

  • Promoting Healthy Weight With "Stability Skills First": A Randomized Trial JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Kiernan, M., Brown, S. D., Schoffman, D. E., Lee, K., King, A. C., Taylor, C. B., Schleicher, N. C., Perri, M. G. 2013; 81 (2): 336-346


    Although behavioral weight-loss interventions produce short-term weight loss, long-term maintenance remains elusive. This randomized trial examined whether learning a novel set of "stability skills" before losing weight improved long-term weight management. Stability skills were designed to optimize individuals' current satisfaction with lifestyle and self-regulatory habits while requiring the minimum effort and attention necessary.Overweight/obese women (N = 267) were randomly assigned to one of two 6-month interventions and assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months. Maintenance First women participated first in an 8-week stability skills maintenance module and then in a standard 20-week behavioral weight-loss program. Weight Loss First women participated first in a standard 20-week behavioral weight-loss program and then in a standard 8-week problem-solving skills maintenance module. There was no intervention staff contact during the 12-month follow-up period (6-18 months).As designed, Maintenance First participants lost the same percentage of initial weight during the 6-month intervention period as Weight Loss First participants (M = -8.6%, SD = 5.7, vs. M = -9.1%, SD = 6.9; t = -0.6, p = .52). However, Maintenance First participants regained significantly less weight during the 12-month follow-up period (6-18 months) than Weight Loss First participants (M = 3.2 lb, SD = 10.4, vs. M = 7.3 lb, SD = 9.9 [M = 1.4 kg, SD = 4.7, vs. M = 3.3 kg, SD = 4.5]; t = 3.3, p = .001, d = 0.4).Learning stability skills before losing weight was successful in helping women to maintain weight loss without intervention staff contact during follow-up. These results can inform the study design of future innovative interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0030544

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316908500012

    View details for PubMedID 23106759

  • Designing virtual environments to measure behavioral correlates of state-level body satisfaction. Studies in health technology and informatics Purvis, C. K., Jones, M., Bailey, J., Bailenson, J., Taylor, C. B. 2013; 191: 168-172


    Virtual reality (VR) offers a unique method for eliciting state-variable fluctuations in body satisfaction and associated behaviors by allowing near-perfect control over environmental factors. Greater variability in momentary body satisfaction is associated with more problematic eating behavior and cognitive styles predictive of eating disorders. The field currently lacks a model for understanding environmental variables and everyday events that tend to influence fluctuations in state body satisfaction. This study proposes a model of state-level body satisfaction and presents a method for measuring changes as they occur. We aim to investigate body comparison, selective attention and body checking behaviors in relation to self-report levels of state body satisfaction. We additionally assess interpersonal correlates of state body satisfaction using VR to measure personal distance between subjects and avatars of varying body sizes. 80 female college students with varying levels of weight and shape concerns will be exposed to five virtual environments designed to elicit varying levels of body dissatisfaction: (a) an empty room; (b) an empty beach; (c) a beach populated with avatars; (d) an empty party scene; (e) a party scene populated with avatars. Self-report body satisfaction was measured immediately following each exposure. A tracking system automatically tracked subjects' head orientation and body translation to measure visual gaze and personal space behavior relative to each virtual human within the environment. Data collection is currently underway and expected to be completed by May 2013. Preliminary data and development of the VR model for state-variable assessment will be presented.

    View details for PubMedID 23792867

  • A Web-Delivered Care Management and Patient Self-Management Program for Recurrent Depression: A Randomized Trial PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES Hunkeler, E. M., Hargreaves, W. A., Fireman, B., Terdiman, J., Meresman, J. F., Porterfield, Y., Lee, J., Dea, R., Simon, G. E., Bauer, M. S., Unuetzer, J., Taylor, C. B. 2012; 63 (11): 1063-1071


    OBJECTIVE This study assessed the impact of an Internet-delivered care management and patient self-management program, eCare for Moods, on patients treated for recurrent or chronic depression. METHODS Patients with recurrent or chronic depression were randomly assigned to eCare (N=51) or usual specialty mental health care (N=52). The 12-month eCare program integrates with ongoing depression care, links to patients' electronic medical records, and provides clinicians with panel management and decision support. Participants were interviewed at baseline and six, 12, 18, and 24 months after enrollment. Telephone interviewers blind to treatment used a timeline follow-back method to estimate depression severity on a 6-point scale for each of the 105 study weeks (including the baseline). Differences between groups in weekly severity over two years were examined by generalized estimating equations. RESULTS Participants in eCare experienced more reduction in depressive symptoms (estimate=-.74 on the 6-point scale over two years; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-1.38 to -.09, p=.025) and were less often depressed (-.24 over two years; CI=-.46 to -.03, p=.026). At 24 months, 43% of eCare and 30% of usual-care participants were depression free; the number needed to treat to attain one additional depression-free participant was 8. eCare participants had other favorable outcomes: improved general mental health (p=.002), greater satisfaction with specialty care (p=.003) and with learning new coping skills (p<.001), and more confidence in managing depression (p=.006). CONCLUSIONS Internet-delivered care management can help improve outcomes of patients treated for recurrent or chronic depression.

    View details for DOI 10.1176/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311981200002

    View details for PubMedID 22983558

  • An examination of the Clinical Impairment Assessment among women at high risk for eating disorder onset BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Vannucci, A., Kass, A. E., Sinton, M. M., Aspen, V., Weisman, H., Bailey, J. O., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2012; 50 (6): 407-414


    Identifying measures that reliably and validly assess clinical impairment has important implications for eating disorder (ED) diagnosis and treatment. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) in women at high risk for ED onset. Participants were 543 women (20.6 ± 2.0 years) who were classified into one of three ED categories: clinical ED, high risk for ED onset, and low risk control. Among high risk women, the CIA demonstrated high internal consistency (? = 0.93) and good convergent validity with disordered eating attitudes (rs = 0.27-0.68, ps < 0.001). Examination of the CIA's discriminant validity revealed that CIA global scores were highest among women with a clinical ED (17.7 ± 10.7) followed by high risk women (10.6 ± 8.5) and low risk controls (3.0 ± 3.3), respectively (p < 0.001). High risk women reporting behavioral indices of ED psychopathology (objective and/or subjective binge episodes, purging behaviors, driven exercise, and ED treatment history) had higher CIA global scores than those without such indices (ps < 0.05), suggesting good criterion validity. These data establish the first norms for the CIA in a United States sample. The CIA is psychometrically sound among high risk women, and heightened levels of impairment among these individuals as compared to low risk women verify the relevance of early intervention efforts.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305168700007

    View details for PubMedID 22516320

  • Family-based Early Intervention for Anorexia Nervosa EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW Jones, M., Voelker, U., Lock, J., Taylor, C. B., Jacobi, C. 2012; 20 (3): e137-e143


    This study explores whether potential risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) can be modified by a family-based Internet-facilitated intervention and examines the feasibility, acceptability, and short-term efficacy of the Parents Act Now programme in the USA and Germany.Forty-six girls aged 11-17 were studied during a 12-month period and evaluated at screening, baseline, and post-intervention. Parents participated in the six-week intervention.Twenty-four per cent of girls (n?=?791) screened met the risk criteria for AN. Parents accessed the majority of the online sessions and rated the programme favourably. At post-assessment, 16 of 19 participants evidenced reduced risk status. Participants remained stable or increased in ideal body weight and reported decreased eating disorder attitudes and behaviours.Results suggest that an easily disseminated, brief, online programme with minimal therapist support is feasible, accepted favourably by parents, and may be beneficial for prevention of exacerbation of AN pathology.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/erv.2167

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302947500004

    View details for PubMedID 22438094

  • Social Support for Healthy Behaviors: Scale Psychometrics and Prediction of Weight Loss Among Women in a Behavioral Program OBESITY Kiernan, M., Moore, S. D., Schoffman, D. E., Lee, K., King, A. C., Taylor, C. B., Kiernan, N. E., Perri, M. G. 2012; 20 (4): 756-764


    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N = 267; mean BMI 32.1 ± 3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) "never" or "rarely" experienced support from friends or family. Using nonparametric classification methods, we identified two subscales-support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity-that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ?5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who "never" experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who "never" experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend vs. family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/oby.2011.293

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302143300008

    View details for PubMedID 21996661

  • Effects of an Internet-based intervention for subthreshold eating disorders: A randomized controlled trial Jacobi, C., Voelker, U., Trockel, M. T., Taylor, C. B. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2012: 93-99


    Women reporting initial eating disorder (ED) symptoms are at highest risk for the development of an eating disorder. Preventive interventions should, therefore, be specifically tailored for this subgroup.To adapt and evaluate the effects of the Internet-based prevention program "Student Bodies™" for women with symptoms of disordered eating and/or subthreshold eating disorder (ED) syndromes.126 women, reporting subthreshold ED symptoms (high weight and shape concerns and below threshold bingeing, purging, chronic dieting or several of these symptoms) were randomly assigned to a Student Bodies™+ (SB+) intervention or a wait-list control group and assessed at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. "Student Bodies™" was adapted to be suitable for subthreshold EDs. Main outcome measures were attitudes and symptoms of disordered eating. Pre-follow-up data were analyzed by ANCOVAS with mixed effects.At 6-month follow-up, compared to participants in the control group, participants in the intervention group showed significantly greater improvements on ED-related attitudes. Intervention participants also showed 67% (95% CI = 20-87%) greater reductions in combined rates of subjective and objective binges, and 86% (95% CI = 63-95%) greater reduction in purging episodes. Also, the rates of participants abstinent from all symptoms of disordered eating (restrictive eating, binge eating and any compensatory behavior) were significantly higher in the intervention group (45.1% vs. 26.9%). Post-hoc subgroup analyses revealed that for participants with binge eating the effect on EDE-Q scores was larger than in the pure restricting subgroup.The adapted "SB+" program represents an effective intervention for women with subthreshold EDs of the binge eating subtype.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2011.09.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301019200002

  • Depressive symptom dimensions and cardiac prognosis following myocardial infarction: results from the ENRICHD clinical trial PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE Bekke-Hansen, S., Trockel, M., Burg, M. M., Taylor, C. B. 2012; 42 (1): 51-60


    Depression following myocardial infarction (MI) independently increases risk for early cardiac morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest that somatic, but not cognitive, depressive symptoms are responsible for the increased risk. However, the effects of somatic depressive symptoms at follow-up, after sufficient time has elapsed to allow for physical recovery from the initial infarction, are not known. Our aim was to examine the relationship between cognitive and somatic depressive symptom dimensions at baseline and 12 months post-MI and subsequent mortality and cardiovascular morbidity.Patients were 2442 depressed and/or socially isolated men and women with acute MI included in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial. We used principal components analysis (PCA) of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) items to derive subscales measuring cognitive and somatic depressive symptom dimensions, and Cox regression with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing to examine the contribution of these dimensions to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and first recurrent non-fatal MI.After adjusting for medical co-morbidity and Bonferroni correction, the somatic depressive symptom dimension assessed proximately following MI did not significantly predict any endpoints. At 12 months post-MI, however, this dimension independently predicted subsequent all-cause [hazard ratio (HR) 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.81] and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.17-2.18). No significant associations were found between the cognitive depressive symptom dimension and any endpoints after Bonferroni correction.Somatic symptoms of depression at 12 months post-MI in patients at increased psychosocial risk predicted subsequent mortality. Psychosocial interventions aimed at improving cardiac prognosis may be enhanced by targeting somatic depressive symptoms, with particular attention to somatic symptom severity at 12 months post-MI.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0033291711001000

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298961600005

    View details for PubMedID 21682949

  • Effects of an Internet-based Prevention Programme for Eating Disorders in the USA and Germany u A Meta-analytic Review EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW Beintner, I., Jacobi, C., Taylor, C. B. 2012; 20 (1): 1-8


    A cross-cultural comparison of a cognitive-behavioural, Internet-based, 8-week prevention programme for eating disorders (StudentBodies™) evaluated in the USA and in Germany was performed. Six US and four German randomized controlled trials with a total (N) of 990 female high school and college students were included in the review. Two of the US and two of the German trials explicitly addressed high risk samples in a selective prevention approach. Effect sizes for main outcomes (disordered eating, weight and shape concerns) were calculated at postintervention and at follow-up. The intervention was associated with moderate improvements in eating disorder-related attitudes, especially reductions of negative body image and the desire to be thin. The reported effects remained significant at follow-up. No clear differences between US and German samples could be found on any of the outcome measures at postintervention. In conclusion, StudentBodies™ seems equally suitable and effective for American and German students.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/erv.1130

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298792700017

    View details for PubMedID 21796737

  • Who is really at risk? Identifying risk factors for subthreshold and full syndrome eating disorders in a high-risk sample PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE Jacobi, C., Fittig, E., Bryson, S. W., Wilfley, D., Kraemer, H. C., Taylor, C. B. 2011; 41 (9): 1939-1949


    Numerous longitudinal studies have identified risk factors for the onset of most eating disorders (EDs). Identifying women at highest risk within a high-risk sample would allow for focusing of preventive resources and also suggests different etiologies.A longitudinal cohort study over 3 years in a high-risk sample of 236 college-age women randomized to the control group of a prevention trial for EDs. Potential risk factors and interactions between risk factors were assessed using the methods developed previously. Main outcome measures were time to onset of a subthreshold or full ED.At the 3-year follow-up, 11.2% of participants had developed a full or partial ED. Seven of 88 potential risk factors could be classified as independent risk factors, seven as proxies, and two as overlapping factors. Critical comments about eating from teacher/coach/siblings and a history of depression were the most potent risk factors. The incidence for participants with either or both of these risk factors was 34.8% (16/46) compared to 4.2% (6/144) for participants without these risk factors, with a sensitivity of 0.75 and a specificity of 0.82.Targeting preventive interventions at women with high weight and shape concerns, a history of critical comments about eating weight and shape, and a history of depression may reduce the risk for EDs.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0033291710002631

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294257900015

    View details for PubMedID 21276276

  • An e-mail delivered CBT for sleep-health program for college students: effects on sleep quality and depression symptoms. Journal of clinical sleep medicine Trockel, M., Manber, R., Chang, V., Thurston, A., Taylor, C. B. 2011; 7 (3): 276-281


    We examined the effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program (Refresh) to improve sleep, on sleep quality and symptoms of depression among first-year college students.Students in one residence hall (n = 48) participated in Refresh and students in another residence hall (n = 53) participated in a program of equal length (Breathe) designed to improve mood and increase resilience to stress. Both programs were delivered by e-mail in 8 weekly PDF files. Of these, 19 Refresh program participants and 15 Breathe program participants reported poor sleep quality at baseline (scores ? 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]). Participants completed the PSQI and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and post-intervention.Among students with poor sleep (PSQI > 5) at baseline, participation in Refresh was associated with greater improvements in sleep quality and greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in Breathe. Among students with high sleep quality at baseline there was no difference in baseline to post-intervention changes in sleep (PSQI) or depressive symptom severity (CES-D).A cognitive behavioral sleep improvement program delivered by e-mail may be a cost effective way for students with poor sleep quality to improve their sleep and reduce depressive symptoms. An important remaining question is whether improving sleep will also reduce risk for future depression.

    View details for DOI 10.5664/JCSM.1072

    View details for PubMedID 21677898

  • Impact of Depression Treatment on Mental and Physical Health-Related Quality of Life of Cardiac Patients A META-ANALYSIS JOURNAL OF CARDIOPULMONARY REHABILITATION AND PREVENTION O'Neil, A., Sanderson, K., Oldenburg, B., Taylor, C. B. 2011; 31 (3): 146-156


    : To conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of depression treatment on mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of cardiac patients.: Studies were identified using medical, health, psychiatry, psychology, and social sciences databases. Inclusion criteria were (1) 1 or more control conditions, (2) random assignment to condition after admission for myocardial infarction (MI)/acute coronary syndrome, after recording positive results on a depression screener, (3) documentation of depression symptoms at baseline, (4) depression management as a component of the rehabilitation/intervention, (5) validated measure of HRQOL as an outcome, at minimum 6-month followup. For meta-analysis, mental and physical HRQOL were the end points studied, using standardized mean differences for continuous outcome measures, with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was explored by calculating I statistic.: Five randomized controlled trials included in the analysis represented 2105 participants (1058 intervention vs 1047 comparator). Compared with a comparator group at 6 months, a test for overall effect demonstrated statistically significant improvements in mental HRQOL in favor of the intervention (standardized mean differences = -0.29 [-0.38 to -0.20], [P < .00001]; I = 0%). Depression treatment had a modest yet significant impact on physical HRQOL (standardized mean differences = -0.14 [-0.24 to -0.04] [P = .009]; I = 15%).: While the impact of post-MI depression interventions on physical HRQOL is modest, treatment can improve mental HRQOL in a significant way. Future research is required to develop and evaluate a program that can achieve vital improvements in overall HRQOL, and potentially cardiovascular outcomes, of cardiac patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/HCR.0b013e3181fc0985

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289976600003

    View details for PubMedID 21150634

  • A randomised, feasibility trial of a tele-health intervention for Acute Coronary Syndrome patients with depression ('MoodCare'): Study protocol BMC CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS O'Neil, A., Hawkes, A. L., Chan, B., Sanderson, K., Forbes, A., Hollingsworth, B., Atherton, J., Hare, D. L., Jelinek, M., Eadie, K., Taylor, C. B., Oldenburg, B. 2011; 11


    Coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression are leading causes of disease burden globally and the two often co-exist. Depression is common after Myocardial Infarction (MI) and it has been estimated that 15-35% of patients experience depressive symptoms. Co-morbid depression can impair health related quality of life (HRQOL), decrease medication adherence and appropriate utilisation of health services, lead to increased morbidity and suicide risk, and is associated with poorer CHD risk factor profiles and reduced survival. We aim to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised, multi-centre trial designed to compare a tele-health program (MoodCare) for depression and CHD secondary prevention, with Usual Care (UC).Over 1600 patients admitted after index admission for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) are being screened for depression at six metropolitan hospitals in the Australian states of Victoria and Queensland. Consenting participants are then contacted at two weeks post-discharge for baseline assessment. One hundred eligible participants are to be randomised to an intervention or a usual medical care control group (50 per group). The intervention consists of up to 10 × 30-40 minute structured telephone sessions, delivered by registered psychologists, commencing within two weeks of baseline screening. The intervention focuses on depression management, lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy eating, smoking cessation, alcohol intake), medication adherence and managing co-morbidities. Data collection occurs at baseline (Time 1), 6 months (post-intervention) (Time 2), 12 months (Time 3) and 24 months follow-up for longer term effects (Time 4). We are comparing depression (Cardiac Depression Scale [CDS]) and HRQOL (Short Form-12 [SF-12]) scores between treatment and UC groups, assessing the feasibility of the program through patient acceptability and exploring long term maintenance effects. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the costs and outcomes for patients in the intervention and control groups is being conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the government.This manuscript presents the protocol for a randomised, multi-centre trial to evaluate the feasibility of a tele-based depression management and CHD secondary prevention program for ACS patients. The results of this trial will provide valuable new information about potential psychological and wellbeing benefits, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of an innovative tele-based depression management and secondary prevention program for CHD patients experiencing depression.Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12609000386235.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2261-11-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288318000001

    View details for PubMedID 21349204

  • Depression, heart rate related variables and cardiovascular disease INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY Taylor, C. B. 2010; 78 (1): 80-88


    Depression is a risk factor for both onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and increased morbidity and mortality for those with CVD. Many, but not all studies, have found that depressed patients have alterations in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). This variability is thought to reflect autonomic dysfunction. HR tends to be higher in depressed patients and HRV lower. Both higher heart rates and lower HRV increase CVD risk. Beta-blockers reduce HR and increase HRV and should be considered for depressed patients with CVD, elevated HR and/or reduced HRV. Exercise has similar, but smaller effects. Few studies have examined the effects of psychological interventions on HRV and the results have either been modest or examined only short term. Future research should focus on well-characterized subgroups of depressed patients at risk for CVD with assessment of other important factors that may affect HRV and CVD risk. Studies of high frequency HRV need to account for the effects of respiration.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2010.04.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282406900010

    View details for PubMedID 20420861

  • Does improving mood in depressed patients alter factors that may affect cardiovascular disease risk? JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH Taylor, C. B., Conrad, A., Wilhelm, F. H., Strachowski, D., Khaylis, A., Neri, E., Giese-Davis, J., Roth, W. T., Cooke, J. P., Kraemer, H., Spiegel, D. 2009; 43 (16): 1246-1252


    To determine if improvement in mood would ameliorate autonomic dysregulation, HPA dysfunction, typical risk factors and C-reactive protein in depressed patients with elevated cardiovascular disease risk (CVD), 48 depressed participants with elevated cardiovascular risk factors were randomized to a cognitive behavioral intervention (CBT) or a waiting list control (WLC) condition. Twenty non-depressed age and risk-matched controls were also recruited. Traditional risk factors (e.g., lipids, blood pressure) and C-reactive protein were assessed pre- and post-treatment six months later. Subjects also underwent a psychophysiological stress test while cardiovascular physiology was measured. Salivary cortisol was measured during the day and during the psychological stress test. At post-treatment, the CBT subjects were significantly less depressed than WLC subjects. There was no significant difference in change scores on any of the traditional risk factors or C-reactive protein, cortisol measures, or cardiovascular physiology, except for triglyceride levels and heart rate, which were significantly lower in treatment compared to control subjects. The normal controls exhibited no change in the variables measured during the same time. A significant improvement in mood may have little impact on most traditional or atypical risk factors, cortisol or cardiophysiology.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.05.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272860300002

    View details for PubMedID 19577757

  • Binge Drinking in Women at Risk for Developing Eating Disorders INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Khaylis, A., Trockel, M., Taylor, C. B. 2009; 42 (5): 409-414


    To determine binge drinking rates in college-age women at risk for eating disorders and to examine factors related to binge drinking over time.Participants were 480 college-age women who were at high risk for developing an eating disorder (ED) and who had a body mass index (BMI) between 18 and 32. Participants were assessed annually for 4 years.Participants reported high rates of binge drinking and frequent binge drinking throughout college. Binge drinking was positively correlated with dietary restraint, coping using substances, coping using denial, and life events.The study's findings suggest that binge drinking is highly prevalent in women at high risk for developing eating disorders. Results also indicated that binge drinking was related to dieting and maladaptive coping patterns. Intervention for women with strong weight and shape concerns should also address problematic alcohol use.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267299100005

    View details for PubMedID 19115362

  • Randomised controlled trial of a secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients ('ProActive Heart'): study protocol. Secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients BMC CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS Hawkes, A. L., Atherton, J., Taylor, C. B., Scuffham, P., Eadie, K., Miller, N. H., Oldenburg, B. 2009; 9


    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a significant cause of health and economic burden. Secondary prevention programs play a pivotal role in the treatment and management of those affected by CHD although participation rates are poor due to patient, provider, health system and societal-level barriers. As such, there is a need to develop innovative secondary prevention programs to address the treatment gap. Telephone-delivered care is convenient, flexible and has been shown to improve behavioural and clinical outcomes following myocardial infarction (MI). This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a six-month telephone-delivered secondary prevention program for MI patients (ProActive Heart).550 adult MI patients have been recruited over a 14 month period (December 2007 to January 2009) through two Brisbane metropolitan hospitals, and randomised to an intervention or control group (n = 225 per group). The intervention commences within two weeks of hospital discharge delivered by study-trained health professionals ('health coaches') during up to 10 x 30 minute scripted telephone health coaching sessions. Participants also receive a ProActive Heart handbook and an educational resource to use during the health coaching sessions. The intervention focuses on appropriate modification of CHD risk factors, compliance with pharmacological management, and management of psychosocial issues. Data collection occurs at baseline or prior to commencement of the intervention (Time 1), six months follow-up or the completion of the intervention (Time 2), and at 12 months follow-up for longer term outcomes (Time 3). Primary outcome measures include quality of life (Short Form-36) and physical activity (Active Australia Survey). A cost-effective analysis of the costs and outcomes for patients in the intervention and control groups is being conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the government.The results of this study will provide valuable new information about an innovative telephone-delivered cost-effective secondary prevention program for MI patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2261-9-16

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266920300001

    View details for PubMedID 19426524

  • Testing Objective Measures of Motor Impairment in Early Parkinson's Disease: Feasibility Study of an At-Home Testing Device MOVEMENT DISORDERS Goetz, C. G., Stebbins, G. T., Wolff, D., DeLeeuw, W., Bronte-Stewart, H., Elble, R., Hallet, M., Nutt, J., Ramig, L., Sanger, T., Wu, A. D., Kraus, P. H., Blasucci, L. M., Shamim, E. A., Sethi, K. D., Spielman, J., Kubota, K., Grove, A. S., Dishman, E., Taylor, C. B. 2009; 24 (4): 551-556


    We tested the feasibility of a computer based at-home testing device (AHTD) in early-stage, unmedicated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients over 6 months. We measured compliance, technical reliability, and patient satisfaction to weekly assessments of tremor, small and large muscle bradykinesia, speech, reaction/movement times, and complex motor control. relative to the UPDRS motor score. The AHTD is a 6.5'' x 10'' computerized assessment battery. Data are stored on a USB memory stick and sent by internet to a central data repository as encrypted data packets. Although not designed or powered to measure change, the study collected data to observe patterns relative to UPDRS motor scores. Fifty-two PD patients enrolled, and 50 completed the 6 month trial, 48 remaining without medication. Patients complied with 90.6% of weekly 30-minute assessments, and 98.5% of data packets were successfully transmitted and decrypted. On a 100-point scale, patient satisfaction with the program at study end was 87.2 (range: 80-100). UPDRS motor scores significantly worsened over 6 months, and trends for worsening over time occurred for alternating finger taps (P = 0.08), tremor (P = 0.06) and speech (P = 0.11). Change in tremor was a significant predictor of change in UPDRS (P = 0.047) and was detected in the first month of the study. This new computer-based technology offers a feasible format for assessing PD-related impairment from home. The high patient compliance and satisfaction suggest the feasibility of its incorporation into larger clinical trials, especially when travel is difficult and early changes or frequent data collection are considered important to document.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mds.22379

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265003800010

    View details for PubMedID 19086085

  • AHA science advisory. Depression and coronary heart disease. Recommendations for screening, referral, and treatment. A science advisory from the American Heart Association Prevention Committee to the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care Outcomes Research. Endorsed by the American Psychiatric Association. Progress in cardiovascular nursing Lichtman, J. H., Bigger, J. T., Blumenthal, J. A., Frasure-Smith, N., Kaufmann, P. G., Lespérance, F., Mark, D. B., Sheps, D. S., Taylor, C. B., Froelicher, E. S. 2009; 24 (1): 19-26


    Depression is commonly present in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and is independently associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Screening tests for depressive symptoms should be applied to identify patients who may require further assessment and treatment. This multispecialty consensus document reviews the evidence linking depression with CHD and provides recommendations for healthcare providers for the assessment, referral, and treatment of depression.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1751-7117.2009.00028.x

    View details for PubMedID 19261139

  • Smoking Behavior Postmvocardial Infarction Among ENRICHD Trial Participants: Cognitive Behavior Therapy Intervention for Depression and Low Perceived Social Support Compared With Care as Usual PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Trockel, M., Burg, M., Jaffe, A., Barbour, K., Taylor, C. B. 2008; 70 (8): 875-882


    Patients with cardiovascular disease who stop smoking lower their risk of subsequent morbidity and mortality. However, patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction (MI) are more likely to be depressed than the general population, which may make smoking cessation more difficult. Poor social support may also make smoking cessation more difficult for some patients. This study examines the effect of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for depression, low perceived social support or both on smoking behavior in post-MI patients.Participants were 1233 patients with a history of smoking enrolled in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients (ENRICHD) trial who provided 7-day point-prevalence smoking behavior information at baseline and at two or more follow-up assessments. The ENRICHD trial enrolled post-MI patients with depression, low perceived social support or both. Participants were randomly assigned to either CBT intervention or usual care. We used mixed effects models to accommodate data from multiple smoking point-prevalence measures for each individual participant.CBT did not significantly reduce post-MI smoking across all intervention patients with a history of smoking. However, CBT did reduce post-MI smoking among the subgroup of depressed patients with adequate perceived social support (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98).CBT for depression without more specific attention to smoking cessation may have little overall value as a strategy for helping post-MI patients refrain from smoking. However, use of CBT to treat depression may have the gratuitous benefit of reducing smoking among some post-MI patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181842897

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260401100006

    View details for PubMedID 18842753

  • Reduction of overweight and eating disorder symptoms via the Internet in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Doyle, A. C., Goldschmidt, A., Huang, C., Winzelberg, A. J., Taylor, C. B., Wilfley, D. E. 2008; 43 (2): 172-179


    Overweight in adolescence is a significant problem which is associated with body dissatisfaction and eating disorder (ED) behaviors. Cost-effective methods for early intervention of obesity and prevention of ED are important because of the refractory nature of both. This multisite RCT evaluated an Internet-delivered program targeting weight loss and ED attitudes/behaviors in adolescents.A total of 80 overweight adolescents 12-17 years of age completed Student Bodies 2 (SB2), a 16-week cognitive-behavioral program, or usual care (UC).Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were reduced in the SB2 group compared with the UC group from baseline to post-intervention (p = .027; eta(p)(2) = .08). The SB2 group maintained this reduction in BMI z-scores at 4-month follow-up, but significant differences were not observed because of improvement in the UC group. The SB2 group evidenced greater increases in dietary restraint post-intervention (p = .016) and less improvement on shape concerns at follow-up (p = .044); however these differences were not clinically significant. No other statistically significant differences were noted between groups on ED attitudes or behaviors. The SB2 participants reported using healthy eating-related and physical activity-related skills more frequently than UC participants post-intervention (p = .001) and follow-up (p = .012).Findings suggest that an Internet-delivered intervention yielded a modest reduction in weight status that continued 4 months after treatment and that ED attitudes/behaviors were not significantly improved. Group differences on weight loss were not sustained at 4-month follow-up because of parallel improvements in the groups. Future studies are needed to improve program adherence and to further explore the efficacy of Internet-delivery of weight control programs for adolescents.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.01.01

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257956100011

    View details for PubMedID 18639791

  • Circadian affective, cardiopulmonary, and cortisol variability in depressed and nondepressed individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH Conrad, A., Wilhelm, F. H., Roth, W. T., Spiegel, D., Taylor, C. B. 2008; 42 (9): 769-777


    Depression is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) perhaps mediated by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis or vagal dysregulation. We investigated circadian mood variation and HPA-axis and autonomic function in older (55 years) depressed and nondepressed volunteers at risk for CVD by assessing diurnal positive and negative affect (PA, NA), cortisol, and cardiopulmonary variables in 46 moderately depressed and 19 nondepressed volunteers with elevated CVD risk. Participants sat quietly for 5-min periods (10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 17:00, 19:00, and 21:00), and then completed an electronic diary assessing PA and NA. Traditional and respiration-controlled heart rate variability (HRV) variables were computed for these periods as an index of vagal activity. Salivary cortisols were collected at waking, waking+30min, 12:00, 17:00, and 21:00h. Cortisol peaked in the early morning after waking, and gradually declined over the day, but did not differ between groups. PA was lower and NA was higher in the depressed group throughout the day. HRV did not differ between groups. Negative emotions were inversely related to respiratory sinus arrhythmia in nondepressed participants. We conclude that moderately depressed patients do not show abnormal HPA-axis function. Diurnal PA and NA distinguish depressed from nondepressed individuals at risk for CVD, while measures of vagal regulation, even when controlled for physical activity and respiratory confounds, do not. Diurnal mood variations of older individuals at risk for CVD differ from those reported for other groups and daily fluctuations in NA are not related to cardiac autonomic control in depressed individuals.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2007.08.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256651600009

    View details for PubMedID 17884093

  • Family, peer, and media predictors of becoming eating disordered ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Field, A. E., Javaras, K. M., Aneja, P., Kitos, N., Camargo, C. A., Taylor, C. B., Laird, N. M. 2008; 162 (6): 574-579


    To identify predictors of becoming eating disordered among adolescents.Prospective cohort study.Self-report questionnaires.Girls (n = 6916) and boys (n = 5618), aged 9 to 15 years at baseline, in the ongoing Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Main Exposures Parent, peer, and media influences.Onset of starting to binge eat or purge (ie, vomiting or using laxatives) at least weekly.During 7 years of follow-up, 4.3% of female subjects and 2.3% of male subjects (hereafter referred to as "females" and "males") started to binge eat and 5.3% of females and 0.8% of males started to purge to control their weight. Few participants started to both binge eat and purge. Rates and risk factors varied by sex and age group (<14 vs > or =14 years). Females younger than 14 years whose mothers had a history of an eating disorder were nearly 3 times more likely than their peers to start purging at least weekly (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-5.9); however, maternal history of an eating disorder was unrelated to risk of starting to binge eat or purge in older adolescent females. Frequent dieting and trying to look like persons in the media were independent predictors of binge eating in females of all ages. In males, negative comments about weight by fathers was predictive of starting to binge at least weekly.Risk factors for the development of binge eating and purging differ by sex and by age group in females. Maternal history of an eating disorder is a risk factor only in younger adolescent females.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256627400011

    View details for PubMedID 18524749

  • Do adherence variables predict outcome in an online program for the prevention of eating disorders? JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Manwaring, J. L., Bryson, S. W., Goldschmidt, A. B., Winzelberg, A. J., Luce, K. H., Cunning, D., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2008; 76 (2): 341-346


    Unlike traditional interventions, Internet interventions allow for objective tracking and examination of the usage of program components. Student Bodies (SB), an online eating disorder (ED) prevention program, significantly reduced ED attitudes/behaviors in college-aged women with high body image concerns, and reduced the development of EDs in some higher risk subgroups. The authors investigated how adherence measures were associated with ED attitudes and behaviors after treatment. Female SB participants (n = 209) completed the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q; C. G. Fairburn & S. J. Beglin, 1994) at baseline, posttreatment, and 1-year follow-up. Total weeks participation and frequency of utilizing the online Web pages/journals predicted pre- to posttreatment changes in EDE-Q Restraint but not in other ED symptoms. In participants with some compensatory behaviors, discussion board and booster session use were associated with increased weight/shape concerns during follow-up. In overweight participants, higher online Web page/journal use was related to decreased EDE-Q Eating Concern scores during follow-up. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between adherence to specific program components and outcome in a successful Internet-based intervention. Results can be used to inform future development and tailoring of prevention interventions to maximize effectiveness and facilitate dissemination.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.341

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254539400015

    View details for PubMedID 18377129

  • Randomized, controlled trial of an internet-facilitated intervention for reducing binge eating and overweight in adolescents PEDIATRICS Jones, M., Luce, K. H., Osborne, M. I., Taylor, K., Cunning, D., Doyle, A. C., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2008; 121 (3): 453-462


    This study examined the efficacy of an Internet-facilitated intervention for weight maintenance and binge eating in adolescents.A total of 105 adolescent male and female high school students at risk for overweight (mean age: 15.1 +/- 1.0 years) were randomly assigned to a 16-week online intervention, StudentBodies2-BED (n = 52), or the wait-list control group (n = 53).Participants in the StudentBodies2-BED group had significantly lower BMI z scores and BMI from baseline assessment to follow-up assessment, compared with the wait-list control group. In addition, significant reductions in objective binge episodes and subjective binge episodes from baseline assessment to posttreatment assessment and from baseline assessment to follow-up assessment were observed among StudentBodies2-BED participants. The StudentBodies2-BED group also reported significantly reduced weight and shape concerns from posttreatment assessment to follow-up assessment and from baseline assessment to follow-up assessment. Participants in the StudentBodies2-BED group who engaged in objective overeating or binge eating episodes at baseline assessment experienced a significantly greater reduction in BMI at follow-up assessment, compared with the wait-list control group.Results suggest that an Internet-facilitated intervention is moderately effective in short-term weight loss and weight maintenance and yields a large reduction in binge eating. This study also demonstrates that weight management and reduction of eating disorder psychopathological features can be achieved simultaneously by using an easily disseminated, Internet-facilitated program.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253780100001

    View details for PubMedID 18310192

  • The clinical significance of loss of control over eating in overweight adolescents INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Goldschmidt, A. B., Jones, M., Manwaring, J. L., Luce, K. H., Osborne, M. I., Cunning, D., Taylor, K. L., Doyle, A. C., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2008; 41 (2): 153-158


    Given limited data on the diagnostic validity of binge eating disorder (BED) in adolescents, this study sought to characterize overweight adolescents according to types of overeating episodes.Ninety-six adolescents (ages 13-17 years) with recurrent binge eating (BE), loss of control with or without overeating (subclinical BE; SUB), overeating without loss of control (OE), and no overeating or loss of control episodes (CONTROL) were compared on weight/shape concerns and depressive symptoms using ANCOVA and post-hoc least squares difference tests.BE and SUB adolescents had higher weight/shape concern scores than OEs and CONTROLs (ps < .01). BE and SUB adolescents had higher depression scores than CONTROL adolescents (ps < .05). BE adolescents had greater depression scores than OE (p < .01) but not SUB adolescents.Loss of control over eating signals increased impairment independent of overeating in adolescents. Results support refining BED criteria for youth to reflect this distinction.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20481

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253226300007

    View details for PubMedID 18095271

  • Sympathetic activation in broadly defined generalized anxiety disorder JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH Roth, W. T., Doberenz, S., Dietel, A., Conrad, A., Mueller, A., Wollburg, E., Meuret, A. E., Taylor, C. B., Kim, S. 2008; 42 (3): 205-212


    The definition of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been narrowed in successive editions of DSM by emphasizing intrusive worry and deemphasizing somatic symptoms of hyperarousal. We tried to determine the clinical characteristics of more broadly defined chronically anxious patients, and whether they would show physiological signs of sympathetic activation. A group whose chief complaint was frequent, unpleasant tension over at least the last six weeks for which they desired treatment, was compared with a group who described themselves as calm. Participants were assessed with structured interviews and questionnaires. Finger skin conductance, motor activity, and ambient temperature were measured for 24h. Results show that during waking and in bed at night, runs of continuous minute-by-minute skin conductance level (SCL) declines were skewed towards being shorter in the tense group than in the calm group. In addition, during waking, distributions of minute SCLs were skewed towards higher levels in the tense group, although overall mean SCL did not differ. Thus, the tense group showed a failure to periodically reduce sympathetic tone, presumably a corollary of failure to relax. We conclude that broader GAD criteria include a substantial number of chronically anxious and hyperaroused patients who do not fall within standard criteria. Such patients deserve attention by clinicians and researchers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.12.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253397900005

    View details for PubMedID 17250853

  • The effects of cognitive behavior therapy on depression in older patients with cardiovascular risk. Depression and anxiety Strachowski, D., Khaylis, A., Conrad, A., Neri, E., Spiegel, D., Taylor, C. B. 2008; 25 (8): E1-10


    This study examined the effect of a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) therapy intervention designed to reduce depression in older patients with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Forty-eight depressed patients with elevated CVD were randomized to a 16-week individual CBT intervention (n = 23) or a wait-list control (WLC) group (n = 25). Pre- and post-treatment measures of depression were obtained during office visits, and measures of positive and negative affect were obtained during laboratory psychological stress testing and at five points during the day. At post-treatment, the CBT subjects were significantly less depressed than WLC subjects on the Hamilton Depression Inventory (F = 52.8, P<.001, ES = 1.85) and the Beck Depression Inventory (F = 17.1, P = <.001, ES = 0.85). Fifty-seven percent (13/23) of subjects in the CBT treatment were considered to be in remission (on the basis of a clinical interview) at post compared to only 4% (1/25) in the WLC (chi(2) = 9.0, P =.003). Treatment subjects reported significantly less stress on the Perceived Stress Scale (F = 23.2, P<.001). CBT significantly improved mean positive affect during the day (F = 12.7, P =.0001) but there were no significant differences in mean negative affect (F = 1.8, P =.19). CBT significantly reduced negative affect (F = 7.1, P =.01) during psychological stress testing but did not affect positive affect. CBT is an effective treatment for reducing depression and increasing positive affect in patients at risk for CVD, but the results vary by time of measurement and measurement setting.

    View details for PubMedID 17377961

  • Depression and coronary heart disease. Recommendations for screening, referral, and treatment. A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association Prevention Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Circulation Lichtman JH, Bigger JT, Blumenthal JA, Frasure-Smith N, Kaufmann PG, Lesperance F, Mark DB, Sheps DS, Taylor CB 2008; 118 (17): 1768-75
  • Effects of cognitive behavior therapy on smoking behavior post-MI among ENRICHD trial participants. Psychosomatic Medicine Trockel M, Burg M, Jaffe A, Barrbur K, Talor CB 2008; 70 (8): 875-82
  • The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety in adolescents DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY Hayward, C., Wilson, K. A., Lagle, K., Kraemer, H. C., Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B. 2008; 25 (3): 200-206


    To evaluate a developmental psychopathology approach for understanding adolescent social anxiety, parent-reported predictors of social anxiety were examined in a nonclinical sample of adolescents. Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from biological parents of 770 participants. Potential risk factors assessed included child characteristics: negative affect, shyness, separation anxiety disorder, and childhood chronic illness, as well as parent characteristics: major depression, panic disorder, and agoraphobia. Adolescent social anxiety was measured multiple times during high school. Findings indicate stability in social anxiety symptoms across time. Parent-reported, childhood negative affect, shyness, and chronic illness as well as parental panic disorder or agoraphobia were associated with adolescent social anxiety. Interactions were observed between parent-reported childhood shyness and gender and between parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness in the prediction of social anxiety. Parent-reported childhood shyness was a stronger predictor of adolescent social anxiety in females compared to males. The combined effect of subjects being positive for both parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness was greater than would be expected based on additive effects. This study provides support for a multifactorial and developmentally informed understanding of adolescent social anxiety.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/da.20289

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254588400004

    View details for PubMedID 17348001

  • Issues in the dissemination of cognitive-behavior therapy NORDIC JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Taylor, C. B., Chang, V. Y. 2008; 62: 37-44


    In the past 40 years, cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) has emerged as the initial treatment of choice for patients with mild to moderate depression, anxiety disorders and other problems. In this paper, we discuss issues related to the dissemination and implementation of CBT in various practice settings as well as the use of manuals, computers, the telephone, and the Internet to aid dissemination and implementation. We review key aspects of CBT dissemination, such as the reach of CBT, models of dissemination, and obstacles and barriers to dissemination including patient interest, therapist training and research priorities. The effectiveness of manualized programs is considered, as well as the increasing sophistication of computer-assisted therapy. Stepped-care approaches are discussed as a viable solution to some of these barriers. We provide two examples of successful CBT dissemination, the Staying Free program, a smoking cessation program for inpatients, and the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies program in Britain, which aims to improve access to psychological therapy. We argue that two critical factors will determine the success of implementation of CBT in this century: 1) mandated outcomes and 2) leadership.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/08039480802315673

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260298500007

    View details for PubMedID 18752117

  • Prognostic indices with brief and standard CBT for panic disorder: II. Moderators of outcome PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE Dow, M. G., Kenardy, J. A., Johnston, D. W., Newman, M. G., Taylor, C. B., Thomson, A. 2007; 37 (10): 1503-1509


    Despite the growth of reduced therapist-contact cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programmes, there have been few systematic attempts to determine prescriptive indicators for such programmes vis-à-vis more standard forms of CBT delivery. The present study aimed to address this in relation to brief (6-week) and standard (12-week) therapist-directed CBT for panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia. Higher baseline levels of severity and associated disability/co-morbidity were hypothesized to moderate treatment effects, in favour of the 12-week programme.Analyses were based on outcome data from two out of three treatment groups (n=72) from a recent trial of three forms of CBT delivery for PD. The dependent variables were a continuous composite panic/anxiety score and a measure of clinical significance. Treatment x predictor interactions were examined using multiple and logistic regression analyses.As hypothesized, higher baseline severity, disability or co-morbidity as indexed by strength of dysfunctional agoraphobic cognitions; duration of current episode of PD; self-ratings of panic severity; and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) (Mental component) score were all found to predict poorer outcome with brief CBT. A similar trend was apparent in relation to baseline level of depression. With high and low end-state functioning as the outcome measure, however, only the treatment x agoraphobic cognitions interaction was found to be significant.While there was no evidence that the above variables necessarily contraindicate the use of brief CBT, they were nevertheless associated with greater overall levels of post-treatment improvement with the 12-week approach.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0033291707000682

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250429800012

    View details for PubMedID 17493295

  • Prognostic indices with brief and standard CBT for panic disorder: I. Predictors of outcome PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE Dow, M. G., Kenardy, J. A., Johnston, D. W., Newman, M. G., Taylor, C. B., Thomson, A. 2007; 37 (10): 1493-1502


    Although the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in the management of panic disorder (PD) is now well established, there have been few studies of predictors of outcome with this patient group using clinical effectiveness trial data, a hypothesis-testing model, and a dependent measure of clinically significant change.The data for this study came from a randomized controlled trial of three forms of CBT delivery for PD with and without agoraphobia (two 6-week CBT programmes, one of which was computer assisted, and one therapist-directed 12-week CBT programme), comprising a total of 186 patients across two sites. Based on previous related research, five hypothesized predictors of post-treatment and follow-up outcome were identified and examined, using a series of bivariate and multivariate analyses.The results in general supported the hypotheses. Strength of blood/injury fears, age of initial onset of panic symptoms, co-morbid social anxieties and degree of agoraphobic avoidance were predictive of both measures of post-treatment outcome. Degree of residual social difficulties and the continued use of anxiolytics at post-treatment were also shown to predict poor outcome at the 6-month follow-up. However, strength of continuing dysfunctional agoraphobic cognitions by the end of active treatment did not predict outcome at follow-up for the sample as a whole.The identification of consistent predictors of outcome with CBT has many clinical and research benefits. As CBT, however, is being delivered increasingly in a variety of brief formats, further research is required to identify moderators of response to these 'non-standard' treatment formats.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0033291707000670

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250429800011

    View details for PubMedID 17493294

  • Risk factors for binge-eating disorders: An exploratory study INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Striegel-Moore, R. H., Dohm, F., Kraemer, H. C., Schreiber, G. B., Taylor, C. B., Daniels, S. R. 2007; 40 (6): 481-487


    This study examined a broad range of childhood risk factors for binge-eating disorders (bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, BN/BED), utilizing data that had been collected prospectively in the 10-year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study.Forty-five women with a history of BED/BN (with onset age > 14 and <20 years) and 1,515 women who did not have a history of an eating disorder were included.Signal detection analysis indicated a single pathway that identified approximately 13% of the BED/BN cases. The pathway was based on an elevated level of perceived stress prior to the age of 14.Our findings suggest that eating disorders may have multiple and complex etiologies. This is the first study to suggest that elevated levels of perceived stress may precede the onset of binge-eating disorders. Whether this is a causal association remains a question.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248762500001

    View details for PubMedID 17573685

  • Public-health approach to eating disorders LANCET Taylor, C. B., Franko, D. L., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Paxton, S. J., Shapiro, J. R. 2007; 369 (9577): 1928-1928

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247147200024

    View details for PubMedID 17560444

  • Reliability of self-report: paper versus online administration COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR Luce, K. H., Winzelberg, A. J., Das, S., Osborne, M. I., Bryson, S. W., Taylor, C. B. 2007; 23 (3): 1384-1389
  • Maintenance of Internet-based prevention: A randomized controlled trial INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Jacobi, C., Morris, L., Beckers, C., Bronisch-Holtze, J., Winter, J., Winzelberg, A. J., Taylor, C. B. 2007; 40 (2): 114-119


    Excessive weight or shape concerns and dieting are among the most important and well-established risk factors for the development of symptoms of disordered eating or full-syndrome eating disorders. Prevention programs should therefore target these factors in order to reduce the likelihood of developing an eating disorder. The aims of this study were to determine the short-term and maintenance effects of an internet-based prevention program for eating disorders.One hundred female students at two German universities were randomly assigned to either an 8-week intervention or a waiting-list control condition and assessed at preintervention, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up.Compared with the control group, the intervention produced significant and sustained effects for high-risk women.Internet-based prevention is effective and can be successfully adapted to a different culture.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20344

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244263100003

    View details for PubMedID 17080447

  • Fatigue in Parkinson's disease: a review MOVEMENT DISORDERS Friedman, J. H., Brown, R. G., Comella, C., Garber, C. E., Krupp, L. B., Lou, J., Marsh, L., Nail, L., Shulman, L., Taylor, C. B. 2007; 22 (3): 297-308


    Fatigue is a common problem in Parkinson's disease (PD), often the most troubling of all symptoms. It is poorly understood, generally under-recognized, and has no known treatment. This article reviews what is known about the symptom, putting it into the context of fatigue in other disorders, and outlines a program for developing better understanding and therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mds.21240

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245012700001

    View details for PubMedID 17133511

  • A pilot study of an interactive web site in the workplace for reducing alcohol consumption JOURNAL OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT Matano, R. A., Koopman, C., Wanat, S. F., Winzelberg, A. J., Whitsell, S. D., Westrup, D., Futa, K., Clayton, J. B., Mussman, L., Taylor, C. B. 2007; 32 (1): 71-80


    An interactive web-site-based intervention for reducing alcohol consumption was pilot tested. Participants were 145 employees of a work site in the Silicon Valley region of California, categorized as low or moderate risk for alcohol problems. All participants were given access to a web site that provided feedback on their levels of stress and use of coping strategies. Participants randomized to the full individualized feedback condition also received individualized feedback about their risk for alcohol-related problems. Some evidence was found for greater alcohol reduction among participants who received full individualized feedback, although due to difficulties in recruiting participants, the sample size was inadequate for evaluating treatment effects on drinking. The results provide preliminary support for using an interactive web site to provide individualized feedback for persons at risk for alcohol problems. However, the low participation rate (2.7%) suggests that such an intervention must address the challenges of recruiting employees through their work site.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsat.2006.05.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243326000008

    View details for PubMedID 17175400

  • Reliability of self-report: Paper versus online administration Computers in Human Behavior Luce KH, Winzelberg AJ, das S, Osborne MI, Bryson SW, Taylor CB 2007; 23 (May): 1384-89
  • The reliability of self-reported menarcheal timing. Journal of Early Adolescence Smolak L, Krieg DB, Hayward C, Shisslak C, Talor CB 2007; 27 (3): 386-397
  • Stress sensitivity in metastatic breast cancer: Analysis of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function PSYCHONEUROENDOCRINOLOGY Spiegel, D., Giese-Davis, J., Taylor, C. B., Kraemer, H. 2006; 31 (10): 1231-1244


    The normal diurnal cortisol cycle has a peak in the morning, decreasing rapidly over the day, with low levels during the night, then rising rapidly again to the morning peak. A pattern of flatter daytime slopes has been associated with more rapid cancer progression in both animals and humans. We studied the relationship between the daytime slopes and other daytime cortisol responses to both pharmacological and psychosocial challenges of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function as well as DHEA in a sample of 99 women with metastatic breast cancer, in hopes of elucidating the dysregulatory process. We found that the different components of HPA regulation: the daytime cortisol slope, the rise in cortisol from waking to 30 min later, and cortisol response to various challenges, including dexamethasone (DEX) suppression, corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) activation, and the Trier Social Stress Task, were at best modestly associated. Escape from suppression stimulated by 1mg of DEX administered the night before was moderately but significantly associated with flatter daytime cortisol slopes (r=0.28 to .30 at different times of the post DEX administration day, all p<.01). Daytime cortisol slopes were also moderately but significant associated with the rise in cortisol from waking to 30 min after awakening (r=.29, p=.004, N=96), but not with waking cortisol level (r=-0.13, p=.19). However, we could not detect any association between daytime cortisol slope and activation of cortisol secretion by either CRF infusion or the Trier Social Stress Task. The CRF activation test (following 1.5mg of DEX to assure that the effect was due to exogenous CRF) produced ACTH levels that were correlated (r=0.66, p<.0001, N=74) with serum cortisol levels, indicating adrenal responsiveness to ACTH stimulation. Daytime cortisol slopes were significantly correlated with the slope of DHEA (r=.21, p=.04, N=95). Our general findings suggest that flatter daytime cortisol slopes among metastatic breast cancer patients may be related to disrupted feedback inhibition rather than hypersensitivity in response to stimulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.09.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243095800010

    View details for PubMedID 17081700

  • Parental restrictions on adolescent internet use PEDIATRICS Rogers, M., Taylor, C. B., Cunning, D., Jones, M., Taylor, K. 2006; 118 (4): 1804-1805

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2006-2134

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240959300073

    View details for PubMedID 17015585

  • Depression and stress reactivity in metastatic breast cancer PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Giese-Davis, J., Wilhelm, F. H., Conrad, A., Abercrombie, H. C., Sephton, S., Yutsis, M., Neri, E., Taylor, C. B., Kraemer, H. C., Spiegel, D. 2006; 68 (5): 675-683


    Cancer-related distress due to the psychological and physical challenges of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) may result in symptoms of depression, which negatively affects quality and may influence quantity of life. This study investigated how depression affects MBC stress reactivity, including autonomic (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function.Forty-five nondepressed and 45 depressed patients with MBC underwent a modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) while affect, cardiovascular, respiratory, and cortisol responses were measured.At study entry, depressed compared with nondepressed patients had significantly lower log cortisol waking rise levels (p = .005) but no other HPA differences. Positive affect (p = .025) and high-frequency heart-rate variability (lnHF) (p = .002) were significantly lower at TSST baseline in depressed patients. In response to the TSST, depressed patients reported significantly lower positive (p = .050) and greater negative affect (p = .037) and had significantly reduced lnHF (p = .031). In secondary analyses, at TSST baseline both low-frequency (lnLF) (p = .002) and very-low-frequency (lnVLF) (p = .0001) heart rate variability were significantly lower in the depressed group. In secondary analyses during the TSST, those who were depressed had significantly lower lnVLF (p = .008) and did not increase aortic impedance reactivity as much as did the nondepressed during the stressor (p = .005).Depression in patients with MBC was associated with alterations in autonomic regulation, particularly reductions in respiratory sinus arrhythmia, a measure of cardiac vagal control, at baseline and during the TSST. In addition, depression was associated with blunted HPA response to awakening. Both MBC groups had relative cortisol hyporesponsiveness to acute stress.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.psy.0000238216.88515.e5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241205700006

    View details for PubMedID 17012520

  • Use of diet pills and other dieting aids in a college population with high weight and shape concerns INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Celio, C. I., Luce, K. H., Bryson, S. W., Winzelberg, A. J., Cunning, D., Rockwell, R., Doyle, A. A., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2006; 39 (6): 492-497


    The current study examines diet aid use among college women at risk for eating disorders and explores characteristics associated with diet aid use.Participants were 484 college women<30 years from 6 universities in the San Francisco Bay Area (SF) and San Diego who were at risk for developing eating disorders. A checklist assessed diet pill, fat blocker, diuretic, laxative, and other diet aid use over the past 12 months.Thirty-two percent of the college women reported using a diet aid. Diet aid use was double the rate in San Diego (44%) compared with SF (22%) (p=.000). Weight and shape concerns were higher among diet aid users than among nonusers across sites.A significant number of college women at risk for eating disorders are using diet aids. We recommend that clinicians inquire about diet aid use among college-aged patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20254

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239802500008

    View details for PubMedID 16676350

  • Neighborhood and individual socioeconomic determinants of hospitalization AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Taylor, C. B., Ahn, D., Winkleby, M. A. 2006; 31 (2): 127-134


    A number of studies have established links between neighborhood social environments and health. In a previous study of 8197 adults, death rates for adults with low socioeconomic status (SES) were highest in high-SES neighborhoods, lower in moderate-SES neighborhoods and lowest in low-SES neighborhoods. This study examines whether these findings extend to time to hospitalization.Population-based study of 1686 women and men, aged 25 to 74 at baseline, from 82 neighborhoods in four California cities. Participants were surveyed and medically examined in 1989-1990 and followed through the end of 2002. Neighborhood-level SES was defined by five census variables and divided into three levels. Individual-level SES was defined by household income and educational level and divided into tertiles (nine individual/neighborhood SES groups).There were 627 hospitalizations. The age- and gender-adjusted rates of any hospitalization between 1989-1990 and the end of 2002 for adults with low SES were highest for those living in high-SES neighborhoods (51% compared with 28% to 38% for adults from the other eight individual/neighborhood groups). For these adults, time to hospitalization, as indicated by survival curves, was significantly shorter compared with the other individual/neighborhood groups (p < 0.01, multilevel Cox proportional hazards model). Findings were not explained by baseline differences in individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors or risk factors, health status, or proximity to neighborhood goods and services.These findings suggest that factors leading to increased mortality for adults with low SES in high-SES neighborhoods also affect hospitalization.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amepre.2006.03.025

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239185600003

    View details for PubMedID 16829329

  • Prevention of eating disorders in at-risk college-age women ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY Taylor, C. B., Bryson, S., Luce, K. H., Cunning, D., Doyle, A. C., Abascal, L. B., Rockwell, R., Dev, P., Winzelberg, A. J., Wilfley, D. E. 2006; 63 (8): 881-888


    Eating disorders, an important health problem among college-age women, may be preventable, given that modifiable risk factors for eating disorders have been identified and interventions have been evaluated to reduce these risk factors.To determine if an Internet-based psychosocial intervention can prevent the onset of eating disorders (EDs) in young women at risk for developing EDs.San Diego and the San Francisco Bay Area in California.College-age women with high weight and shape concerns were recruited via campus e-mails, posters, and mass media. Six hundred thirty-seven eligible participants were identified, of whom 157 were excluded, for a total sample of 480. Recruitment occurred between November 13, 2000, and October 10, 2003. Intervention A randomized controlled trial of an 8-week, Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention (Student Bodies) that included a moderated online discussion group. Participants were studied for up to 3 years.The main outcome measure was time to onset of a subclinical or clinical ED. Secondary measures included change in scores on the Weight Concerns Scale, Global Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, and Eating Disorder Inventory drive for thinness and bulimia subscales and depressed mood. Moderators of outcome were examined.There was a significant reduction in Weight Concerns Scale scores in the Student Bodies intervention group compared with the control group at postintervention (P < .001), 1 year (P < .001), and 2 years (P < .001). The slope for reducing Weight Concerns Scale score was significantly greater in the treatment compared with the control group (P = .02). Over the course of follow-up, 43 participants developed subclinical or clinical EDs. While there was no overall significant difference in onset of EDs between the intervention and control groups, the intervention significantly reduced the onset of EDs in 2 subgroups identified through moderator analyses: (1) participants with an elevated body mass index (BMI) (> or =25, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) at baseline and (2) at 1 site, participants with baseline compensatory behaviors (eg, self-induced vomiting, laxative use, diuretic use, diet pill use, driven exercise). No intervention participant with an elevated baseline BMI developed an ED, while the rates of onset of ED in the comparable BMI control group (based on survival analysis) were 4.7% at 1 year and 11.9% at 2 years. In the subgroup with a BMI of 25 or higher, the cumulative survival incidence was significantly lower at 2 years for the intervention compared with the control group (95% confidence interval, 0% for intervention group; 2.7% to 21.1% for control group). For the San Francisco Bay Area site sample with baseline compensatory behaviors, 4% of participants in the intervention group developed EDs at 1 year and 14.4%, by 2 years. Rates for the comparable control group were 16% and 30.4%, respectively.Among college-age women with high weight and shape concerns, an 8-week, Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention can significantly reduce weight and shape concerns for up to 2 years and decrease risk for the onset of EDs, at least in some high-risk groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that EDs can be prevented in high-risk groups.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239573200006

    View details for PubMedID 16894064

  • The adverse effect of negative comments about weight and shape from family and siblings on women at high risk for eating disorders PEDIATRICS Taylor, C. B., Bryson, S., Doyle, A. A., Luce, K. H., Cunning, D., Abascal, L. B., Rockwell, R., Field, A. E., Striegel-Moore, R., Winzelberg, A. J., Wilfley, D. E. 2006; 118 (2): 731-738


    Our purpose with this work was to examine the relationship between negative comments about weight, shape, and eating and social adjustment, social support, self-esteem, and perceived childhood abuse and neglect.A retrospective study was conducted with 455 college women with high weight and shape concerns, who participated in an Internet-based eating disorder prevention program. Baseline assessments included: perceived family negative comments about weight, shape, and eating; social adjustment; social support; self-esteem; and childhood abuse and neglect. Participants identified 1 of 7 figures representing their maximum body size before age 18 and parental maximum body size.More than 80% of the sample reported some parental or sibling negative comments about their weight and shape or eating. Parental and sibling negative comments were positively associated with maximum childhood body size, larger reported paternal body size, and minority status. On subscales of emotional abuse and neglect, most participants scored above the median, and nearly one third scored above the 90th percentile. In a multivariate analysis, greater parental negative comments were directly related to higher reported emotional abuse and neglect. Maximum body size was also related to emotional neglect. Parental negative comments were associated with lower reported social support by family and lower self-esteem.In college women with high weight and shape concerns, retrospective reports of negative comments about weight, shape, and eating were associated with higher scores on subscales of emotional abuse and neglect. This study provides additional evidence that family criticism results in long-lasting, negative effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2005-1806

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239440600038

    View details for PubMedID 16882830

  • Psychophysiological and cortisol responses to psychological stress in depressed and nondepressed older men and women with elevated cardiovascular disease risk PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Taylor, C. B., Conrad, A., Wilhelm, F. H., Neri, E., DeLorenzo, A., Kramer, M. A., Giese-Davis, J., Roth, W. T., Oka, R., Cooke, J. P., Kraemer, H., Spiegel, D. 2006; 68 (4): 538-546


    The objective of this study was to compare psychophysiological and cortisol reactions to psychological stress in older depressed and nondepressed patients at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD).Forty-eight depressed participants and 20 controls with elevated cardiovascular risk factors underwent a psychological stress test during which cardiovascular variables were measured. Salivary cortisol was collected after each test segment. Traditional (e.g., lipids) and atypical (e.g., C-reactive protein) CVD risk factors were also obtained.At baseline, the groups did not differ on lipid levels, flow-mediated vasodilation, body mass index, or asymmetric dimethylarginine. However, the depressed patients had significantly higher C-reactive protein levels. Contrary to our hypothesis, there were no differences in baseline cortisol levels or diurnal cortisol slopes, but depressed patients showed significantly lower cortisol levels during the stress test (p = .03) and less cortisol response to stress. Compared with nondepressed subjects, depressed subjects also showed lower levels of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA(TF)) during the stress test (p = .02).In this sample, older depressed subjects with elevated risk for CVD exhibited a hypocortisol response to acute stress. This impaired cortisol response might contribute to chronic inflammation (as reflected in the elevated C-reactive proteins in depressed patients) and in other ways increase CVD risk. The reduced RSA(TF) activity may also increase CVD risk in depressed patients through impaired autonomic nervous system response to cardiophysiological demands.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.psy.0000222372.16274.92

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239330600005

    View details for PubMedID 16868262

  • Panic disorder BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL Taylor, C. B. 2006; 332 (7547): 951-955

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237143900019

    View details for PubMedID 16627512

  • Design decisions to optimize reliability of daytime cortisol slopes in an older population AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Kraemer, H. C., Giese-Davis, J., Yutsis, M., Neri, E., Gallagher-Thompson, D., Taylor, C. B., Spiegel, D. 2006; 14 (4): 325-333


    The daytime log-cortisol slope appears to be of growing importance in studying the relationship between stress and health. How best to estimate that slope with minimal burden to the participants and the cost of the study is a decision often made without empiric foundation.In 50 older participants, the authors examined cortisol assay comparability across laboratories, assay reliability, test-retest reliability of slopes, and comparability of slope estimates for two, three, and four samples per day.The authors demonstrate in an older sample that 1) assay reliability is a relatively minor issue, that one assay per saliva sample suffices; 2) the use of a sample obtained at wake time for each participant appears to be a preferred anchor for the slope estimate in comparison to a sample 30 minutes postwake time; 3) self-reported times appear preferable to automatic time recording; and 4) test-retest reliability of slopes, however, is not sufficiently high to base a slope estimate on one day; minimally two days and preferably three should be required.Whether these conclusions apply to other populations, or using other protocols, is not assured, but the study itself provides a model that can be used to check research decisions. Unnecessarily imposing a burdensome protocol has both ethical and scientific ramifications and should be carefully avoided.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236540800005

    View details for PubMedID 16582041

  • Effectiveness of a computer-based interactive eating disorders prevention program at long-term follow-up. Eating disorders Low, K. G., Charanasomboon, S., Lesser, J., Reinhalter, K., Martin, R., Jones, H., Winzelberg, A., Abascal, L., Taylor, C. B. 2006; 14 (1): 17-30


    Computer-based delivery of health-related psychoeducational programming is increasingly popular. In the present study, 72 non-symptomatic undergraduate women were randomized to an Internet-based prevention program for eating disorders with or without accompanying discussion groups, or a control group. Sixty-one of the women (84%) completed the Student Bodies program, and were assessed at short and eight-nine month follow-up. Participation in the program resulted in better outcomes across all groups compared to controls, and women in the unmoderated discussion group appeared to have the most reduction in risk. Benefits of the program continued at follow-up. Decrease in risk also was associated with time spent using the Internet-based program. The present study suggests that the use of Student Bodies may reduce risk of eating and body image concerns over the long term, and that moderation of discussion groups may not be essential for successful outcomes. Further research on larger samples will help determine the degree to which discussion groups or the Student Bodies program alone are effective.

    View details for PubMedID 16757446

  • Weight concerns and weight control behaviors of adolescents and their mothers ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Field, A. E., Austin, S. B., Striegel-Moore, R., Taylor, C. B., Camargo, C. A., Laird, N., Colditz, G. 2005; 159 (12): 1121-1126


    To assess the association between weight concerns and weight control practices of adolescents and their mothers.Cross-sectional study of 5331 adolescent girls and 3881 adolescent boys (age range, 11.8-18.4 years) in an ongoing cohort study and their mothers. Participants were included in the analysis if both the adolescent and his or her mother returned a questionnaire mailed in 1999 and provided information on weight, height, and weight concerns.More adolescent girls (33.0%) than boys (8.1%) thought frequently about wanting to be thinner. Compared with adolescent girls who accurately perceived that their thinness was not important to their mother, girls who misperceived (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.8) or accurately perceived (OR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.0-8.4) that it was important to their mother that they be thin were significantly more likely to think frequently about wanting to be thinner. Among the adolescent boys, only those who accurately perceived that it was important to their mother that they not be fat were more likely than their peers to think frequently about wanting to be thinner (OR = 3.8; 95% CI, 2.3-6.2). Adolescents who accurately perceived that it was important to their mother to be thin or not fat were significantly more likely to be frequent dieters than their peers who accurately perceived that their weight was not important to their mother.Among adolescents, an accurate perception that weight status is important to their mother is associated with thinking frequently about wanting to be thinner and about frequent dieting.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233727500006

    View details for PubMedID 16330734

  • Spirituality among young women at risk for eating disorders. Eating behaviors Jacobs-Pilipski, M. J., Winzelberg, A., Wilfley, D. E., Bryson, S. W., Taylor, C. B. 2005; 6 (4): 293-300


    This study examined the spiritual and religious (S/R) beliefs and practices of college-age women at high-risk for eating disorders, and the relationship between body image distress, coping, and S/R.Two hundred fifty-five college-age women with elevated weight and shape concerns, assessed using the Weight/Shape Concerns Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), completed surveys about their S/R beliefs and practices.Women with strong S/R beliefs and practices cope with body dissatisfaction differently than women without strong S/R beliefs. Participants with strong S/R were significantly more likely to pray, meditate, or read religious/spiritual texts to cope with body image distress. Participants without strong beliefs and practices were more likely to cope utilizing distraction. Women with strong beliefs who prayed found it effective.Study participants were heterogenenous in their S/R beliefs and practices. These beliefs and practices may be underutilized resources for coping with body image concerns.

    View details for PubMedID 16257802

  • Low perceived social support and post-myocardial infarction prognosis in the enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease clinical trial: The effects of treatment PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Burg, M. M., Barefoot, J., Berkman, L., Catellier, D. J., Czajkowski, S., Saab, P., Huber, M., DeLillo, V., Mitchell, P., Skala, J., Taylor, C. B. 2005; 67 (6): 879-888


    In post hoc analyses, to examine in low perceived social support (LPSS) patients enrolled in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial (n = 1503), the pattern of social support following myocardial infarction (MI), the impact of psychosocial intervention on perceived support, the relationship of perceived support at the time of MI to subsequent death and recurrent MI, and the relationship of change in perceived support 6 months after MI to subsequent mortality.Partner status (partner, no partner) and score (<12 = low support; >12 = moderate support) on the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) were used post hoc to define four levels of risk. The resulting 4 LPSS risk groups were compared on baseline characteristics, changes in social support, and medical outcomes to a group of concurrently enrolled acute myocardial infarction patients without depression or LPSS (MI comparison group, n = 408). Effects of treatment assignment on LPSS and death/recurrent MI were also examined.All 4 LPSS risk groups demonstrated improvement in perceived support, regardless of treatment assignment, with a significant treatment effect only seen in the LPSS risk group with no partner and moderate support at baseline. During an average 29-month follow-up, the combined end point of death/nonfatal MI was 10% in the MI comparison group and 23% in the ENRICHD LPSS patients; LPSS conferred a greater risk in unadjusted and adjusted models (HR = 1.74-2.39). Change in ESSI score and/or improvement in perceived social support were not found to predict subsequent mortality.Baseline LPSS predicted death/recurrent MI in the ENRICHD cohort, independent of treatment assignment. Intervention effects indicated a partner surrogacy role for the interventionist and the need for a moderate level of support at baseline for the intervention to be effective.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.psy.0000188480.61949.8c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233690100008

    View details for PubMedID 16314592

  • Exposure to the mass media, body shape concerns, and use of supplements to improve weight and shape among male and female adolescents PEDIATRICS Field, A. E., Austin, S. B., Camargo, C. A., Taylor, C. B., Striegel-Moore, R. H., Loud, K. J., Colditz, G. A. 2005; 116 (2): E214-E220


    To assess the prevalence and correlates of products used to improve weight and shape among male and female adolescents.A cross-sectional study was conducted of 6212 girls and 4237 boys who were 12 to 18 years of age and enrolled in the ongoing Growing Up Today Study. The outcome measure was at least weekly use of any of the following products to improve appearance, muscle mass, or strength: protein powder or shakes, creatine, amino acids/hydroxy methylbutyrate (HMB), dehydroepiandrosterone, growth hormone, or anabolic/injectable steroids.Approximately 4.7% of the boys and 1.6% of the girls used protein powder or shakes, creatine, amino acids/HMB, dehydroepiandrosterone, growth hormone, or anabolic/injectable steroids at least weekly to improve appearance or strength. In multivariate models, boys and girls who thought a lot about wanting more defined muscles (boys: odds ratio [OR]: 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.2; girls: OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-3.2) or were trying to gain weight (boys: OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 2.0-4.6; girls: OR: 4.3; 95% CI: 1.6-11.4) were more likely than their peers to use these products. In addition, boys who read men's, fashion, or health/fitness magazines (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.9) and girls who were trying to look like women in the media (OR: 2.9; 95% CI: 1.4-4.0) were significantly more likely than their peers to use products to improve appearance or strength, but hours per week watching television, watching sports on television, and participation in team sports were not independently associated with using products to improve appearance or muscle mass.Girls and boys who frequently thought about wanting toned or well-defined muscles were at increased risk for using potentially unhealthful products to enhance their physique. These results suggest that just as girls may resort to unhealthful means to achieve a low body weight, girls and boys may also resort to unhealthful means to achieve other desired physiques.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2004-2022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230915600006

    View details for PubMedID 16061574

  • Effects of antidepressant medication of morbidity and mortality in depressed patients after myocardial infarction ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY Taylor, C. B., Youngblood, M. E., Catellier, D., Veith, R. C., Carney, R. M., Burg, M. M., Kaufmann, P. G., Shuster, J., Mellman, T., Blumenthal, J. A., Krishnan, R., Jaffe, A. S. 2005; 62 (7): 792-798


    Depression after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Although antidepressants are effective in reducing depression, their use in patients with cardiovascular disease remains controversial.To undertake a secondary analysis to determine the effects of using antidepressants on morbidity and mortality in post-MI patients who participated in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease study.Observational secondary analysis.Eight academic sites.The Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease clinical trial randomized 2481 depressed and/or socially isolated patients from October 1, 1996, to October 31, 1999. Depression was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview. This analysis was conducted on the 1834 patients enrolled with depression (849 women and 985 men).Use of antidepressant medication.Event-free survival was defined as the absence of death or recurrent MI. All-cause mortality was also examined. To relate exposure to antidepressants to subsequent morbidity and mortality, the data were analyzed using a time-dependent covariate model.During a mean follow-up of 29 months, 457 fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events occurred. The risk of death or recurrent MI was significantly lower in patients taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.84), as were the risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37-0.96) and recurrent MI (adjusted HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.32-0.90), compared with patients who did not use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. For patients taking non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, the comparable HRs (95% CIs) were 0.72 (0.44-1.18), 0.64 (0.34-1.22), and 0.73 (0.38-1.38) for risk of death or recurrent MI, all-cause mortality, or recurrent MI, respectively, compared with nonusers.Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depressed patients who experience an acute MI might reduce subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A controlled trial is needed to examine this important issue.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230352100014

    View details for PubMedID 15997021

  • Application of an algorithm-driven protocol to simultaneously provide universal and targeted prevention programs INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Luce, K. H., Osborne, M. I., Winzelberg, A. J., Das, S., Abascal, L. B., Celio, A. A., Wilfley, D. E., Stevenson, D., Dev, P., Taylor, C. B. 2005; 37 (3): 220-226


    Our objective was to develop a model to simultaneously prevent eating disorders and weight gain among female high school students.Of 188 female 10th graders enrolled in health classes, 174 elected to participate in the current study. They were assessed on-line and decided to participate in one of four interventions appropriate to their risk.The algorithm identified 111 no-risk (NR), 36 eating disorder risk (EDR), 16 overweight risk (OR), and 5 both risks. Fifty-six percent of the EDR and 50% of the OR groups elected to receive the recommended targeted curricula. Significant improvements in weight and shape concerns were observed in all groups.An Internet-delivered program can be used to assess risk and provide simultaneous universal and targeted interventions in classroom settings.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20089

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228875900005

    View details for PubMedID 15822091

  • Dissemination of an effective inpatient tobacco use cessation program NICOTINE & TOBACCO RESEARCH Taylor, C. B., Miller, N. H., Cameron, R. P., Fagans, E. W., Das, S. 2005; 7 (1): 129-137


    The present study aimed to determine whether tobacco use cessation rates observed in controlled trials of a hospital-based tobacco use cessation program could be replicated when the program was disseminated to a wide range of hospitals in a two-stage process including implementation and institutionalization phases. Using a nonrandomized, observational design, we recruited six hospitals to participate in the study. The research team helped implement the program during the first year of participation (implementation) and then withdrew from active involvement during the second year (institutionalization). The mean 6-month self-reported cessation rates were 26.3% (range = 17.6%-52.8%) for the implementation phase and 22.7% (range = 12.9%-48.2%) for the institutionalization phase. Hospitals with paid professionals providing the program had the best outcomes. Inpatient tobacco use cessation programs are feasible to implement and should target a 6-month self-reported cessation rate of at least 25%.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/14622200412331328420

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228642300013

    View details for PubMedID 15804685

  • Vascular compliance versus flow-mediated vasodilation: correlation with cardiovascular risk factors VASCULAR MEDICINE Nair, N., Oka, R. K., Waring, L. D., Umoh, E. M., Taylor, C. B., Cooke, J. P. 2005; 10 (4): 275-283


    Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with impaired endothelium dependent vasodilation and reduced vascular compliance. In this study, the correlation with cardiovascular risk factor score of two common techniques for assessing vascular function was compared. Risk factors and vascular function were evaluated in a study population of 122 people with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or with risk factors for PAD (73 men and 49 women; mean age 69 years). A risk factor score was determined using Framingham criteria. Vascular compliance was assessed by pulse waveform analysis and simultaneous blood pressure measurement. Flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery was measured using duplex ultrasonography. Participants with a high risk factor score had significantly reduced vascular compliance of large and small vessels. By contrast, the difference in flow-mediated vasodilation between those with a high or low risk factor score did not reach statistical significance. There was a significant negative correlation between vascular compliance and risk factor score. There was a similar trend between flow-mediated vasodilation and risk factor score, but this did not reach statistical significance. A measure of vascular compliance was more significantly correlated with cardiovascular risk factor score than was a measure of flow-mediated vasodilation in the study population. Neither technique provided values that were highly correlated with risk factor burden. Although flow-mediated vasodilation is a preferred research tool for assessing vascular function, technical limitations and biological variability may reduce its clinical application in assessing individual cardiovascular risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1191/1358863x05vm633oa

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234803000004

    View details for PubMedID 16444856

  • Reduktion von Risikofaktoren für gestörtes Essverhalten: Adaptation und erste Ergebnisse eines Internet-gestützten Präventionsprogramms Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie Jacobi C, Morris L, Bronish-Holtze J, Winter J, Winzelberg A, Taylor CB 2005; 13 (2): 92-101
  • Evaluation of computerized text analysis in an Internet breast cancer support group. Computers in Human Behavior Alpers GW, Winzelberg AJ, Classen C, Roberts H, Parvati D, Koopman C, Taylor CB 2005; 21: 361-376
  • Screening for eating disorders and high-risk behavior: Caution INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Jacobi, C., Abascal, L., Taylor, C. B. 2004; 36 (3): 280-295


    The current study reviews the state of eating disorder screens.Screens were classified by their purported screening function: identification of cases with (a) anorexia nervosa only; (b) bulimia nervosa only; (c) eating disorders in general; (d) partial syndrome, eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), or subclinical; (e) not a-d but at high risk. Information is presented on development, psychometric properties, and external validation (e.g., sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values).Screens differ widely with regard to objective, psychometric properties and the validation methodology used. Most screens that identify cases are not appropriate for the identification of at-risk behaviors. Little data on the external validity of screens are available.Screens should be used with caution. A sequential procedure, in which subjects identified as being at risk during the first stage is followed by more specific diagnostic tests during the second stage, might overcome some of the limitations of the one-stage screening approach.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20048

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224568200004

    View details for PubMedID 15478137

  • An interactive psychoeducational intervention for women at risk of developing an eating disorder JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Zabinski, M. F., Wilfley, D. E., Calfas, K. J., Winzelberg, A. J., Taylor, C. B. 2004; 72 (5): 914-919


    This study evaluated a synchronous Internet-delivered intervention (chat room) for improving eating habits and body image in college-age women at risk for developing an eating disorder. Sixty at-risk women (mean age = 18.9, SD = 2.4; 65.0% Caucasian, 19% Latino/Hispanic, 8% Asian/Pacific Islander, 3% African American, 5% other; mean body mass index = 25.6, SD = 5.7) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 30) or control (n = 30) groups. Once a week for 8 weeks, participants used a private chat room for a 1-hr moderated discussion focused on improving body image and eating behaviors. Additional treatment components included psychoeducation, asynchronous support, homework, and summaries. Assessments were conducted at baseline, posttreatment, and 10 weeks after posttreatment. Participants indicated high satisfaction with the intervention mode. Intervention participants significantly reduced eating pathology and improved self-esteem over controls at follow-up. These findings suggest that synchronous, Internet-delivered programs are efficacious and have potential to reduce problematic attitudes and behaviors that may lead to eating disorders among college-age women.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0022-006X.72.5.914

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224215600019

    View details for PubMedID 15482051

  • An evaluation of an Internet-delivered eating disorder prevention program for adolescents and their parents JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Brown, J. B., Winzelberg, A. J., Abascal, L. B., Taylor, C. B. 2004; 35 (4): 290-296


    To evaluate the effectiveness of Student Bodies, an Internet-delivered eating disorder prevention program for adolescents, and a supplemental program for their parents.One hundred fifty-two 10th grade females completing a health course at a private sectarian school, and 69 of their parents were assigned to either the Internet-delivered intervention group or to a comparison group (students) or wait-list control group (parents). Student participants completed subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, and a content knowledge test. Parents completed the Parental Attitudes and Criticism Scale.The main effects of the intervention were assessed pre- to post- and post- to follow-up using ANCOVA, with the baseline assessment of the independent variable as the covariate. Students using the program reported significantly reduced eating restraint and had significantly greater increases in knowledge than did students in the comparison group. However, there were no significant differences at follow-up. Parents significantly decreased their overall critical attitudes toward weight and shape.The program demonstrates the feasibility of providing an integrated program for students and their parents with short-term positive changes in parental attitudes toward weight and shape.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.10.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224211300005

    View details for PubMedID 15450542

  • Association of weight change, weight control practices, and weight cycling among women in the Nurses' Health Study II INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY Field, A. E., Manson, J. E., Taylor, C. B., Willett, W. C., Colditz, G. A. 2004; 28 (9): 1134-1142


    To assess the association of weight cycling with weight change, weight control practices, and bulimic behaviors.A nested study of 2476 young and middle-aged women in the Nurses' Health Study II who provided information on intentional weight losses between 1989 and 1993.In total, 224 women who were severe cyclers, 741 women who were mild cyclers, 967 age- and BMI-matched controls (noncyclers), and 544 women who did not weight cycle and maintained their weight between 1989 and 1993 completed a questionnaire in 2000-2001 assessing recent intentional weight losses, weight control practices, and weight concerns.After controlling for age and body mass index (BMI) in 1993, when weight cycling was initially assessed, mild cyclers gained an average of 6.7 pounds (lbs) more and severe cyclers gained approximately 10.3 lbs more than noncyclers between 1993 and 2001. Weight cyclers preferred to change their diet rather than to exercise to control their weight. Severe weight cyclers were less likely than noncyclers to use frequent exercise as a weight control strategy (odds ratio [OR]=0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-1.1). Cyclers were also more likely than noncyclers to engage in binge eating (mild cyclers: OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.4; and severe cyclers: OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.5). Independent of weight cycling status, age, and BMI, women who engaged in binge eating gained approximately 5 lbs more than their peers (P<0.001).Weight cycling was associated with greater weight gain, less physical activity, and a higher prevalence of binge eating. Low levels of activity and binge eating may be partially responsible for the large amount of weight regained by weight cyclers.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802728

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223331200006

    View details for PubMedID 15263922

  • Parent-reported predictors of adolescent panic attacks JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Hayward, C., Wilson, K. A., Lagle, K., Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B. 2004; 43 (5): 613-620


    To identify parent-reported risk factors for adolescent panic attacks.Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from 770 parents of participants in a school-based risk factor study for adolescent panic. Parent-reported risk factors assessed included characteristics of the child (negative affect, separation anxiety disorder [SAD], childhood chronic illness, and childhood loss) as well as characteristics of the parent (parental panic disorder or agoraphobia [PDA], parental major depression, and parental chronic illness).Bivariate predictors of adolescent panic attacks included parent history of PDA, parent history of chronic illness, child negative affect, and child SAD. Using signal detection methods, three subgroups of participants at risk for panic attacks were identified. Fifty-eight percent of adolescents with panic attacks belonged to one of these high-risk groups. Adolescents with a positive parental history of PDA were at highest risk: 24% of this group experienced panic attacks. Among those without a positive parental history of PDA, those with high childhood negative affect or history of SAD were at increased risk for panic attacks (14% and 20%, respectively).The use of parent-reported data provides cross-validation for previously identified risk factors of adolescent panic attacks. Signal detection results suggest there are multiple paths (equifinality) to the development of adolescent panic attacks.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221014800015

    View details for PubMedID 15100568

  • Exercise, depression, and mortality after myocardial infarction in the ENRICHD trial MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE Blumenthal, J. A., Babyak, M. A., Carney, R. M., Huber, M., Saab, P. G., Burg, M. M., Sheps, D., Powell, L., Taylor, C. B., Kaufmann, P. G. 2004; 36 (5): 746-755


    The large and well-characterized population of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients studied in the recently completed Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) multicenter clinical trial provides a unique opportunity to examine the importance of self-reported regular physical exercise in a large cohort of patients with a recent AMI who are depressed or report low levels of social support.We prospectively examined the association between self-reported physical exercise and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular morbidity among 2078 men (N = 1175; 56.5%) and women (N = 903; 43.5%) with an AMI participating in the ENRICHD Trial. Six months after suffering an AMI, patients were surveyed about their exercise habits and were then followed for up to 4 yr.During an average 2 yr of follow-up, 187 fatal events occurred. Patients reporting regular exercise had less than half the events (5.7%) of those patients reporting they did not regularly exercise (12.0%). After adjustment for medical and demographic variables, the hazard ratio for fatal events was 0.62 (95% CI = 0.44-0.86, P = 0.004). The rate of nonfatal AMI among the exercisers was 6.5% compared with 10.5% who reported no regular exercise. After adjustment for covariates, the hazard ratio for nonfatal AMI was 0.72 (95% CI = 0.52-0.99, P = 0.044).The present findings demonstrate the potential value of exercise in reducing mortality and nonfatal reinfarction in AMI patients at increased risk for adverse events by virtue of their either being depressed or having low social support.

    View details for DOI 10.1249/01.MSS.0000125997.63493.13

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221315900002

    View details for PubMedID 15126705

  • High rates of sustained smoking cessation in women hospitalized with cardiovascular disease - The Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS) CIRCULATION Froelicher, E. S., Miller, N. H., Christopherson, D. J., Martin, K., Parker, K. M., Amonetti, M., Lin, Z., Sohn, M., Benowitz, N., Taylor, C. B., Bacchetti, P. 2004; 109 (5): 587-593


    Although men hospitalized with cardiovascular disease (CVD) show high smoking-cessation rates, similar data for women are lacking. We tested the efficacy of smoking-cessation intervention in women hospitalized for CVD.In this randomized controlled trial conducted from 1996 to 2001, 277 women diagnosed with CVD (mean age 61+/-10 years) were randomly assigned within 1 of 12 San Francisco Bay Area hospitals to a usual-care group (UG; n=135) or intervention group (IG; n=142). Baseline histories were obtained, and interviews to ascertain self-reported smoking status occurred at 6, 12, 24, and 30 months after hospitalization. The UG received strong physician's advice, a self-help pamphlet, and a list of community resources. The IG received strong physician's advice and a nurse-managed cognitive behavioral relapse-prevention intervention at bedside, with telephone contact at intervals after discharge. The groups were similar demographically and had smoked cigarettes for a median of 38 (IG) or 40 (UG) years. Time to resumption of continuous smoking was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis, and risk differences between groups were determined. Time smoke-free was significantly greater for the IG than the UG (P=0.038). Point prevalence for nonsmoking at the interviews was somewhat greater for the IG than the UG (P>0.15 at all times).Cognitive behavioral intervention resulted in longer average times to resumption of smoking, but in these 2 groups of older women with limited social and financial resources, long-term success rates were similar. Systematic identification of smokers and even the brief intervention afforded the UG yielded a high smoking-cessation rate over time.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000115310.36419.9E

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188836600008

    View details for PubMedID 14769679

  • Implementation of evidence-based tobacco use cessation guidelines in managed care organizations ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE Taylor, C. B., Curry, S. J. 2004; 27 (1): 13-21


    Although managed care organizations (MCOs) may be optimal settings for implementing tobacco use cessation clinical guidelines, such guidelines remain poorly implemented in many MCO settings.We examined issues related to the implementation of guidelines in MCOs, to provide examples of studies that have addressed issues related to guideline implementation and to suggest ways behavioral medicine researchers can play a role in examining issues of how guidelines can be better implemented.Surveys of clinical guideline implementation, studies from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation addressing tobacco use cessation in a managed care database, selected to illustrate issues related to system-wide implementation.Surveys show that effective tobacco use cessation interventions remain underutilized in MCOs. A few studies have evaluated and shown the benefit of insurance coverage for tobacco use and dependence treatments, clinician reimbursement and leadership incentives, practice feedback, and leveraging administrative data to create tobacco use tracking systems. The studies also point to the need for large-scale, multidisciplinary, methodologically rigorous studies that allow one to isolate the effects of promising strategies as well as to explore synergistic effects as different system changes are combined.Tobacco use cessation guidelines need to be better implemented in MCOs. Behavioral medicine research needs to move beyond treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies to focus on rigorous evaluations of these and other strategies to enhance guideline implementation and dissemination.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188245300003

    View details for PubMedID 14979859

  • Combining universal and targeted prevention for school-based eating disorder programs INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Abascal, L., Brown, J. B., Winzelberg, A. J., Dev, P., Taylor, C. B. 2004; 35 (1): 1-9


    This study examined a step toward providing a universal prevention program to all students while targeting those at risk.Seventy-eight 10th-grade female students were provided an on-line eating disorder prevention program and randomized to participate in (1) a higher risk and higher motivated group, (2) a lower risk or lower motivated group, or (3) a combined group.The students in the first group made significantly fewer negative and more positive comments in the on-line group discussion than the higher risk and higher motivated participants in the combined group. However, there were no differences among groups on outcome measures.The results suggest that, because it is relatively easy to provide interventions with separate groups, it seems appropriate to do so, if for no other reason than to minimize the few very negative comments that were posted by students that might have created an adverse environment for the higher risk-participants that the intervention specifically targets.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.10234

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187798700001

    View details for PubMedID 14705151

  • Comparison of self-report to interview assessment of bulimic behaviors among preadolescent and adolescent girls and boys INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Field, A. E., Taylor, C. B., Celio, A., Colditz, G. A. 2004; 35 (1): 86-92


    To compare self-report to interview assessment of bulimic behaviors among adolescents.A sample of children in an ongoing study were recruited to complete in-depth telephone interviews in 1998 on bulimic behaviors (i.e., binge eating and purging). The sample comprised 449 girls and 50 boys.There was some over-reporting of bulimic behaviors on the 1998 questionnaire (asking about 1997-1998) compared with the interview that may have been due to the shorter and nonoverlapping time frame in the interview compared with the questionnaire. Despite the overestimation, the questionnaire did an excellent job at classifying girls who did not purge (negative predictive values [NPV]: 0.99) or binge eat (NPV = 0.98). When purging on the interview was compared with purging on either the 1998 or 1999 questionnaires, the sensitivity increased substantially from 0.73 to 0.93.These findings suggest that a short self-report assessment can be used to screen children engaging in, or at risk of beginning to engage in, binge eating and purging.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.10220

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187798700011

    View details for PubMedID 14705161

  • A comparison of delivery methods of cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder: An international multicenter trial JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY KENARDY, J. A., Dow, M. G., Johnston, D. W., Newman, M. G., Thomson, A., Taylor, C. B. 2003; 71 (6): 1068-1075


    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the psychological treatment of choice for panic disorder (PD). However, given limited access to CBT, it must be delivered with maximal cost-effectiveness. Previous researchers have found that a brief computer-augmented CBT was as effective as extended therapist-delivered CBT. To test this finding, this study randomly allocated 186 patients with PD across 2 sites in Scotland and Australia to 12 sessions of therapist-delivered CBT (CBT12), 6 sessions of therapist-delivered (CBT6) or computer-augmented CBT (CBT6-CA), or a waitlist control. On a composite measure, at posttreatment, the outcome for CBT 12 was statistically better than the outcome for CBT6. The outcome for CBT6-CA fell between CBT12 and CBT6, but could not be statistically distinguished from either treatment. The active treatments did not differ statistically at 6-month follow-up. The study provided some support for the use of computers as an innovative adjunctive-therapy tool and merits further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0022-006X.71.6.1068

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186693600012

    View details for PubMedID 14622082

  • Social support for patients after myocardial infarction. Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation Taylor, C. B. 2003; 23 (6): 413-414

    View details for PubMedID 14646787

  • Relation between dieting and weight change among preadolescents and adolescents PEDIATRICS Field, A. E., Austin, S. B., Taylor, C. B., Malspeis, S., Rosner, B., Rockett, H. R., Gillman, M. W., Colditz, G. A. 2003; 112 (4): 900-906


    To assess whether dieting to control weight was associated with weight change among children and adolescents.A prospective study was conducted of 8203 girls and 6769 boys who were 9 to 14 years of age in 1996, were in an ongoing cohort study, and completed at least 2 annual questionnaires between 1996 and 1999. Dieting to control weight, binge eating, and dietary intake were assessed annually from 1996 through 1998 with instruments designed specifically for children and adolescents. The outcome measure was age- and sex-specific z score of body mass index (BMI).In 1996, 25.0% of the girls and 13.8% of the boys were infrequent dieters and 4.5% of the girls and 2.2% of the boys were frequent dieters. Among the girls, the percentage of dieters increased over the following 2 years. Binge eating was more common among the girls, but in both sexes, it was associated with dieting to control weight (girls: infrequent dieters, odds ratio [OR]: 5.10; frequent dieters, OR: 12.4; boys: infrequent dieters, OR: 3.49; frequent dieters, OR: 7.30). During 3 years of follow-up, dieters gained more weight than nondieters. Among the girls, frequency of dieting was positively associated with increases in age- and sex-specific z scores of BMI (beta = 0.05 and beta = 0.04 for frequent and infrequent dieters vs nondieters). Among the boys, both frequent and infrequent dieters gained 0.07 z scores of BMI more than nondieters. In addition, boys who engaged in binge eating gained significantly more weight than nondieters.Although medically supervised weight control may be beneficial for overweight youths, our data suggest that for many adolescents, dieting to control weight is not only ineffective, it may actually promote weight gain.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185665700035

    View details for PubMedID 14523184

  • Are adolescents harmed when asked risky weight control behavior and attitude questions? Implications for consent procedures INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Celio, A. A., Bryson, S., Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B. 2003; 34 (2): 251-254


    This study explores whether asking minors about risky weight control behaviors and attitudes increases the frequency of those behaviors and attitudes.Participants were 115 sixth-grade girls who responded to questions on risky weight control behaviors and attitudes at baseline and at 12-month follow-up. An additional 107 girls, who had not been part of the baseline, provided data only at follow-up. The two groups were compared on risky weight control behaviors and attitudes at follow-up using chi-square analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, Cohen's effect sizes, and odds ratios.No evidence of a negative effect in the twice-assessed group was found. All rates decreased from baseline to follow-up.There is only minimal risk and perhaps even some benefit of asking questions about risky weight control behaviors and attitudes. Implications for determining appropriate consent procedures are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.10188

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184510900009

    View details for PubMedID 12898562

  • Eating disorders in white and black women AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Striegel-Moore, R. H., Dohm, F. A., Kraemer, H. C., Taylor, C. B., Daniels, S., Crawford, P. B., Schreiber, G. B. 2003; 160 (7): 1326-1331


    Epidemiological studies of eating disorders in the United States have focused on white women and girls, and the prevalence of eating disorders in ethnic minority groups is unknown. This study examined the prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder in a geographically and economically diverse community sample of young white and black women who previously participated in the 10-year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Growth and Health Study.All NHLBI Growth and Health Study participants were recruited for this study. A two-stage case finding method was used, consisting of a telephone screening (sensitivity=0.90, specificity=0.98) and an in-person confirmatory diagnostic interview.A total of 86.0% of the original NHLBI Growth and Health Study cohort participated, including 985 white women (mean age=21.3) and 1,061 black women (mean age=21.5). Fifteen white (1.5%) and no black women met lifetime criteria for anorexia nervosa; more white women (N=23, 2.3%) than black women (N=4, 0.4%) met criteria for bulimia nervosa; binge eating disorder also was more common among white women (N=27, 2.7%) than black women (N=15, 1.4%). Few women (white: N=16, 28.1%; black: N=1, 5.3%) ever had received treatment for an eating disorder.Results suggest that eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are more common among white women than among black women. The low treatment rates in both groups suggest that health professionals need to be more alert to the possibility of eating disorders in women.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183957200019

    View details for PubMedID 12832249

  • Cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression are associated with medical comorbidity in patients after acute myocardial infarction AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Watkins, L. L., Schneiderman, N., Blumenthal, J. A., Sheps, D. S., Catellier, D., Taylor, C. B., Freedland, K. E. 2003; 146 (1): 48-54


    Depression is common in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the extent to which clinical depression is related to comorbid medical conditions is unknown. This study examined the degree of association between clinical depression and medical comorbidity in patients hospitalized with AMI.Two thousand four hundred and eighty-one depressed or socially isolated patients with AMI were enrolled, as part of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease clinical trial. A structured interview was used to diagnose major and minor depression and dysthymia; severity of depression was measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Beck Depression Inventory. Level of social support was measured by the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument. A modified version of the Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to measure the cumulative burden of medical comorbidity.The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for having major depression increased linearly with medical comorbidity (ORs 1.6, 2.2, 2.7 for each increasing medical comorbidity category). This relationship remained after adjusting for coronary heart disease severity (ORs 1.4, 1.7, 1.9, P <.001). The relationship between severity of depression and medical comorbidity was also maintained after excluding somatic symptoms of depression (F = 21.5, P <.0001).Patients with AMI and clinical depression have significantly greater levels of medical comorbidity than nondepressed, socially isolated patients. Further research is needed to determine whether comorbid medical illness contributes to the more frequent rehospitalizations and increased risk of mortality associated with depression.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0002-8703(03)00083-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184290900007

    View details for PubMedID 12851607

  • The relationship between agoraphobia symptoms and panic disorder in a non-clinical sample of adolescents PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B. 2003; 33 (4): 733-738


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical correlates of agoraphobic fear and avoidance and panic disorder in a non-clinical sample of adolescents.In a sample of 2365 high school students, combined data from a questionnaire and a structured clinical interview were used to classify subjects with agoraphobic fear and avoidance. Panic symptoms, major depression, childhood separation anxiety disorder, anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity were also assessed.Fifteen subjects met study criteria for agoraphobic fear and avoidance in the past year. Only three (20%) of those with agoraphobia symptoms reported histories of panic attacks and there was no overlap between those with agoraphobic fear and avoidance and the 12 subjects who met DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder. However, subjects with agoraphobia symptoms and those with panic disorder reported similar levels of anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity. Childhood separation anxiety disorder was more common among those with agoraphobic fear and avoidance compared to those without.Agoraphobic avoidance is rare in non-clinical samples of adolescents and usually not associated with panic attacks. However, adolescents with agoraphobia symptoms and those with panic disorder have similar clinical correlates consistent with a panic/agoraphobia spectrum model.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0033291702006955

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183495600017

    View details for PubMedID 12785475

  • Evaluation of a nurse-care management system to improve outcomes in patients with complicated diabetes DIABETES CARE Taylor, C. B., Miller, N. H., Reilly, K. R., Greenwald, G., Cunning, D., Deeter, A., Abascal, L. 2003; 26 (4): 1058-1063


    This study evaluated the efficacy of a nurse-care management system designed to improve outcomes in patients with complicated diabetes.In this randomized controlled trial that took place at Kaiser Permanente Medical Center in Santa Clara, CA, 169 patients with longstanding diabetes, one or more major medical comorbid conditions, and HbA(lc) >10% received a special intervention (n = 84) or usual medical care (n = 85) for 1 year. Patients met with a nurse-care manager to establish individual outcome goals, attended group sessions once a week for up to 4 weeks, and received telephone calls to manage medications and self-care activities. HbA(lc), LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, and psychosocial factors were measured at baseline and 1 year later. Annualized physician visits were determined for the year before and during the study.At 1 year, the mean reductions in HbA(lc), total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were significantly greater for the intervention group compared with the usual care group. Significantly more patients in the intervention group met the goals for HbA(1c) (<7.5%) than patients in usual care (42.6 vs. 24.6%, P < 0.03, chi(2)). There were no significant differences in any of the psychosocial variables or in physician visits.A nurse-care management program can significantly improve some medical outcomes in patients with complicated diabetes without increasing physician visits.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185505300015

    View details for PubMedID 12663573

  • Evaluation of an Internet support group for women with primary breast cancer CANCER Winzelberg, A. J., Classen, C., Alpers, G. W., Roberts, H., Koopman, C., Adams, R. E., ERNST, H., Dev, P., Taylor, C. B. 2003; 97 (5): 1164-1173


    Women with breast carcinoma commonly experience psychologic distress following their diagnosis. Women who participate in breast cancer support groups have reported significant reduction in their psychologic distress and pain and improvement in the quality of their lives. Web-based breast cancer social support groups are widely used, but little is known of their effectiveness. Preliminary evidence suggests that women benefit from their participation in web-based support groups.Seventy-two women with primary breast carcinoma were assigned randomly to a 12-week, web-based, social support group (Bosom Buddies). The group was semistructured, moderated by a health care professional, and delivered in an asynchronous newsgroup format.The results indicate that a web-based support group can be useful in reducing depression and cancer-related trauma, as well as perceived stress, among women with primary breast carcinoma. The effect sizes ranged from 0.38 to 0.54. Participants perceived a variety of benefits and high satisfaction from their participation in the interventionThis study demonstrated that the web-based program, Bosom Buddies, was effective in reducing participants' scores on depression, perceived stress, and cancer-related trauma measures. The effect size of the intervention was in the moderate range. Although web-based social support groups offer many advantages, this delivery mechanism presents a number of ethical issues that need to be addressed.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.11174

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181190000004

    View details for PubMedID 12599221

  • Computer- and Internet-based psychotherapy interventions CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Taylor, C. B., Luce, K. H. 2003; 12 (1): 18-22
  • Das Internet eroeffnet neue Moeglichckeitn fuer Gruppeninterventionen Verhatlenstherapie Alpers GW, Winzelberg, AJ, . Classen C, Roberts H, Dev P, Koopman C, Taylor CB 2003; 13: 1-48
  • The use of the internet to provide evidence based integrated treatment programs for mental health. Psychiatric Annals Taylor CB, Jobson K, Winzelberg AJ, Abascal A 2003; 32: 671-677
  • Prevention of eating disorders and obesity via the Internet Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Zabinksi MF, Celio AA, Wilfley DE, Taylor CB 2003; 32: 137-150
  • Risk factors for the onset of eating disorders in adolescent girls: Results of the McKnight longitudinal risk factor study. American Journal of Psychiatry The McKnight Investigators 2003; 160: 248-254
  • The effects of treating depression and low perceived social support on clinical events after myocardial infarcton: The Enhancing ecoery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients (ENRICHD) Randomized Trial JAMA ENRICHD investigators 2003; 289 (23): 3106-16
  • The Depression Interview and Structured Hamilton (DISH): Rationale, development, characteristics, and clinical validity PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Freedland, K. E., Skala, J. A., Carney, R. M., Raczynski, J. M., Taylor, C. B., de Leon, C. F., Ironson, G., Youngblood, M. E., Krishnan, K. R., Veith, R. C. 2002; 64 (6): 897-905


    The Depression Interview and Structured Hamilton (DISH) is a semistructured interview developed for the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) study, a multicenter clinical trial of treatment for depression and low perceived social support after acute myocardial infarction. The DISH is designed to diagnose depression in medically ill patients and to assess its severity on an embedded version of Williams' Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression scale (SIGH-D). This article describes the development and characteristics of the DISH and presents a validity study and data on its use in ENRICHD.In the validity study, the DISH and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) were administered in randomized order to 57 patients. Trained interviewers administered the DISH, and clinicians administered the SCID. In ENRICHD, trained research nurses administered the DISH and recorded a diagnosis. Clinicians reviewed 42% of the interviews and recorded their own diagnosis. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered in both studies.In the validity study, the SCID diagnosis agreed with the DISH on 88% of the interviews (weighted kappa = 0.86). In ENRICHD, the clinicians agreed with 93% of the research nurses' diagnoses. The BDI and the Hamilton depression scores derived from the DISH in the two studies correlated 0.76 (p < .0001) in the validity study and 0.64 (p < .0001) in ENRICHD.These findings support the validity of the DISH as a semistructured interview to assess depression in medically ill patients. The DISH is efficient in yielding both a DSM-IV depression diagnosis and a 17-item Hamilton depression score.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.PSY.0000028826.64279.29

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179622900007

    View details for PubMedID 12461195

  • A longitudinal investigation of anxiety sensitivity in adolescence JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Weems, C. F., Hayward, C., Killen, J., Taylor, C. B. 2002; 111 (3): 471-477


    This investigation sought to expand existing knowledge of anxiety sensitivity in a sample of high school students (N = 2,365) assessed over 4 years. The stability of anxiety sensitivity levels across assessment periods was examined, and cluster analyses were used to identify different developmental pathways in levels of anxiety sensitivity. Groups of adolescents with stable low, stable high, and escalating anxiety sensitivity levels were identified. Adolescents with stable high or escalating anxiety sensitivity were significantly more likely to report experiencing a panic attack than individuals with stable low anxiety sensitivity. Results also indicated that Asian and Hispanic adolescents tended to report higher anxiety sensitivity but that their anxiety sensitivity was less strongly associated with panic than that of Caucasian adolescents.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//0021-843X.111.3.471

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176960100007

    View details for PubMedID 12150423

  • Application of a nurse-managed inpatient smoking cessation program. Nicotine & tobacco research Smith, P. M., Reilly, K. R., Houston Miller, N., DeBusk, R. F., Taylor, C. B. 2002; 4 (2): 211-222


    This study reports on the effectiveness of a nurse case-managed smoking cessation program for general hospitalized patients that was continued for 3 years after clinical trials were completed. Patients admitted to the hospital who smoked were offered a smoking cessation program during their hospitalization. The program included physician advice, bedside education and counseling with a nurse specially trained in smoking cessation techniques, take-home materials (videotape, workbook, and relaxation audiotape), nicotine replacement therapy if requested or indicated, and four nurse-initiated post-discharge telephone counseling calls. Of the 2091 patients identified as smokers, 52% enrolled in the program, 18% wanted to quit on their own, 20% did not want to quit, and 10% were ineligible. The 12-month self-reported cessation rate (7-day point prevalence) was 35% if patients lost to follow-up were considered smokers, 49% if not. Patients hospitalized for cancer, cardiovascular, or pulmonary reasons were most likely to participate and had the highest self-reported cessation rates (63%, 57%, and 46%, respectively). This nurse-managed smoking cessation intervention was effective when it was put into standard hospital practice outside of its originating randomized clinical trial structure. The program, relatively inexpensive to deliver, appears to be acceptable to the majority of smokers who are hospitalized, resulted in high 1-year cessation rates, and can be extended to hospital employees and their families, work-sites, and communities on a cost-recovery basis.

    View details for PubMedID 12096707

  • Secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in the elderly (With emphasis on patients >= 75 years of age) - An American Heart Association scientific statement from the council on clinical cardiology subcommittee on exercise, cardiac rehabilitation, and prevention CIRCULATION Williams, M. A., Fleg, J. L., Ades, P. A., Chaitman, B. R., Miller, N. H., Mohiuddin, S. M., Ockene, I. S., Taylor, C. B., Wenger, N. K. 2002; 105 (14): 1735-1743
  • A novel stress and coping workplace program reduces illness and healthcare utilization PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Rahe, R. H., Taylor, C. B., Tolles, R. L., Newhall, L. M., Veach, T. L., Bryson, S. 2002; 64 (2): 278-286


    The purpose of this study was to determine if a novel workplace stress management program, delivered either face-to-face or by self-help, would reduce illness and health services utilization among participants.Five hundred one volunteers were randomly allocated to one of three groups: full intervention, which received assessment and personalized self-study feedback and was offered six face-to-face, small-group sessions; partial intervention, a self-help group that received assessment and personalized feedback by mail; and a wait-list control group. All participants completed questionnaires for stress, anxiety, and coping at the start of the study and 6 and 12 months later. Health reports were completed at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. A subsample of subjects who subscribed to a single health maintenance organization provided objectively recorded doctor visit data across the study year.All three groups reported significant improvement in their stress, anxiety, and coping across the year. Full intervention participants showed a more rapid reduction in negative responses to stress than did participants from the other groups. Full-intervention subjects also reported fewer days of illness than subjects in the other groups. Objectively measured physician visits showed a large (34%) reduction in healthcare utilization for full intervention subjects in the HMO subsample.These results indicated that a work-site program that focuses on stress, anxiety, and coping measurement along with small-group educational intervention can significantly reduce illness and healthcare utilization.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174551600011

    View details for PubMedID 11914444

  • Issues related to combining risk factor reduction and clinical treatment for eating disorders in defined populations JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL HEALTH SERVICES & RESEARCH Taylor, C. B., Cameron, R. P., Newman, M. G., Junge, J. 2002; 29 (1): 81-90


    Population-based psychotherapy considers the provision of services to a population at risk for or already affected with a disease or disorder. Using existing data on prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and interventions (both preventive and clinical) for eating disorders (anorexia excluded), this article examines issues related to integrating and providing risk reduction and treatment to a population of female college students. Population-based psychotherapy models have important implications for the provision of services and for future directions in research on eating and other types of mental health disorders, but the assumptions need to be carefully examined. Studies that provide data combining population-based risk factor reduction and clinical treatment are needed to advance this field.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173693300007

    View details for PubMedID 11840907

  • Improving compliance in on-line, structured self-help programs: evaluation of an eating disorder prevention program. Journal of psychiatric practice Celio, A. A., Winzelberg, A. J., Dev, P., Taylor, C. B. 2002; 8 (1): 14-20


    Compliance rates from four iterations of Student Bodies, an 8-10 week computer assisted health education (CAHE) program for the prevention of eating disorders in college-aged women, were measured. Each iteration was modified with the hope of increasing participant compliance. Participants were 116 undergraduate women from two large West Coast universities who were randomly assigned to either the CAHE program or a wait-list group. Model 1 was delivered via CD-ROM, was anonymous, used an unstructured "grazing" approach, and participants received 10 dollars. Model 2 was web-based, had recommended assignments with telephone reminders, and participants received 25 dollars. Model 3 used a more structured approach to assignments. Model 4 eliminated anonymity, added an academic component, used email reminders, and offered course units as an incentive. Compliance was defined as percentage of screens read per number of screens assigned (n = 27-33). In Model 1, compliance was self-reported at 53%. In Models 2, 3, and 4, compliance, measured directly via computer logs, was 66%, 85%, and 84%, respectively. A Mann-Whitney test showed that the increase in compliance between Models 2 and 3 and Models 2 and 4 was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Compliance was significantly correlated with improvement on outcome. Suggestions for increasing compliance in other CAHE programs are offered.

    View details for PubMedID 15985850

  • An interactive Internet-based intervention for women at risk of eating disorders: A pilot study INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Zabinski, M. F., Wilfley, D. E., Pung, M. A., Winzelberg, A. J., Eldredge, K., Taylor, C. B. 2001; 30 (2): 129-137


    The Internet serves as a potentially effective method of treatment delivery through widespread education and interaction via synchronous Internet relay chat (IRC). The current study explores the feasibility of IRC in the delivery of an eating disorders prevention intervention.This small pilot study describes the delivery of an efficacious eating disorder treatment using a novel medium. The on-line sessions are based on cognitive-behavioral treatment and are facilitated by a moderator. In addition to feasibility, preliminary evidence of acceptability and efficacy for an on-line intervention with college-aged women is reported.Results indicate that IRC is an acceptable and feasible format for treatment delivery. In addition, descriptive and qualitative data suggest that this method of treatment delivery is potentially effective.This pilot study provides increased knowledge of the viability of treatment delivery over the Internet, specifically, a psychoeducational IRC for eating disorder prevention.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169881200001

    View details for PubMedID 11449446

  • Reducing risk factors for eating disorders: Targeting at-risk women with a computerized psychoeducational program INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Zabinski, M. F., Pung, M. A., Wilfley, D. E., Eppstein, D. L., Winzelberg, A. J., Celio, A., Taylor, C. B. 2001; 29 (4): 401-408


    This controlled study evaluated whether an 8-week program offered over the Internet would significantly decrease body image dissatisfaction, disordered eating patterns, and preoccupation with shape/weight among women at high risk for developing an eating disorder.Fifty-six college women were recruited on the basis of elevated scores (> or =110) on the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Psychological functioning, as measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT) subscale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and the BSQ, was assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and at 10-week follow-up.All participants improved over time on most measures, although effect sizes suggest that the program did impact the intervention group.Findings suggest that technological interventions may be helpful for reducing disordered eating patterns and cognitions among high-risk women. Future research is needed to assess whether such programs are effective over time for prevention of and reduction in eating disorder symptomatology.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167952000004

    View details for PubMedID 11285577

  • Do logistic regression and signal detection identify different subgroups at risk? Implications for the design of tailored interventions PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS Kiernan, M., Kraemer, H. C., Winkleby, M. A., King, A. C., Taylor, C. B. 2001; 6 (1): 35-48


    Identifying subgroups of high-risk individuals can lead to the development of tailored interventions for those subgroups. This study compared two multivariate statistical methods (logistic regression and signal detection) and evaluated their ability to identify subgroups at risk. The methods identified similar risk predictors and had similar predictive accuracy in exploratory and validation samples. However, the 2 methods did not classify individuals into the same subgroups. Within subgroups, logistic regression identified individuals that were homogeneous in outcome but heterogeneous in risk predictors. In contrast, signal detection identified individuals that were homogeneous in both outcome and risk predictors. Because of the ability to identify homogeneous subgroups, signal detection may be more useful than logistic regression for designing distinct tailored interventions for subgroups of high-risk individuals.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//1082-989X.6.1.35

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170728000004

    View details for PubMedID 11285811

  • Report or the Health Care Delivery Work Group - Behavioral research related to the establishment of a chronic disease model for diabetes care DIABETES CARE Glasgow, R. E., Hiss, R. G., Anderson, R. M., Friedman, N. M., Hayward, R. A., Marrero, D. G., Taylor, C. B., Vinicor, F. 2001; 24 (1): 124-130


    As one of four work groups for the November 1999 conference on Behavioral Science Research in Diabetes, sponsored by the National Institute on Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the health care delivery work group evaluated the status of research on quality of care, patient-provider interactions, and health care systems' innovations related to improved diabetes outcomes. In addition, we made recommendations for future research. In this article, which was developed and modified at the November conference by experts in health care delivery, diabetes and behavioral science, we summarize the literature on patient-provider interactions, diabetes care and self-management support among underserved and minority populations, and implementation of chronic care management systems for diabetes. We conclude that, although the quality of care provided to the vast majority of diabetic patients is problematic, this is principally not the fault of either individual patients or health care professionals. Rather, it is a systems issue emanating from the acute illness model of care, which still predominates. Examples of proactive population-based chronic care management programs incorporating behavioral principles are discussed. The article concludes by identifying barriers to the establishment of a chronic care model (e.g., lack of supportive policies, understanding of population-based management, and information systems) and priorities for future research in this area needed to overcome these barriers.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166091600024

    View details for PubMedID 11194217

  • Do logistic regression and signal detection identify idfferent subgroups at risk? Implicaitons for the design of tailored interventions Pyschological Methods Kiernan M, Kraemer HC, Winkleby MA, King AC, Taylor CB 2001; 6: 35-48
  • Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD): BStudy intervention Pyschosomatic Medicine The ENRICHD Investigators 2001; 63: 747-55
  • Peer, parent, and media influences on the development of weight concerns and frequent dieting among preadolescent and adolescent girls and boys PEDIATRICS Field, A. E., Camargo, C. A., Taylor, C. B., Berkey, C. S., Roberts, S. B., Colditz, G. A. 2001; 107 (1): 54-60


    To assess prospectively the influence of peers, parents, and the media on the development of weight concerns and frequent dieting.Prospective cohort study.Questionnaires mailed annually to participants throughout the United States.One-year follow-up of 6770 girls and 5287 boys who completed questionnaires in 1996 and 1997 and were between 9 and 14 years of age in 1996.Onset of high levels of concern with weight and dieting frequently to control weight.During 1 year of follow-up, 6% of girls and 2% of boys became highly concerned with weight and 2% of girls and 1% of boys became constant dieters. Peer influence was negligible. Independent of age and body mass index, both girls (odds ratio [OR]): 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-3.1) and boys (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6. 4) who were making a lot of effort to look like same-sex figures in the media were more likely than their peers to become very concerned with their weight. Moreover, both girls (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-5.0) and boys (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1-6.0) who reported that their thinness/lack of fat was important to their father were more likely than their peers to become constant dieters.Our results suggest that parents and the media influence the development of weight concerns and weight control practices among preadolescents and adolescents. However, there are gender differences in the relative importance of these influences.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166150600022

    View details for PubMedID 11134434

  • Computer-assisted cognitive-behavioral group therpay for social phobia Behavior Therapy Gruber K, Moran PJ, Roth W, Talor CB 2001; 32: 155-165
  • Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD): Baseline characteristics. American Journal of Cardiology The ENRICHD Investigators 2001; 88: 316-322
  • The relationship of childhood sexual abuse and depression with somatic symptoms and medical utilization PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE Newman, M. G., Clayton, L., Zuellig, A., Cashman, L., Arnow, B., Dea, R., Taylor, C. B. 2000; 30 (5): 1063-1077


    Previous research suggests that childhood sexual abuse is associated with high rates of retrospectively reported medical utilization and medical problems as an adult. The goal of this study was to determine if abused females have higher rates of medical utilization using self-report and objective measures, compared with non-abused females. A further goal was to determine whether findings of prior research would be replicated when childhood physical abuse level was controlled. This study also examined the moderating impact of depressed mood on current health measures in this population.Six hundred and eight women recruited from a health maintenance organization completed self-report measures of health symptoms for the previous month and doctor visits for the previous year. Objective doctor records over a 2 year period were examined for a subset of 136 of these women.Results showed significantly more self-reported health symptoms and more self-reported doctor visits in abused participants compared with those who reported no childhood history of sexual abuse. Objective doctor visits demonstrated the same pattern with abused participants exhibiting more visits related to out-patient surgery and out-patient internal medicine. In addition, persons who were both sexually abused and depressed tended to visit the emergency room more frequently and to have more in-patient internal medicine and ophthalmology visits than sexually abused participants who reported low depressed mood and non-abused controls.These results replicate prior studies and suggest that current depression may moderate the relationship between sexual abuse and medical problems in adulthood.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089305800007

    View details for PubMedID 12027043

  • Body-image and eating disturbances predict onset of depression among female adolescents: A longitudinal study JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Stice, E., Hayward, C., Cameron, R. P., Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B. 2000; 109 (3): 438-444


    This study examined data from a 4-year school-based longitudinal study (n = 1,124), to test whether the increase in major depression that occurs among girls during adolescence may be partially explained by the body-image and eating disturbances that emerge after puberty. Elevated body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms at study entry predicted onset of subsequent depression among initially nondepressed youth in bivariate analyses controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Although the unique effect for body dissatisfaction was not significant in the multivariate model, this set of risk factors was able to fairly accurately foretell which girls would go on to develop major depression. Results were consistent with the assertion that the body-image- and eating-related risk factors that emerge after puberty might contribute to the elevated rates of depression for adolescent girls.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089411800009

    View details for PubMedID 11016113

  • Placebo-controlled study of gabapentin treatment of panic disorder JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Pande, A. C., Pollack, M. H., Crockatt, J., Greiner, M., Chouinard, G., Lydiard, R. B., Taylor, C. B., Dager, S. R., Shiovitz, T. 2000; 20 (4): 467-471


    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gabapentin in relieving the symptoms of panic disorder. One hundred three patients were randomly assigned to receive double-blind treatment with either gabapentin (dosed flexibly between 600 and 3,600 mg/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. No overall drug/placebo difference was observed in scores on the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS) (p = 0.606). A post hoc analysis was used to evaluate the more severely ill patients as defined by the primary outcome measure (PAS score > or = 20). In this population, the gabapentin-treated patients showed significant improvement in the PAS change score (p = 0.04). In patients with a PAS score of 20 or greater, women showed a greater response than men regardless of treatment. Adverse events were consistent with the known side effect profile of gabapentin and included somnolence, headache, and dizziness. One patient experienced a serious adverse event during the study. No deaths were reported. The results of this study suggest that gabapentin may have anxiolytic effects in more severely ill patients with panic disorder.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088178200011

    View details for PubMedID 10917408

  • Reducing risk factors for eating disorders: Comparison of an Internet- and a classroom-delivered psychoeducational program JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Celio, A. A., Winzelberg, A. J., Wilfley, D. E., Eppstein-Herald, D., SPRINGER, E. A., Dev, P., Taylor, C. B. 2000; 68 (4): 650-657


    This controlled trial compared Internet- (Student Bodies [SB]) and classroom-delivered (Body Traps [BT]) psychoeducational interventions for the reduction of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors/attitudes with a control condition. Participants were 76 women at a private university who were randomly assigned to SB, BT, or a wait-list control (WLC) condition. Measures of body image and eating attitudes and behaviors were measured at baseline, posttreatment, and 4-month follow-up. At posttreatment, participants in SB had significant reductions in weight/shape concerns and disordered eating attitudes compared with those in the WLC condition. At follow-up, disordered behaviors were also reduced. No significant effects were found between the BT and WLC conditions. An Internet-delivered intervention had a significant impact on reducing risk factors for eating disorders.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088830700013

    View details for PubMedID 10965640

  • Effectiveness of an Internet-based program for reducing risk factors for eating disorders JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Winzelberg, A. J., Eppstein, D., Eldredge, K. L., Wilfley, D., Dasmahapatra, R., Dev, P., Taylor, C. B. 2000; 68 (2): 346-350


    This study evaluated an Internet-delivered computer-assisted health education (CAHE) program designed to improve body satisfaction and reduce weight/shape concerns--concerns that have been shown to be risk factors for the development of eating disorders in young women. Participants were 60 women at a public university randomly assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Intervention participants completed the CAHE program Student Bodies. Measures of body image and disordered eating attitudes were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. At follow-up, intervention participants, compared with controls, reported a significant improvement in body image and a decrease in drive for thinness. This program provides evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of providing health education by means of the Internet.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087485300018

    View details for PubMedID 10780136

  • Predictors of panic attacks in adolescents JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Kraemer, H. C., Taylor, C. B. 2000; 39 (2): 207-214


    To identify risk factors for onset of panic attacks in adolescents, a prospective cohort design was used to evaluate the following risk factors: negative affectivity, female sex, anxiety sensitivity, and childhood separation anxiety disorder. These risk factors were also evaluated for predicting onset of major depression to test their specificity.The sample consisted of 2,365 high school students assessed over a 4-year period. Assessments included self-report questionnaires and structured clinical interviews. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate risk.Consistent with previous studies, prior major depression predicted onset of panic attacks and a history of panic attacks predicted onset of major depression. After adjusting for the effects of prior major depression, negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity, but not female sex or childhood separation anxiety disorder, predicted onset of 4-symptom panic attacks. However, female sex and negative affectivity but not anxiety sensitivity or childhood separation anxiety disorder predicted onset of major depression after adjustment for the effects of prior panic attacks.Negative affectivity appears to be a nonspecific risk factor for panic attacks and major depression, whereas anxiety sensitivity appears to be a specific factor that increases the risk for 4-symptom panic attacks in adolescents.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085031900021

    View details for PubMedID 10673832

  • A brief screening instrument to detect psychological distress in primary care settings Psyhiatry in Medicine Hart S, Arnow BA, Dea R, Taylor CB 2000; 3: 17-22
  • Chronic disease management - Treating the patient with disease(s) vs treating disease(s) in the patient ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE DeBusk, R. F., West, J. A., Miller, N. H., Taylor, C. B. 1999; 159 (22): 2739-2742


    The treatment of chronic disease is often complicated by the coexistence of multiple medical conditions and by the presence of social and psychological impediments. The needs posed by patients with chronic disease are overwhelming the capacity of the American health care system. Alternative disease management systems that rely on specially trained nurse case managers to implement detailed clinical protocols, including drug algorithms, have shown efficacy in managing chronic medical conditions, singly and in combination. By fostering integration of care across subspecialty and medical-social boundaries, such systems enable treatment of the patient with disease(s), not simply treatment of disease(s) in the patient. Working closely with primary care physicians, often by telephone-mediated interaction with patients, nurse case managers may take an expanded role in meeting the challenges posed by chronic disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084052700015

    View details for PubMedID 10597765

  • Naturalistic weight-reduction efforts prospectively predict growth in relative weight and onset of obesity among female adolescents JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Stice, E., Cameron, R. P., Killen, J. D., Hayward, C., Taylor, C. B. 1999; 67 (6): 967-974


    This study examined the prospective relations of naturalistic weight-reduction efforts to growth in relative weight and onset of obesity with data from a community study of female adolescents (N = 692). Initial self-labeled dieting, appetite suppressant/laxative use, incidental exercise, vomiting for weight-control purposes, and binge eating predicted elevated growth in relative weight over the 4-year period. Dietary restraint, self-labeled dieting, exercise for weight-control purposes, and appetite suppressant/laxative use predicted an increased risk for obesity onset. Data imply that the weight-reduction efforts reported by adolescents are more likely to result in weight gain than in weight loss and suggest the need to educate youth on more effective weight-control strategies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083979000015

    View details for PubMedID 10596518

  • Childhood sexual abuse, psychological distress, and medical use among women PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Arnow, B. A., Hart, S., Scott, C., Dea, R., O'Connell, L., Taylor, C. B. 1999; 61 (6): 762-770


    This study examined the relationships between reported history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), psychological distress, and medical utilization among women in a health maintenance organization (HMO) setting.Participants were 206 women aged 20 to 63 years who were recruited from an HMO primary care clinic waiting area. Participants were classified, using screening questionnaires and the revised Symptom Checklist 90, as 1) CSA-distressed, 2) distressed only, 3) CSA only, or 4) control participants. Medical utilization rates were generated from the computerized database of the HMO for 1) nonpsychiatric outpatient, 2) psychiatric outpatient, 3) emergency room (ER), and 4) inpatient admissions.CSA-distressed and distressed only groups both used significantly more nonpsychiatric outpatient visits than CSA only and control participants but were not different from one another. CSA only and control participants did not differ on nonpsychiatric outpatient utilization. CSA-distressed participants used significantly more ER visits and were more likely to visit the ER for pain-related complaints than other participants. Among CSA-distressed participants, those who met criteria for physical abuse had significantly more ER visits than those who did not. There were no differences among the four groups in inpatient utilization rates.Psychological distress is associated with higher outpatient medical utilization, independent of CSA history. History of CSA with concomitant psychological distress is associated with significantly higher ER visits, particularly for those with a history of physical abuse. History of CSA without distress is not associated with elevated rates of medical utilization. Screening for psychological distress, CSA, and physical abuse may help to identify distinct subgroups with unique utilization patterns.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083881700007

    View details for PubMedID 10593627

  • Future directions in the treatment of anxiety disorders: An examination of theory, basic science, public policy, psychotherapy research, clinical training, and practice JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Newman, M. G., Borkovec, T. D., Hope, D. A., Kozak, M. J., McNally, R. J., Taylor, C. B. 1999; 55 (11): 1325-1345


    This article represents a transcribed roundtable discussion on anxiety disorders that took place at the 1998 Society for Psychotherapy Research in Snowbird, Utah. Eminent experts in the field of anxiety disorders took part in a discussion that focused on issues related to theory, basic science, public policy, therapy research, clinical training, and practice. Important topics addressed by the panel included the role of theory in research and clinical practice, the importance of psychopharmacological interventions, efficacy versus effectiveness research, the impact of public policy on research advancement, and the interface between basic science, research, and clinical practice.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083492500002

    View details for PubMedID 10599824

  • Relation of peer and media influences to the development of purging behaviors among preadolescent and adolescent girls ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Field, A. E., Camargo, C. A., Taylor, C. B., Berkey, C. S., Colditz, G. A. 1999; 153 (11): 1184-1189


    To assess prospectively the relation of peer and media influences on the risk of development of purging behaviors.Prospective cohort study.One year follow-up of 6982 girls aged 9 to 14 years in 1996 who completed questionnaires in 1996 and 1997 and reported in 1996 that they did not use vomiting or laxatives to control weight.Self-report of using vomiting or laxatives at least monthly to control weight.During 1 year of follow-up, 74 girls began using vomiting or laxatives at least monthly to control weight. Tanner stage of pubic hair development was predictive of beginning to purge (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.4). Independent of age and Tanner stage of pubic hair development, importance of thinness to peers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.8-3.0) and trying to look like females on television, in movies, or in magazines (OR= 1.9; 95% CI, 1.6-2.3) were predictive of beginning to purge at least monthly. Regardless of the covariates included in the logistic regression model, the risk of beginning to purge increased approximately 30% to 40% per 1-category increase in frequency of trying to look like females on television, in movies, or in magazines.Both peers and popular culture, independent of each other, exert influence on girls' weight control beliefs and behaviors. Therefore, to make eating disorder prevention programs more effective, efforts should be made to persuade the television, movie, and magazine industries to employ more models and actresses whose weight could be described as healthy, not underweight.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083496200013

    View details for PubMedID 10555723

  • A palmtop computer program for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Newman, M. G., CONSOLI, A. J., Taylor, C. B. 1999; 23 (4): 597-619


    This is the first report of a palmtop computer program developed to increase the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The computer program offers advantages to researchers, therapists, and clients. These advantages include continuous, unobtrusive collection of process data on treatment adherence as well as on the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy techniques in the client's natural setting. In addition, the computer extends treatment beyond the therapy hour and motivates clients to comply with homework assignments by prompting practice of cognitive behavioral strategies. The successful application of the palmtop computer program reported in this integrated series suggests a new line of research directed toward increasing the cost-effectiveness of what is currently the gold-standard treatment for GAD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000082973000005

    View details for PubMedID 10533442

  • Effects of a body image curriculum for college students on improved body image INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Springer, E. A., Winzelberg, A. J., Perkins, R., Taylor, C. B. 1999; 26 (1): 13-20


    This study evaluated the effects of an undergraduate body image course, "Body Traps: Perspectives on Body Image," on decreasing body dissatisfaction, weight concern, and disordered eating behaviors.Twenty-four undergraduate females enrolled in the body image course. Measures of body image and disordered eating patterns were assessed at baseline and at postintervention.Subjects significantly decreased the frequency and severity of their body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. No changes in body mass index or global self-esteem were observed.This is the first investigation to demonstrate that a formal, academic course can result in the reduction of both attitudinal and behavioral eating disorder risk factors. Future controlled studies need to be undertaken to substantiate this effect.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080372000002

    View details for PubMedID 10349579

  • Expected versus unexpected panic attacks: A naturalistic prospective study JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS Kenardy, J., Taylor, C. B. 1999; 13 (4): 435-445


    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that are associated with expectation of panic attacks as well as to validate the hypothesized tendency to identify false (panic) alarms in panic disorder. Ten women with panic disorder were assessed naturalistically using computer-assisted self-monitoring. This allowed for prospective assessment of expected versus unexpected panic attacks. Expectation of panic attacks was associated with panic occurrence, as well as elevated sense of threat or danger, anxiety, helplessness, avoidance, distress about physical symptoms, physical sensations, and catastrophic thoughts prior to the attack. In general, the state measured prior to unexpected attacks did not differ from ongoing nonpanic state. Furthermore, none of the variables measured during the attacks were able to distinguish unexpected attacks from expected attacks.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000082164000007

    View details for PubMedID 10504111

  • Overweight, weight concerns, and bulimic behaviors among girls and boys JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Field, A. E., Camargo, C. A., Taylor, C. B., Berkey, C. S., Frazier, A. L., Gillman, M. W., Colditz, G. A. 1999; 38 (6): 754-760


    To assess the prevalence rates and correlates of overweight, concern with weight, and bulimic behaviors.A survey was completed by a population-based sample of 16,114 boys and girls aged 9 to 14 years.Although fewer girls (19%) than boys (26%) were overweight, more girls (25% versus 22%) perceived themselves as overweight (p < .001). The proportion of girls reporting trying to lose weight increased with age (p < .001). The prevalence of binge eating at least monthly increased with age among the girls, but remained stable among the boys. The prevalence of purging was low (< or = 1%) and comparable between genders until age 13. Among the 13- and 14-year-olds, girls were significantly more likely than boys to report using laxatives or vomiting to control weight (p < or = .001). Purging was independently positively associated with stage of pubertal development (girls: odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.7; boys: OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2) and overweight (girls: OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0; boys: OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.1).Misperception of being overweight and concern with weight were common. Purging was a very rare behavior, but increased with pubertal development. Among the girls, the prevalence increased sharply around the onset of adolescence.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080558800024

    View details for PubMedID 10361795

  • Development and evaluation of the McKnight Risk Factor Survey for assessing potential risk and protective factors for disordered eating in preadolescent and adolescent girls INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Shisslak, C. M., Renger, R., Sharpe, T., Crago, M., McKnight, K. M., Gray, N., Bryson, S., Estes, L. S., Parnaby, O. G., Killen, J., Taylor, C. B. 1999; 25 (2): 195-214


    To describe the development, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-III (MRFS-III). The MRFS-III was designed to assess a number of potential risk and protective factors for the development of disordered eating in preadolescent and adolescent girls.Several versions of the MRFS were pilot tested before the MRFS-III was administered to a sample of 651 4th through 12th- grade girls to establish its psychometric properties.Most of the test-retest reliability coefficients of individual items on the MRFS-III were r > .40. Alpha coefficients for each risk and protective factor domain on the MRFS-III were also computed. The majority of these coefficients were r > .60. High convergent validity coefficients were obtained for specific items on the MRFS-III and measures of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) and weight concerns (Weight Concerns Scale).The test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the MRFS-III suggest that it is a useful new instrument to assess potential risk and protective factors for the development of disordered eating in preadolescent and adolescent girls.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078638900009

    View details for PubMedID 10065397

  • In-hospital smoking cessation programs: Who responds, who doesn't? JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Smith, P. M., Kraemer, H. C., Miller, N. H., DeBusk, R. F., Taylor, C. B. 1999; 67 (1): 19-27


    This study extends the results of a large randomized clinical trial of a multicomponent in-hospital smoking cessation intervention for general hospitalized smokers by examining subgroups of patients who responded to the intervention. The results, obtained using signal detection analysis, produced 6 subgroups of patients with varying degrees of intervention responsiveness. The subgroup most responsive was marked by 100% confidence to quit smoking at baseline. Among patients with less than 100% confidence, confidence interacted with age, depressed mood scores, addiction scores, and alcohol intake to discriminate 5 additional subgroups. Discussion focuses on how this information can be used in clinical decision making to treat subpopulations of smokers and directs attention to possible areas of underlying biopsychosocial processes that may interact to affect successful long-term cessation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078454700003

    View details for PubMedID 10028205

  • Student bodies: Psycho-education communities on the web Dev, P., Winzelberg, A. J., Celio, A., Taylor, C. B. BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. 1999: 510-514


    We have developed a Web-delivered, multimedia health educational program, Student Bodies, designed to improve body satisfaction, a probable risk factor for the development of eating disorders in young women. The program includes psycho-educational content and a newsgroup for communication, and is delivered in a structured framework of weekly readings, assignments and postings to the newsgroup. Intervention group participants improved their body image, and reduced other attitudes that predispose to eating disorders.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170207300105

    View details for PubMedID 10566411

  • Acculturation and eating disorder symptoms in adolescent girls. Journal of Research on Adolescence Gowen LK, Hayward C, Killen JD, Robinson TN, Taylor CB 1999; 9: 67-83
  • Future directions in the treatment of anxiety disorders: An examinaiton of theory, basic science, public policy, psychotherapy research, clinical training and practice Journal of Clinicl Psychology Newman MG, Borkovec TD, Hope DA, Kozak MJ, McNally RJ, Taylor CB 1999; 55 (11): 1325-1345
  • Linking self-reported childhood behavioral inhibition to adolescent social phobia JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Kraemer, H. C., Taylor, C. B. 1998; 37 (12): 1308-1316


    Behavioral inhibition in children has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for the later development of social phobia. However, this hypothesis has yet to be demonstrated in a prospective study. The purpose of the study presented here is to test whether behavioral inhibition in childhood constitutes a risk factor for social phobia during adolescence.The sample consisted of 2,242 high school students assessed over a 4-year period. Assessments included self-report questionnaires, structured clinical interviews, and measurements of heart rate. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate risk.Social avoidance, a component of behavioral inhibition, predicted onset of social phobia during high school. However, social avoidance was not related to depression in adolescence. Another component of behavioral inhibition, fearfulness, increased the risk for both social phobia and depression. Among subjects who were both socially avoidant and fearful, 22.3% developed social phobia--a risk more than four times greater than that for subjects with neither feature of behavioral inhibition.This prospective study demonstrates that behavioral inhibition in childhood increases the risk of social phobia in adolescence.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077278300015

    View details for PubMedID 9847504

  • Evaluation of a computer-mediated eating disorder intervention program INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Winzelberg, A. J., Tayor, C. B., Sharpe, T., Eldredge, K. L., Dev, P., Constantinou, P. S. 1998; 24 (4): 339-349


    This study evaluated an eating disorder intervention multimedia program modeled after self-help eating disorder treatment programs. It was hypothesized that women who completed the program would increase their body satisfaction and decrease their preoccupation with weight and frequency of disordered eating behaviors.Participants were 57 undergraduate females randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. Psychological functioning was assessed at baseline, at 3 months postintervention, and at 3 months follow-up.Intervention group subjects significantly improved their scores on all psychological measures over time. When compared to the control group, however, only the intervention group's improvements on the Body Shape Questionnaire were statistically significant.This study has demonstrated that minimally effective eating disorder intervention programs can be delivered. A revised program that eliminates interface problems and increases the structure of the intervention is likely to be even better received and more effective.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076770900001

    View details for PubMedID 9813759

  • Age of onset for binge eating and purging during late adolescence: A 4-year survival analysis JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Stice, E., Killen, J. D., Hayward, C., Taylor, C. B. 1998; 107 (4): 671-675


    This prospective study examined age of onset for binge eating and purging among girls during late adolescence and tested whether dieting and negative affectivity predicted these outcomes. Of initially asymptomatic adolescents, 5% reported onset of objective binge eating, 4% reported onset of subjective binge eating, and 4% reported onset of purging. Peak risk for onset of binge eating occurred at age 16, whereas peak risk for onset of purging occurred at age 18. Adolescents more often reported onset of a single symptom rather than multiple symptoms, and symptoms were episodic. Dieting and negative affectivity predicted onset of binge eating and purging. Findings suggest that late adolescence is a high-risk period for onset of bulimic behaviors and identify modifiable risk factors for these outcomes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076987000013

    View details for PubMedID 9830254

  • Support for the continuity hypothesis of bulimic pathology JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Stice, E., Killen, J. D., Hayward, C., Taylor, C. B. 1998; 66 (5): 784-790


    There has been debate as to whether bulimia represents the endpoint of an eating disorder continuum (the continuity hypothesis) or is categorically different from subthreshold bulimia or an absence of eating disorders (the discontinuity hypothesis). The present study tested whether differences among bulimic, subthreshold bulimic, and control women on weight-concern and psychopathology variables better accord with the continuity or discontinuity hypothesis. These 3 groups were compared on body mass, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and temperamental emotionality. Discriminant function analysis and follow-up pairwise contrasts indicated that the continuity hypothesis was supported for measures of both weight concern and psychopathology. Research and treatment implications of the continuity perspective are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076550300008

    View details for PubMedID 9803697

  • Factors associated with weight concerns in adolescent girls INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Taylor, C. B., Sharpe, T., Shisslak, C., Bryson, S., Estes, L. S., Gray, N., McKnight, K. M., Crago, M., Kraemer, H. C., Killen, J. D. 1998; 24 (1): 31-42


    This study examined the association of weight concerns with potential risk factors for the development of eating disorders.A self-report survey was given to 103 elementary (Grades 4 and 5) and 420 middle (Grades 6-8) school students in Arizona and California. Of these, 78 elementary and 333 middle school students provided complete data and were used in the analyses.In a multivariate stepwise regression analysis, the importance that peers put on weight and eating was most strongly related to weight concerns in the elementary school girls, accounting for 34% of the variance after adjusting for site differences. Trying to look like girls/women on TV and in magazines as well as body mass index (BMI) entered the final model that accounted for 57% of the variance in weight concerns. In middle school, the importance that peers place on weight and eating was also the strongest predictor accounting for 33% of the variance followed by confidence, BMI, trying to look like girls/women on TV and in magazines, and being teased about weight. Together these variables accounted for 55% of the variance.Prevention programs aimed at reducing weight concerns need to address these factors.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073371500003

    View details for PubMedID 9589309

  • Attachment style and weight concerns in preadolescent and adolescent girls INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Sharpe, T. M., Killen, J. D., Bryson, S. W., Shisslak, C. M., Estes, L. S., Gray, N., Crago, M., Taylor, C. B. 1998; 23 (1): 39-44


    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between attachment style and weight concerns, a major risk factor for eating disorders, in preadolescent and adolescent girls.Three hundred and five female elementary and middle school students completed measures of attachment style and weight concerns.Insecurely attached subjects reported higher weight concerns than did securely attached subjects. A greater proportion of insecurely attached subjects obtained "at risk" weight concerns scores than securely attached subjects.The findings suggest that attachment style may play an important role in the development of weight concerns, which, in turn, have been shown to be associated with the onset of eating disorders.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071004600005

    View details for PubMedID 9429917

  • Prospective study of risk factors for the initiation of cigarette smoking JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Killen, J. D., Robinson, T. N., Haydel, K. F., Hayward, C., Wilson, D. M., Hammer, L. D., Litt, I. F., Taylor, C. B. 1997; 65 (6): 1011-1016


    Risk factors for the initiation of cigarette smoking were examined in 2 consecutive cohorts of teenagers (N = 1,901). Students in Cohort 1 were followed over 4 years from 9th to 12th grade; those in Cohort 2 were followed over 3 years from 9th to 11th grade. Among girls with no history of smoking at baseline, those with more friends who smoked at baseline (p < .001) and those with higher sociability scores (p < .05) were significantly more likely to have tried smoking over the study interval. Among boys with no history of smoking at baseline, those with more friends who smoked at baseline (p < .05) and those with higher depression symptoms scores (p < .01) were significantly more likely to have tried smoking over the study interval. The data suggest that future research is needed to examine potential gender differences that may have implications for the next generation of smoking-prevention programs.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997YJ46300011

    View details for PubMedID 9420362

  • The effect of a home-based, case-managed, multifactorial risk-reduction program on reducing psychological distress in patients with cardiovascular disease. Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation Taylor, C. B., Miller, N. H., Smith, P. M., DeBusk, R. F. 1997; 17 (3): 157-162


    This study examined the effects of a nurse-case-managed, multifactorial, risk-reduction program on psychological distress among patients after myocardial infarction (MI).Five hundred eighty-five men and women aged 70 years or younger, who were hospitalized for acute MI in one of five San Francisco Bay Area hospitals, were randomized to receive a nurse-managed, home-based, multifactorial risk-reduction program (n = 293) or usual care (n = 292). The program, which began in the hospital, included a brief screen for five areas of psychological distress with further evaluation if indicated, monitoring during the follow-up phone calls, and referral for mental health treatment if needed. Patients were assessed with single-item scales at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. Separate analyses were performed for patients with moderate-to-severe levels on the psychological distress domains and for those with low levels.There was a significant reduction in the psychological distress variables for all patient groups between baseline and 12 months. The program had a significant effect on reducing anxiety in the patient group with low levels of anxiety and reducing anger in the patient group with frequent episodes of anger but, overall, the treatment and control groups showed equal levels of improvement.Among patients post-MI without complications, psychological distress decreases significantly during the 12 months after MI.

    View details for PubMedID 9187981

  • Smoking cessation in hospitalized patients - Results of a randomized trial ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Miller, N. H., Smith, P. M., DeBusk, R. F., Sobel, D. S., Taylor, C. B. 1997; 157 (4): 409-415


    Few research studies have evaluated the effectiveness of smoking interventions in hospitalized patients. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of 2 smoking cessation programs in patients hospitalized in 4 community hospitals in a large health maintenance organization within the San Francisco Bay Area in California.Patients were randomly assigned to usual care (n = 990), nurse-mediated, behaviorally oriented inpatient counseling focused on relapse prevention with 1 postdischarge telephone contact (minimal intervention, n = 473), or the same inpatient counseling with 4 postdischarge telephone contacts (intensive intervention, n = 561). The main outcome measure, smoking cessation rate, was corroborated by plasma cotinine determination or family confirmation, 1 year after enrollment.At 1 year smoking cessation rates were 27%, 22%, and 20% for intensive intervention, minimal intervention, and usual care groups, respectively (P = .009 for intensive vs usual care). Subgroup analyses by diagnosis revealed that the odds of cessation among patients with cardiovascular disease or other internal medical conditions were greater among those receiving the intensive intervention than among their counterparts receiving usual care (odds ratios, 1.6 and 2.0, respectively).A multicomponent smoking cessation program consisting of physician advice; in-hospital, nurse-mediated counseling; and multiple postdischarge telephone contacts was effective in increasing smoking cessation rates among hospitalized smokers. Hospital-wide smoking cessation programs could substantially increase the effectiveness of hospital smoking bans.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WJ25400005

    View details for PubMedID 9046892

  • Development and evaluation of a computer-based system for dietary management of hyperlipidemia JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION Clark, M., Ghandour, G., Miller, N. H., Taylor, C. B., Bandura, A., DeBusk, R. F. 1997; 97 (2): 146-150


    To describe the development of a computer-based system for dietary management of hyperlipidemia and to evaluate its efficacy for lowering plasma cholesterol level.Using a stepwise approach, we developed and tested a three-part self-management system in five consecutive clinical studies. Each study assessed plasma cholesterol levels before and after dietary intervention using the system. These studies enabled progressive refinement of (a) a food frequency questionnaire used to assess food intake in the preceding month; (b) computer-generated progress reports, based on questionnaire responses, offering dietary change subgoals and strategies for change; and (c) a dietary workbook providing detailed information on how to achieve goals.Persons with hyperlipidemia (n=814) were enrolled from worksite and clinical settings in the San Francisco Bay area of California. The attrition rate after randomization was 5%.Elements of the dietary intervention evolved in response to the results of five clinical studies. In each study, patients underwent a form of baseline assessment of dietary intake followed by counseling/instruction by various means. Follow-up dietary assessments were provided at specific intervals to facilitate subjects' progress toward their dietary goals. A dietary workbook provided the detailed instruction required to implement the recommendations contained in the periodic progress reports.Changes in plasma cholesterol level were measured by paired and unpaired t tests. The relationship between the reported reduction in dietary fat and cholesterol level assessed by food frequency questionnaires and the directly measured change in plasma cholesterol level was measured by multiple linear regression.The three major elements of the final computerized system (food frequency questionnaires, computer-generated progress reports, and dietary workbook) were developed and refined in the course of the five clinical studies. Reductions in total plasma cholesterol level of 5.0% to 6.5% achieved by participants in all five studies were consistent with self-reported reductions in intake of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol. Therefore, the computerized self-management system appears to be an effective tool for reducing plasma cholesterol levels.A computer-based system for dietary self-management of hyperlipidemia, implemented by mail, was effective in short-term studies. This self-management system can potentially provide health-promoting services to large numbers of people at low cost.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WG18100006

    View details for PubMedID 9020241

  • Comparison of palmtop-computer-assisted brief cognitive-behavioral treatment to cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Newman, M. G., Kenardy, J., Herman, S., Taylor, C. B. 1997; 65 (1): 178-183


    In the present study, the authors sought to determine whether the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for panic disorder could be improved by adjunctive computer-assisted therapy. Eighteen participants who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., revised; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) criteria for panic disorder were randomly assigned to a 12-session CBT (CBT 12) condition (D. H. Barlow & M. G. Craske, 1989) or to a 4-session computer-assisted CBT (CBT4-CA) condition. Palmtop computers, with a program developed to incorporate basic principles of CBT, were used by CBT4-CA clients whenever they felt anxious or wanted to practice the therapy techniques and were used by all participants as a momentary assessment tool. CBT4-CA clients carried the computer at all times and continued to use it for 8 weeks after termination of therapy. Analyses of clinically significant changes showed superiority of CBT12 at posttest on some measures; however, there were no differences at follow-up.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WJ69600020

    View details for PubMedID 9103747

  • Psychological stress and myocardial perfusion in coronary disease patients and healthy controls JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH BENIGHT, C. C., Segall, G. M., Ford, M. E., Goetsch, V. L., Hays, M. T., Taylor, C. B. 1997; 42 (2): 137-144


    This study examined the effect of two different psychological stressors on regional cardiac perfusion in six men with coronary heart disease (CHD) and nine healthy controls. Subjects recalled an anger experience and an anger plus helpless (i.e., Desperation Recall Task) experience during positron emission tomography (PET). Emotional reactivity, blood pressure, and heart rate were also assessed. Experimental manipulations generated significant emotional and cardiovascular reactivity. Cardiac perfusion to diseased myocardial segments failed to show any significant differences between CHD patients' diseased segments and controls' healthy segments for the Anger Recall task or the Desperation Recall Task. Results failed to confirm previous findings of coronary artery constriction while reliving an angry experience, yet are consistent with other studies utilizing mental arithmetic. Vasoactive medication use, sample size, and perfusion variability may have contributed to these findings.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WK44200003

    View details for PubMedID 9076641

  • Psychiatric risk associated with early puberty in adolescent girls JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Wilson, D. M., Hammer, L. D., Litt, I. F., Kraemer, H. C., Haydel, F., Varady, A., Taylor, C. B. 1997; 36 (2): 255-262


    This study prospectively evaluated the relationship between early puberty and the onset of internalizing symptoms and disorders in adolescent girls.The sample was drawn from 1,463 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade girls who participated in a longitudinal school-based study of growth and development. Pubertal stage was determined by self-assessment of Tanner stage. Psychiatric assessments included self-report instruments and structured diagnostic interviews. Survival methods were utilized for data analysis.Girls with onset of internalizing symptoms were on average 5 months earlier in pubertal development than those who were asymptomatic (p < .001). In addition, girls with earlier maturation (earliest quartile) were more likely to develop internalizing symptoms than were nonearly matures (hazard ratio = 1.8, confidence interval = 1.2, 2.7). In a subsample of girls followed into high school, early-maturing girls were at marginally higher risk (p < .10) for developing internalizing disorders by the study's end. The highest risk for internalizing disorders was for those girls with both early puberty and prior internalizing symptoms (odds ratio = 3.3).Early puberty increases the risk of internalizing symptoms and perhaps internalizing disorders in adolescent girls.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WD92900017

    View details for PubMedID 9031579

  • Assessment and phenomenology of nonclinical panic attacks in adolescent girls JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Kraemer, H. C., BLAIRGREINER, A., Strachowski, D., Cunning, D., Taylor, C. B. 1997; 11 (1): 17-32


    Recent reviews of studies concerning panic attacks in adolescents have emphasized research limitations, noting problems of validity, reliability, and lack of normative data. To address some of these limitations we evaluated two methods of panic ascertainment (questionnaire versus interview), reliability of interview-determined panic, and clinical correlates of panic symptoms in a large sample (N = 1013) of early adolescent girls. The 5.4% of the sample who, when interviewed, reported ever experiencing a panic attack scored significantly higher on measures of depression, anxiety sensitivity, and alcohol use, but were not more avoidant than others. Using the interview as the standard, the questionnaire had a specificity of 81% and a sensitivity of 72%. Adolescents do experience panic attacks-whether identified by questionnaire or interview-although for many the attacks may not be salient. Longitudinal studies are required to determine those qualities of nonclinical panic (severity, context, interpretation/attribution), which render some episodes as clinically meaningful.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WU76400002

    View details for PubMedID 9131879

  • Computers in assessment and cognitive behavioral treatment of clinical disorders: Anxiety as a case in point. Behavior Therapy, - Taylor CB., Newman MG, Consoli A. 1997: 211-235
  • Marital status and outcome in patients with coronary heart disease Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings Rankin-Esquer LA, Houston-Miller N, Myers D, Taylor CB 1997; 4 (4): 417-435
  • Priorities in prevention research for eating disorders Taylor, C. B., Altman, T. US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1997: 413-417


    This article discusses potential areas for research in the prevention of eating disorders. Prevention research encompasses a large range of activities; reviews are available (Crisp 1988; Shisslak et al. 1987; USDHHS/McKnight 1996). This article focuses on school-based primary preventive interventions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XZ32800013

    View details for PubMedID 9550886

  • Ethnicity and body dissatisfaction: Are Hispanic and Asian girls at increased risk for eating disorders? JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Robinson, T. N., Killen, J. D., Litt, I. F., Hammer, L. D., Wilson, D. M., Haydel, K. F., Hayward, C., Taylor, C. B. 1996; 19 (6): 384-393


    To compare prevalences and correlates of body dissatisfaction among white, Hispanic, and Asian girls.A total of 939 6th and 7th grade girls (mean age 12.4 years) attending four middle schools in northern California completed self-administered assessments of age, ethnicity, desired body shape, parent education levels, mother's and father's body shapes, pubertal stage, and body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction was assessed with the Body Dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory. Height, weight, triceps skinfold thickness, and waist and hip circumferences were measured by trained examiners.Hispanic girls reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction than white girls, with Asian girls in-between. After adjustment for body mass index (weight/height), normal and overweight white, Hispanic, and Asian girls reported similar levels of body dissatisfaction. However, among the leanest 25% of girls, Hispanics and Asians reported significantly more body dissatisfaction than white girls. Body mass index was the strongest independent predictor of increased body dissatisfaction in all three ethnic groups. Shorter height among white girls and taller height among Asian girls also made significant independent contributions. Parent education level, a measure of socioeconomic status, was not significantly associated with body dissatisfaction.Body dissatisfaction is not limited to white girls in middle and upper socioeconomic strata. These findings suggest Hispanic and Asian girls may be at greater risk for adopting eating disorder behaviors than previously recognized.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VY33400005

    View details for PubMedID 8969369

  • The long-term effects of a cardiovascular disease prevention trial: The Stanford Five-City Project AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Winkleby, M. A., Taylor, C. B., Jatulis, D., Fortmann, S. P. 1996; 86 (12): 1773-1779


    This study examined long-term effects of a health-education intervention trial to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.Surveys were conducted in California in two treatment and two control cities at baseline (1979/1980), after the 6-year intervention (1985/1986), and 3 years later at follow-up (1989/1990). Net treatment/control differences in risk-factor change were assessed for women and men 25 to 74 years of age.Blood pressure improvements observed in all cities from baseline to the end of the intervention were maintained during the follow-up in treatment but not control cities. Cholesterol levels continued to decline in all cities during follow-up. Smoking rates leveled out or increased slightly in treatment cities and continued to decline in control cities but did not yield significant net differences. Both coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality risk scores were maintained or continued to improve in treatment cities while leveling out or rebounding in control cities.These findings suggest that community-based cardiovascular disease prevention trials can have sustained effects. However, the modest net differences in risk factors suggest the need for new designs and interventions that will accelerate positive risk-factor change.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996WC83500018

    View details for PubMedID 9003136

  • A nurse-managed smoking cessation program for hospitalized smokers AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Taylor, C. B., Miller, N. H., Herman, S., Smith, P. M., Sobel, D., Fisher, L., DeBusk, R. F. 1996; 86 (11): 1557-1560


    This study evaluated a nurse-managed smoking cessation program for smokers hospitalized for a variety of conditions.Hospitalized patients who smoked prior to hospitalization and who were motivated to quit (n = 660) were randomized to intervention or usual-care groups and followed for the next year. The intervention included a meeting with the nurse-case manager; the use of a videotape, workbook, relaxation audiotape, and nicotine replacement therapy; and nurse-initiated phone contacts after discharge.The 12-month confirmed cessation rates were 21% and 31% for, respectively, the usual-care and intervention groups (odds ratio = 1.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 2.3).A nurse-managed smoking cessation intervention can significantly increase cessation rates for hospitalized patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VT36300010

    View details for PubMedID 8916520

  • Weight concerns influence the development of eating disorders: A 4-year prospective study JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B., Hayward, C., Haydel, K. F., Wilson, D. M., Hammer, L., Kraemer, H., BLAIRGREINER, A., Strachowski, D. 1996; 64 (5): 936-940


    The authors examined factors prospectively associated with age of onset of partial syndrome eating disorders over a 4-year interval in a community sample (N = 877) of high school-age adolescent girls. Four percent developed a partial syndrome eating disorder over the interval. A measure of weight concerns was significantly associated with onset in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis (p < .001). Girls scoring in the highest quartile on the measure of weight concerns had the highest incidence (10%) of partial syndrome onset, whereas none of the girls in the lowest quartile developed eating disorder symptoms. This finding is consistent with both theoretical and clinical perspectives and may represent a useful step toward the establishment of a rational basis for the choice of a prevention intervention target.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VM70000015

    View details for PubMedID 8916622

  • Effect of community health education on physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and behavior - The Stanford Five-City Project AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Young, D. R., Haskell, W. L., Taylor, C. B., Fortmann, S. P. 1996; 144 (3): 264-274


    The authors studied the effectiveness of community-wide health education on physical activity knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior. Random samples of residents aged 18-74 years who lived in four central California cities (baseline, n = 1,056 men and 1,183 women) were evaluated in 1979-1980 and approximately every 2 years thereafter to obtain four independent samples. Moreover, every subject in the initial independent samples was asked to return for follow-up every 2 years thereafter; subjects who completed all four examinations constituted the cohort sample (n = 408 men and 499 women). Two medium-sized cities received health education and two similarly sized cities served as controls. Results indicated little consistent evidence of a treatment effect on physical activity knowledge, attitudes, or self-efficacy in either men or women. Among physical activity measures, there was an indication of a positive treatment effect for men in the independent samples for estimated daily energy expenditure and percent participation in vigorous activities (p < 0.01), and for women in the independent (p = 0.014) and cohort (p < 0.01) samples for engagement in the number of moderate activities. These results underscore the need for development of more effective interventions to change physical activity than is provided by a broad-based, community-wide health education program and for more sensitive and reliable measures of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with regard to physical activity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UZ75400007

    View details for PubMedID 8686695

  • Predicting onset of drinking in a community sample of adolescents: The role of expectancy and temperament ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS Killen, J. D., Hayward, C., Wilson, D. M., Haydel, K. F., Robinson, T. N., Taylor, C. B., Hammer, L. D., Varady, A. 1996; 21 (4): 473-480


    We report results of a prospective examination of the influence of outcome expectancy variables and inherited temperaments on the onset of drinking over a 12-month period in a sample of 1,164 high school students. While univariate prospective analysis indicated that drinkers and nondrinkers were different both on measures of outcome expectancy and temperament, multivariate analysis supported, most strongly, a social learning account of the processes influencing the onset and maintenance of drinking behavior in this sample. The multivariate analysis revealed that only expectancies for enhanced social behavior were consistently associated with the onset of drinking from baseline to 12-month follow-up (p < .001). Among all nondrinkers at baseline, those entertaining higher expectancies about the positive effects of alcohol on social interaction were more likely to begin drinking between baseline and follow-up. At present, few, if any, alcohol abuse prevention studies with adolescents have explicitly attempted to alter alcohol expectancies or to establish a link between expectancy and behavior change. Our results suggest that it may be useful to do so.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UR66600005

    View details for PubMedID 8830905

  • Influence of gender and socioeconomic factors on Hispanic/white differences in body mass index PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Winkleby, M. A., Gardner, C. D., Taylor, C. B. 1996; 25 (2): 203-211


    This article examines the effects of gender and socioeconomic factors on ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) using a matched-pairs design of 688 pairs of Hispanics (principally Mexican American) and whites. Subjects, ages 25-74, were drawn from five population-based surveys conducted from 1979 to 1990 in four northern California cities.Hispanic women and men both had significantly higher BMI levels than the white women and men with whom they were matched (P < 0.001). These ethnic differences persisted across every level of education for both women and men, with the magnitude of the difference ranging from 0.9 BMI units (between the most educated Hispanic and white men) to 2.9 BMI units (between the least educated Hispanic and white women). The highest prevalence of overweight was among the least educated Hispanic women (61.1%) and Hispanic men (48.4%). The higher BMI levels of Hispanic women and men relative to their white counterparts were not explained by age, gender, education, city of residence, time of survey, or language spoken in a multiple regression model. Hispanic women and men both reported higher desired body weight (height standardized) than white women and men, indicating a possible contribution of cultural factors to the ethnic differences in overweight.These findings provide insight into the greater prevalence of overweight in Hispanic relative to white populations as well as guidance for weight-loss interventions tailored to low socioeconomic groups.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UK03800015

    View details for PubMedID 8860286

  • The use of hand-held computersas an adjunct to cognitive-behavior therapy Computers in Human Behavior Newman MG, Kenardy J, Herman S, Taylor CB 1996; 12: 135-143
  • Prevention of anxiety and depression in patients with cardiovascular disease Prevention and Intervention in the Community Taylor CB, Miller NH, Smith PM 1996; 15: 53-70
  • La Medecine psychosomatique a l'hospital general: une perspective americaine Cahiers Psychhiatriques Taylor CB, Hayward C 1996; 20: 79-92
  • Evaluation of a hospital-based smoking cessation program. Amer. J. Public Health Taylor C.B., Miller N.H., Herman S., Smith P.M., Sobel D., Fisher L, DeBusk R.F. 1996; 86: 1557-1560


    The authors examined ambulatory ECG changes during panic attacks in patients with panic disorder.Ten otherwise healthy women with panic disorder and complaints of chest pain during panic attacks underwent a symptom-limited exercise test on a treadmill and then wore an ambulatory ECG monitor with software designed to detect and record ischemic events and used a hand-held computer for up to 6 days.Eight of the women had panic attacks while using the hand-held computer and the ECG monitor. No ischemic events occurred during any of the exercise tests. Twelve tachycardiac events occurred during panic attacks and 84 tachycardiac events occurred that were not associated with panic attacks. Panic attacks were associated with significantly more symptoms than were tachycardiac episodes.In this group of otherwise healthy women with panic disorder and chest pain, ambulatory ischemic changes were not recorded during panic attacks.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TC54300022

    View details for PubMedID 7485636

  • COMMUNITY INTERVENTION TRIALS - REFLECTIONS ON THE STANFORD 5-CITY PROJECT EXPERIENCE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J. A., Winkleby, M. A., Schooler, C., Taylor, C. B., Farquhar, J. W. 1995; 142 (6): 576-586


    In the past two decades several community intervention studies designed to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease in populations have been completed. These trials shared the rationale that the community approach was the best way to address the large population attributable risk of mild elevations of multiple risk factors, the interrelation of several health behaviors, and the potential efficiency of large-scale interventions not limited to the medical care system. These trials also shared several threats to internal validity, especially the small number of intervention units (usually cities) that could be studied. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the lessons learned in one of the studies, the Stanford Five-City Project, which began in 1978. The anticipated advantages were observed, including the generalizability of the intervention components, the potential for amplification of interventions through diffusion in the community, and the efficiency of the mass media and other community programs for reaching the entire population. Numerous components of the intervention proved effective when evaluated individually, as was true in other community studies. However, the design limitations proved difficult to overcome, especially in the face of unexpectedly large, favorable risk factor changes in control sites. As a result, definitive conclusions about the overall effectiveness of the communitywide efforts were not always possible. Nevertheless, in aggregate, these studies support the effectiveness of communitywide health promotion, and investigators in the field should turn to different questions. The authors have learned how little they know of the determinants of population-level change and the characteristics that separate communities that change quickly in response to general health information from those that do not. Future studies in communities must elucidate these characteristics, while improving the effectiveness of educational interventions and expanding the role of environmental and health policy components of health promotion.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RT89700003

    View details for PubMedID 7653465



    For determination of the effects of weight variability on cardiovascular risk factors, a random community sample of 269 men and 361 women aged 25-74 years, drawn from the Stanford Five-City Project, was followed for up to 10 years (1979-1989). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and pulse were measured. Body mass index slope (BMI-slope) was determined by regressing five BMI values on time for each individual. BMI variability was defined as the root mean square error (BMI-RMSE) of a regression line fitted to each individual's BMI values over time. The slopes of the five cardiovascular risk factors were most strongly related to the baseline value of each risk factor and BMI-slope in both men and women. Neither BMI-RMSE nor the interaction of BMI-RMSE with BMI-slope was related to risk factor slopes. In this population, BMI variability had little impact on cardiovascular risk factors compared with BMI-slope and baseline BMI.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QL09600010

    View details for PubMedID 7879790

  • Social phobia with and without avoidant personality disorder: Preliminary behavior therapy outcome findings Journal of Anxiety Disorderrs Hofmann SG, Newman MG, Becker E, Taylor CB, Roth WT 1995; 9 (5): 1-13
  • School refusal in adolescent girls with nonclinical panic attacks Journal of Anxiety Disorderrs Hayward C, Killen JD, Wilson DM, Hammer LD, Blair-Greiner A, Strachowski D, Taylor CB 1995; 9 (4): 329-338
  • Pursuit of thinness and onset of eating disorder symptoms in a community sample of adolescent girls: a three-year prospective analysis. International journal of eating disorders Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B., Hayward, C., Wilson, D. M., Haydel, K. F., Hammer, L. D., SIMMONDS, B., Robinson, T. N., Litt, I., Varady, A. 1994; 16 (3): 227-238


    Community-based prospective studies are needed to shed light on mechanisms that may influence development of eating disorders and identify variables that could serve as potential targets for prevention efforts. In this paper we examine level of weight preoccupation and other variables prospectively associated with age of onset of eating disorder symptoms over a 3-year interval in a community sample (N = 939) of young adolescent girls. 3.6% (32/887) experienced onset of symptoms over the interval. Only one factor, a measure of Weight Concerns, was significantly associated with onset (p < .001). Girls scoring in the highest quartile on the measure of Weight Concerns had the shortest survival time (12% incidence by age 14.5) and those scoring in the lowest quartile had the highest survival time (2% incidence by age 14.5; p < .001). This finding is consistent with both theoretical and clinical perspectives and represents one of the first prospective demonstrations of a linkage between weight and body shape concerns and later onset of eating disorder symptoms. An understanding of the independent variables that predispose girls to development of symptoms is a useful step towards the establishment of a rational basis for the choice of a prevention intervention target.

    View details for PubMedID 7833956

  • EFFECTS OF LIFE-STYLE ON BODY-MASS INDEX CHANGE EPIDEMIOLOGY Taylor, C. B., Jatulis, D. E., Winkleby, M. A., ROCKHILL, B. J., Kraemer, H. C. 1994; 5 (6): 599-603


    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of age and life-style factors on body mass index (BMI) in a longitudinal, community-based sample. A total of 568 men and 668 women (20-60 years of age) were randomly chosen from four Northern California communities and followed for up to 7 years. Age, sex, marital status, smoking status, hours of television watched, frequency of consumption of several food items, and physical activity were used to predict rate of change of body mass index (BMI-slope). BMI increased the most for both sexes through at least age 54. The BMI-slope was higher for women compared with men, and for smokers who stopped compared with those who never smoked or continued to smoke during the study. The BMI-slopes were lower for individuals who increased activity. Other life-style variables had weak or inconsistent effects on the BMI-slope. We conclude that the BMI-slope increases over age for both sexes and that increased physical activity may reduce the BMI-slope.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PP46800007

    View details for PubMedID 7841241

  • TIMING AND RATE OF SEXUAL-MATURATION AND THE ONSET OF CIGARETTE AND ALCOHOL-USE AMONG TEENAGE GIRLS ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Wilson, D. M., Killen, J. D., Hayward, C., Robinson, T. N., Hammer, L. D., Kraemer, H. C., Varady, A., Taylor, C. B. 1994; 148 (8): 789-795


    To test the hypothesis that the patterns of pubertal progression, early vs late puberty and fast vs slow, are associated with the age at which girls start to drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes.The study included 1463 female students, 10.7 to 18.2 years of age, who were assessed five times during the 2.7-year study. Data regarding pubertal stage, alcohol use, and cigarette use were obtained at each assessment. These data were used to calculate two indexes of pubertal development, the age at which the midpoint of puberty was achieved and the rate of progression through puberty, and the ages when each subject first drank, first drank moderate amounts of alcohol, and first smoked.Girls with earlier puberty (midpoint < 12.2 years) first reported drinking any alcohol at a median age of 12.5 years, 0.7 years younger than girls whose puberty was later. Similarly, girls with earlier puberty reported drinking moderate amounts of alcohol at a median age of 13.7 years, 0.9 years younger than girls with later puberty. Girls with earlier puberty further reported first smoking cigarettes at a median age of 12.8 years, 0.6 years younger than girls with later puberty. The rate of pubertal progression was significantly associated only with the age when girls first drank moderate amounts of alcohol.Earlier puberty is associated with a younger age of onset for both drinking and smoking among adolescent girls.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PB26400003

    View details for PubMedID 8044254

  • A CASE-MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR CORONARY RISK FACTOR MODIFICATION AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE DeBusk, R. F., Miller, N. H., Superko, H. R., Dennis, C. A., Thomas, R. J., LEW, H. T., Berger, W. E., Heller, R. S., ROMPF, J., Gee, D., Kraemer, H. C., Bandura, A., Ghandour, G., Clark, M., Shah, R. V., Fisher, L., Taylor, C. B. 1994; 120 (9): 721-729


    To evaluate the efficacy of a physician-directed, nurse-managed, home-based case-management system for coronary risk factor modification.Randomized clinical trial in which patients received a special intervention (n = 293) or usual medical care (n = 292) during the first year after acute myocardial infarction.5 Kaiser Permanente Medical Centers in the San Francisco Bay area.585 men and women aged 70 years or younger who were hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction.In the hospital, specially trained nurses initiated interventions for smoking cessation, exercise training, and diet-drug therapy for hyperlipidemia. Intervention after discharge was implemented primarily by telephone and mail contact with patients in their homes. All medically eligible patients received exercise training; all smokers received the smoking cessation intervention; and all patients received dietary counseling and, if needed, lipid-lowering drug therapy.Smoking prevalence and plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) concentrations were measured 2 months after infarction, and functional capacity was measured 6 months after infarction.In the special intervention and usual care groups, the cotinine-confirmed smoking cessation rates were 70% and 53% (P = 0.03), plasma LDL cholesterol levels were 2.77 +/- 0.69 mmol/L and 3.41 +/- 0.90 mmol/L (107 +/- 30 mg/dL and 132 +/- 30 mg/dL) (P = 0.001), and functional capacities were 9.3 +/- 2.4 METS and 8.4 +/- 2.5 METS (P = 0.001), respectively.In a large health maintenance organization, a case-management system was considerably more effective than usual medical care for modification of coronary risk factors after myocardial infarction.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NH25100001

    View details for PubMedID 8147544



    Nine hundred thirty-nine 6th and 7th grade girls participated in the baseline phase of a prospective study designed to examine a set of potential risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Of the 939,839 girls (89%) completed the bulimia nervosa section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R disorders. One girl received the diagnosis of bulimia nervosa, another 35 were classified as a symptomatic group. Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and stage of sexual maturation, symptomatic and asymptomatic groups were compared on the following measures: Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), BMI, triceps skinfold thickness, waist-to-hip ratio, depression symptoms (CES-D and DSRS), Restraint Scale, and a measure of family adaptability and cohesion (FACES). Symptomatic girls were more developmentally mature, significantly heavier, reported greater fear of weight gain, experienced greater dysphoria, indicated increased body dissatisfaction, and reported greater feelings of inadequacy and personal worthlessness. Their status on these dimensions may indicate potential vulnerability to eating disorders and, ultimately, suggest the choice of targets for intervention. Our future goal is to conduct the prospective analyses needed to confirm the hypothesized linkages.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NG59800005

    View details for PubMedID 8032350

  • Anger, angina, and ischemia The Journal of Myocardiac Ischemia Taylor CB 1994; 6: 11-17
  • Cardiac rehabiliation programs: A statement for health care professionals from the American Heart Association Circulation Balady GJ, Fletcher BJ, Froelicher ES, Hartley LH, Krauss RM, Oberman A, Pollock ML, Taylor CB 1994; 90: 1602-1610


    To determine the effects of anger on coronary artery vasoconstriction, 12 patients with symptomatic myocardial ischemia were studied during cardiac catheterization. During catheterization, the patients were asked to recall a recent event that had produced anger. One narrowed and 2 non-narrowed arterial segments were selected using predetermined criteria. Patients also completed various self-report measurements upon entering the catheterization laboratory before any procedures, after completion of the clinical angiogram and after the anger recall stressor. There was a significant increase in subject reports of anger (F[1,6] = 21.94, p < 0.01) and arousal (F [2,6] = 5.49, p < 0.05) during the anger stressor. There were no significant changes in heart rate, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, or heart rate x systolic blood pressure product during the anger stressor. A total of 27 arterial segments (9 narrowed and 18 non-narrowed) were selected and analyzed using quantitative angiographic techniques. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (baseline vs anger stressor) found no significant group differences with regard to changes in arterial diameter between conditions or among segments. Reported anger was significantly correlated with a decrease in both mean (r = -0.76, p < 0.05) and minimal (r = -0.82, p < 0.05) diameter changes in narrowed arteries. Vasoconstriction only occurred with high levels of anger. There were no significant correlations between anger report and diameter change in non-narrowed arteries. Thus, anger may produce coronary vasoconstriction in previously narrowed coronary arteries.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993ML96800005

    View details for PubMedID 8256727



    The 12-month effects of exercise training on psychological outcomes in adults ages 50-65 years were evaluated. Ss (N = 357) were randomly assigned to assessment-only control or to higher intensity group, higher intensity home, or lower intensity home exercise training. Exercisers showed reductions in perceived stress and anxiety in relation to controls (p < .04). Reductions in stress were particularly notable in smokers. Regardless of program assignment, greater exercise participation was significantly related to less anxiety and fewer depressive symptoms, independent of changes in fitness or body weight (p < .05). It was concluded that neither a group format nor vigorous activity was essential in attaining psychological benefits from exercise training in healthy adults.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993NL74100006

    View details for PubMedID 8404803



    This paper examines the effects of community-wide health education on diet-related knowledge and behavior and on plasma cholesterol levels during an experimental field study in medium-sized cities in northern California. Samples of the population aged 12-74 years were drawn at baseline and every 2 years thereafter to obtain four cross-sectional surveys; participants aged 25-74 years are included in this paper (n = 6,814 or about 425 per city per survey). The baseline sample was asked to return to three follow-up surveys, also 2 years apart, constituting the cohort survey sample (n = 777). Diet was assessed by 24-hour recalls. In the serial cross-sectional survey samples, nutritional knowledge increased over time in both men and women in all cities; among women, this increase was significantly greater in the treatment cities. Plasma cholesterol declined significantly only in men and in neither sex was there evidence of a larger decline in treatment than in control cities. Dietary saturated fat intake tended to decline, but not significantly in either sex, and there was no evidence of treatment impact. Dietary cholesterol intake declined in both sexes. Results in the cohort samples were similar, except plasma cholesterol levels were unchanged over time in men and increased in women, and dietary saturated fat intake declined significantly among women. Secular improvements in knowledge of nutrition and in dietary cholesterol intake occurred during the early 1980s in both men and women in these four cities, while there was less consistent improvement in dietary saturated fat intake. Only nutritional knowledge among women achieved greater improvement in treatment cities than in control cities. Continued and greater change in nutrition probably requires more sustained effort and broader methods, including changes in the food supply.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LK52500001

    View details for PubMedID 8317434



    This is the first long-term, controlled study evaluating the effectiveness of a prevention curriculum designed to modify the eating attitudes and unhealthful weight regulation practices of young adolescent girls. Nine hundred sixty-seven sixth and seventh-grade girls were randomized to experimental healthy weight regulation curriculum or no-treatment control classes. A prevention intervention was developed around three principal components: (1) Instruction on the harmful effects of unhealthful weight regulation; (2) promotion of healthful weight regulation through the practice of sound nutrition and dietary principles and regular aerobic physical activity; (3) development of coping skills for resisting the diverse sociocultural influences that appear linked to the current popular obsessions with thinness and dieting. The intervention failed to achieve the hoped-for impact. We did observe a significant increase in knowledge among girls receiving the intervention and among high-risk students only, there was a small albeit statistically significant effect on body mass index. These findings question the wisdom of providing a curriculum directed at all young adolescents, most of whom are not at risk to develop an eating disorder. Rather than targeting the entire population, a healthy weight curriculum designed to modify the eating attitudes and unhealthful weight regulation practices of young adolescent girls might better focus on "at risk" students.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KZ50300004

    View details for PubMedID 8490639



    To examine the relationships between hours of television viewing and adiposity and physical activity among female adolescents, a cohort study with follow-up assessments 7, 14, and 24 months after baseline was conducted. All sixth- and seventh-grade girls (N = 971) attending four northern California middle schools were eligible to participate. Six hundred seventy-one students had sufficient data for baseline cross-sectional analyses, and 279 students in a no-intervention cohort had sufficient data for longitudinal analyses. The baseline sample had a mean age of 12.4 years and was 43% white, 22% Asian, 21% Latino, 6% Pacific Islander, 4% black, 2% American Indian, and 2% other. Hours of after-school television viewing, level of physical activity, and stage of sexual maturation were assessed with self-report instruments. Height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured and body mass index (ratio of weight [in kilograms] to height [in meters] squared) and triceps skinfold thickness were adjusted by level of sexual maturity for the analyses. Baseline hours of after-school television viewing was not significantly associated with either baseline or longitudinal change in body mass index or triceps skinfold thickness. Baseline hours of after-school television viewing was weakly negatively associated with level of physical activity in cross-sectional analyses but not significantly associated with change in level of physical activity over time. All results were essentially unchanged when adjusted for age, race, parent education, and parent fatness. Among adolescent girls, television viewing time appears to have only weak, if any, meaningful associations with adiposity, physical activity, or change in either over time.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KK57800001

    View details for PubMedID 8424000

  • Coronary heart disease in women: Influences on diagnosis and treatment Annals of Behavioral Medicine Frank E, Taylor CB 1993; 15: 156-161


    To determine the effects of 5 years of community-wide cardiovascular health education on smoking prevalence and cessation, the authors analyzed data from the Stanford Five-City Project, an experimental field study with two treatment cities and two control cities. Representative samples of the population aged 12-74 years were drawn at baseline and every 2 years thereafter to obtain four independent cross-sectional surveys; participants aged 25-74 years are included in this paper (n approximately 440 per city per survey; total n = 6,981). The baseline sample was asked to return to three follow-up surveys, also 2 years apart, and those that did (n = 805) constitute the cohort survey sample. Self-reported cigarette smoking was confirmed by plasma thiocyanate and expired-air carbon monoxide levels. Smoking prevalence decreased over time in all cities, but in the cohort the decrease tended to be greater in treatment than in control cities (p = 0.10, two-tailed); the treatment-control difference was consistent over time (-1.51 percentage points/year in treatment vs. -0.78 percentage points/year in control, p = 0.007, two-tailed). In contrast, smoking prevalence in the independent samples declined similarly in treatment and control cities, changes were not linear, and rates varied within cities between times. Baseline smokers in both the cohort and the follow-up independent surveys were significantly more likely to quit in the treatment cities than in the control cities.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KP91600010

    View details for PubMedID 8434576

  • PUBERTAL STAGE AND PANIC ATTACK HISTORY IN 6TH-GRADE AND 7TH-GRADE GIRLS Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Hammer, L. D., Litt, I. F., Wilson, D. M., SIMMONDS, B., Taylor, C. B. AMER PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION. 1992: 1239-1243


    Although the incidence of first panic attacks appears to peak during adolescence, little is known about which features of adolescence contribute to the risk of a first panic episode. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative importance of age and pubertal stage in explaining the occurrence of panic attacks in adolescents.From a school-based sample of sixth- and seventh-grade girls, 754 subjects completed both a structured clinical interview determining history of one or more panic episodes and a self-assessment of Tanner stages of pubertal development. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with panic attack history as the dependent variable and pubertal stage, age, and their interaction as the independent variables.A history of one or more four-symptom panic attacks was found in 5.3% of the girls (N = 40). After age was controlled for, pubertal stage was significantly related to panic attack history. At each age, higher rates of panic attacks were found in the more physically mature girls.Pubertal stage, after adjustment for the effects of age, appears to predict panic attack occurrence in young adolescent girls. Understanding the link between puberty and panic may offer clues regarding the onset and etiology of panic attacks.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JK72200019

    View details for PubMedID 1503139



    This study examined the comparative potency of several psychological stressors and exercise in eliciting myocardial ischemia as measured by left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) changes using radionuclide ventriculography. Twenty-seven subjects underwent both exercise (bicycle) and psychological stressors (mental arithmetic, recall of an incident that elicited anger, giving a short speech defending oneself against a charge of shoplifting) during which EF, blood pressure, heart rate and ST segment were measured. Eighteen subjects had 1-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD), defined by greater than 50% diameter stenosis in 1 artery as assessed by arteriography. Nine subjects served as healthy control subjects. Anger recall reduced EF more than exercise and the other psychological stressors (overall F [3.51] = 2.87, p = .05). Respective changes in EF for the CAD patients were -5% during anger recall, +2% during exercise, 0% during mental arithmetic and 0% during the speech stressor. More patients with CAD had significant reduction in EF (greater than or equal to 7%) during anger (7 of 18) than during exercise (4 of 18). The difference in EF change between patients with CAD and healthy control subjects was significant for both anger (t25 = 2.23, p = 0.04) and exercise (t25 = 2.63, p = 0.01) stressors. In this group of patients with CAD, anger appeared to be a particularly potent psychological stressor.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JE54300003

    View details for PubMedID 1632389

  • INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH-FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN-3 IN NORMAL PUBERTAL GIRLS ACTA ENDOCRINOLOGICA Wilson, D. M., STENE, M. A., Killen, J. D., Hammer, L. D., Litt, I. F., Hayward, C., Taylor, C. B. 1992; 126 (5): 381-386


    IGFBP-3 concentrations rise in the second decade of life. To test the hypothesis that the stage of pubertal development, independent of chronological age, was associated with these increases we measured serum IGFBP-3 concentrations by radioimmunoassay in 324 sixth and seventh grade girls (12.3 +/- 0.7 years) at the beginning of a multisite school-based health curriculum. The mean (+/- SD) serum IGFBP-3 among the 242 girls with complete data was 4.0 +/- 0.7 mg/l. Pubertal stage was significantly associated with IGFBP-3 (p less than 0.0001, ANOVA). Mean concentrations rose from 3.5 +/- 0.7 mg/l among those with the earliest pubertal stages to 4.2 +/- 0.7 mg/l among the mature girls. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations were significantly correlated (Spearman's r = 0.43, p less than 0.0001). After controlling for the association between pubertal development and IGFBP-3 concentrations, only the waist/hip ratio, among the various measures of body composition, was significantly associated with IGFBP-3 concentration (Spearman's r = -0.23, p = 0.0002). Likewise, none of the measures of nutrition: intake of total calories, protein, fat and carbohydrate; serum iron; red cell mean corpuscular volume; or cholesterol; were significantly associated with IGFBP-3 concentrations. There was, however, a small, but significant association between IGFBP-3 concentrations and both serum transferrin and blood hemoglobin concentrations. Pubertal stage has a significant impact on IGFBP-3 concentrations and those attempting to utilize IGFBP-3 concentrations during adolescence should be cognizant of the subject's pubertal stage.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HZ93000001

    View details for PubMedID 1377853

  • PSYCHOLOGICAL PRECURSORS OF PANIC ATTACKS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Kenardy, J., Fried, L., Kraemer, H. C., Taylor, C. B. 1992; 160: 668-673


    The ongoing experience of panic disorder was assessed in 20 female subjects, to determine psychological precursors to panic attacks. Measures of anxiety, threat, control, prediction of panic, and symptoms were assessed at hourly intervals during waking hours for one week. Measures were taken using a portable computerised diary which prompted for and stored responses. Patients' ratings of the prediction of panic attacks were the only significant precursors to panic attacks. This supports recent research that expectancy is important in panic onset. The data also suggested that anxiety levels follow a circadian pattern.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HT69300012

    View details for PubMedID 1591576

  • STRESS TEST REACTIVITY IN PANIC DISORDER ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY Roth, W. T., MARGRAF, J., Ehlers, A., Taylor, C. B., Maddock, R. J., Davies, S., Agras, W. S. 1992; 49 (4): 301-310


    The psychological and physiological reactivity of 52 patients with panic disorder to mental arithmetic, cold pressor, and 5% carbon dioxide inhalation tests was compared with that of 26 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. In general, patients with panic disorder were neither more physiologically reactive to these stressors than normal subjects nor slower to recover from them, but they were tonically more anxious and much more likely to ask to stop carbon dioxide inhalation or to report panic attacks during this test. Patients who reported panic attacks (46%) had manifested greater anticipatory anxiety before the gas was delivered, accompanied with increased beta-adrenergic cardiac tone. Thus, anticipatory anxiety can be an important factor in panic provocation. Physiological measures varied greatly in their sensitivity to phasic or tonic anxiety. Carbon dioxide stimulated large increases in respiratory minute volume, but these increases were no greater for patients than for normal subjects.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HM91400006

    View details for PubMedID 1558464

  • IS PUBERTY A RISK FACTOR FOR EATING DISORDERS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DISEASES OF CHILDREN Killen, J. D., Hayward, C., Litt, I., Hammer, L. D., Wilson, D. M., Miner, B., Taylor, B., Varady, A., Shisslak, C. 1992; 146 (3): 323-325


    To examine the association between stage of sexual maturation and eating disorder symptoms in a community-based sample of adolescent girls.All sixth- and seventh-grade girls (N = 971) enrolled in four northern California middle schools. MAIN VARIABLES EXAMINED: Pubertal development measured using self-reported Tanner stage and body mass index (kg/m2). The section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Disorders (SCID) discussing bulimia nervosa was used to evaluate symptoms of bulimia nervosa.Girls manifesting eating disorder symptoms, while not significantly older than their peers without such symptoms, were more developmentally advanced as determined with Tanner self-staging. The odds ratio for the association between sexual maturity and symptoms was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.8); ie, at each age, an increase in sexual maturity of a single point was associated with a 1.8-fold increase in the odds of presenting symptoms. The odds ratio for the association between body mass index (adjusted for sexual maturity) and symptoms was 1.02 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 1.05). There was no independent effect of age or of the interaction between age and the sexual maturity index.These results suggest that (1) puberty may be a risk factor for the development of eating disorders, and (2) prevention efforts might best be directed at prepubertal and peripubertal adolescents.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HG92400016

    View details for PubMedID 1543180



    The reactivity of 40 panic disorder patients on mental arithmetic, cold pressor, and 5% CO2 inhalation stressors was tested before and after 8 weeks of treatment with imipramine, alprazolam, or placebo. Mean levels of subjective and physiological stress measures were compared during a baseline before any stressors were given, and at anticipation, stressor, and recovery periods for each stressor. After treatment, imipramine patients differed from the other two treatment groups on the prestressor baseline in showing higher systolic blood pressure (mean difference about 10 mmHg), higher diastolic blood pressure (10 mm Hg), higher heart rate (15 bpm), less respiratory sinus arrhythmia, shorter pulse transit time, and lower T-wave amplitude. Respiratory measures, electrodermal measures, body movement, and self-reported anxiety and excitement did not distinguish the groups. Reactivity to the stress tests was unaffected by the medications, but tonic differences present in the baseline persisted.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992GX47400004

    View details for PubMedID 1543796



    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a six month aerobic exercise training regimen on cardiovascular responsivity to mental arithmetic in healthy middle-aged men and women. Subjects were randomly assigned to a moderate intensity exercise intervention or to an assessment-only control group. Before and after the intervention subjects' heart rates and blood pressures were measured doing a mental arithmetic task (N = 83). Other physiological and psychosocial measures included the Type A structured interview and a maximal exercise treadmill test. Validated adherence to the exercise regimen exceeded 75% and there were significant increases in aerobic capacity in those subjects receiving exercise training. Exercise did not significantly reduce cardiovascular responsivity to the stress task. Type A behavior did not interact with reactivity across exercisers or controls nor was it significantly correlated with adherence. The results are discussed with respect to factors that have been previously reported to potentially influence the exercise/reactivity relationship.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HB79200003

    View details for PubMedID 1538348



    Large variations in nutritional intake have profound effects on the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis in children and adults, but the effect of normal variations in nutrition on IGF-I concentrations is largely unstudied, particularly during puberty. We measured serum IGF-I concentrations in 325 sixth and seventh grade girls (12.4 +/- 0.7 yr) at the beginning of a multisite school-based health curriculum. The mean serum IGF-I level among the 243 girls with complete data was 573 +/- 244 micrograms/L. Pubertal stage was significantly associated with IGF-I (P less than 0.0001, by analysis of variance). Mean concentrations rose from 427 +/- 198 micrograms/L among those at the earliest pubertal stages to 639 +/- 219 micrograms/L among the mature girls. After adjusting for the association with the stage of pubertal development, serum IGF-I was not significantly associated with measures of body composition (body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness, waist/hip ratio, height, and weight). Additionally, IGF-I concentrations were not associated with nutritional intake (total calories, total protein, total fat, and total carbohydrate) or such measures of nutrition as serum iron, hemoglobin, red cell mean corpuscular volume, white cell count, and cholesterol. IGF-I concentrations, however, were significantly correlated with transferrin concentrations, another possible index of nutritional status (r = 0.29; P less than 0.0001). IGF-I is not a clinically useful index of nutritional status among normal pubertal girls.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GF68400035

    View details for PubMedID 1890162



    --To determine the effectiveness of group- vs home-based exercise training of higher and lower intensities among healthy, sedentary older adults.--Year-long randomized, controlled trial comparing (1) higher-intensity group-based exercise training; (2) higher-intensity home-based exercise training; (3) lower-intensity home-based exercise training; or (4) assessment-only control.--General community located in northern California.--One hundred sixty women and 197 men 50 to 65 years of age who were sedentary and free of cardiovascular disease. One out of nine persons contacted through a community random-digit-dial telephone survey and citywide promotion were randomized.--For higher-intensity exercise training, three 40-minute endurance training sessions per week were prescribed at 73% to 88% of peak treadmill heart rate. For lower-intensity exercise training, five 30-minute endurance training sessions per week were prescribed at 60% to 73% of peak treadmill heart rate.--Treadmill exercise test performance, exercise participation rates, and heart disease risk factors.--Compared with controls, subjects in all three exercise training conditions showed significant improvements in treadmill exercise test performance at 6 and 12 months (P less than .03). Lower-intensity exercise training achieved changes comparable with those of higher-intensity exercise training. Twelve-month exercise adherence rates were better for the two home-based exercise training conditions relative to the group-based exercise training condition (P less than .0005). There were no significant training-induced changes in lipid levels, weight, or blood pressure.--We conclude that (1) this community-based exercise training program improved fitness but not heart disease risk factors among sedentary, healthy older adults; (2) home-based exercise was as effective as group exercise in producing these changes; (3) lower-intensity exercise training was as effective as higher-intensity exercise training in the home setting; and (4) the exercise programs were relatively safe.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GE45800034

    View details for PubMedID 1880885



    Studies of panic attacks in older adults are virtually nonexistent. The authors surveyed 520 adults with panic attacks; 445 were younger than age 55, 57 were 55 years old or older but had their first panic attack before age 55, and 18 were 55 years old or older and had their first panic attack at age 55 or later. The respondents with late-onset panic attacks reported fewer symptoms during their attacks and were less avoidant than both groups of respondents with early-onset panic attacks.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GD55200018

    View details for PubMedID 1883003

  • EFFECT OF LONG-TERM COMMUNITY-HEALTH EDUCATION ON BODY-MASS INDEX - THE STANFORD 5-CITY PROJECT AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Taylor, C. B., Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J., Kayman, S., Barrett, D. C., Jatulis, D., Farquhar, J. W. 1991; 134 (3): 235-249


    Being overweight is a risk factor for cardiovascular heart disease and other medical problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-wide cardiovascular risk reduction trial (the Stanford Five-City Project) on body mass index. In the Stanford Five-City Project, two treatment cities (n = 122,800) received a 6-year mass media and community organization cardiovascular risk reduction intervention. Changes in the treatment cities were compared with two control cities (n = 197,500) for changes in knowledge of risk factors, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol level, smoking rate, body mass index, and resting pulse rate after 5-1/3 years of the education program. Both cohort and cross-sectional (independent) samples were used in the study. In the independent surveys, subjects in the treatment communities gained significantly less weight than subjects in the control communities (0.57 kg compared with 1.25 kg) over 6 years. In the cohort, there were no significant overall differences. The study provides some evidence that a community health education program may help reduce weight gain over time, but more effective methods must be developed if this important risk factor is to be favorably affected in broad populations.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GB74600001

    View details for PubMedID 1877583



    Variation in the waist/hip ratio (WHR) may be related to changes in hormonal secretion associated with pubertal maturation. We therefore studied the effects of race, pubertal development, and body fatness on WHR during adolescence in a multiethnic population. A total of 688 white, Asian, and Hispanic female adolescents (mean (+/- SD) 12.4 +/- 0.7 years), participating in the evaluation of a multisite school-based health education program, were included in these analyses. Self-assessed stage of puberty and measurements of height, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference were obtained from each participant. The WHR and age-adjusted body mass index were calculated. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that puberty significantly affects hip circumference and WHR but not waist circumference among female adolescents. Age and fatness, as reflected by age-adjusted body mass index, contributed significantly to both circumferences and to the WHR. There was a significant effect of ethnicity on hip circumference but not on waist circumference or the WHR. These results confirm that pubertal stage exerts a significant effect on the hip circumference and WHR in female adolescents, even after the effects of fatness and age are controlled. Studies of body fat distribution during late childhood and adolescence should include assessments of pubertal maturation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FQ10800029

    View details for PubMedID 2040937



    Exposure is a rapid and effective treatment for simple phobias. This study tested the assumption that endorphin release may be involved in exposure to a feared situation. Thirty spider-phobic Ss underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tasks. Half the Ss were randomly assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and half to a placebo. Measures of heart rate, blood pressure, self-efficacy, anxiety, and cognitions were obtained during treatment. Six of the 15 Ss in the naltrexone group dropped out after the 10th step in the treatment compared with 1 of the 15 Ss in the placebo group, chi 2(1, N = 30) = 4.7, p = .03. The naltrexone group took significantly longer to complete the first 10 steps (the last step that included all Ss) compared with the placebo group, F(9, 252) = 2.17, p = .024. Maximum heart rate and anxiety were significantly greater at Step 10 in the naltrexone group, but no differences were found for self-efficacy or cognitions. The study provides further evidence that the endogenous opioid system may be involved in the process of exposure.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FM54500008

    View details for PubMedID 1677015

  • HOW BLIND ARE DOUBLE-BLIND STUDIES JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY MARGRAF, J., Ehlers, A., Roth, W. T., Clark, D. B., Sheikh, J., Agras, W. S., Taylor, C. B. 1991; 59 (1): 184-187


    Psychopharmacological studies usually attempt to eliminate "nonspecific" influences on outcome by double-blind designs. In a randomized, double-blind comparison of alprazolam, imipramine, and placebo, the great majority of panic disorder patients (N = 59) and their physicians were able to rate accurately whether active drug or placebo had been given. Moreover, physicians could distinguish between the two types of active drugs. Inasmuch as correct rating was possible halfway through treatment, concerns about the internal validity of the double-blind strategy arise.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV98700024

    View details for PubMedID 2002136



    Theories linking anger and blood pressure (BP) reactivity to cardiovascular disease must be able to identify naturally occurring stressors that arouse emotion with sufficient frequency to cause chronic physiologic stress. We examine the impact of normal family arguments on 43 patients (24 women, 19 men) with essential hypertension. Patients and their partners discussed a threatening disagreement for 10 min while BP and conversation were recorded. Discussing problems increased BP, but the causal pathways differed by sex. In women, hostile interaction and marital dissatisfaction were associated with increased BP; "supportive" or "neutral" exchanges were unrelated to BP. In men, BP fluctuations were related only to the patient's speech rate. These findings are consistent with other research on sex differences in communication and social problem-solving styles and implicate different mechanisms (frequent anger, active coping) through which marital discord could increase risk. Implications for intervention are considered.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FR19200001

    View details for PubMedID 1879387



    While worksite exercise programs offer a number of potential advantages with respect to increasing physical activity levels in American adults, typical participation rates remain relatively low. The purpose of this study was to explore employee preferences and needs related to physical activity programming in a major work setting in northern California. Two-thirds (399) of a randomly selected sample of employees responded to a mailed survey. Male and female employees reporting no regular aerobic activity over the past two years more strongly endorsed a number of erroneous beliefs concerning exercise, reported less support for engaging in exercise both at home and at work, and avoided even routine types of activity to a greater extent than more active individuals (p values less than 0.001). Current exercisers reported use of a greater number and variety of motivational strategies as part of their exercise program than past exercisers who were not currently active (p less than 0.001). Respondents, regardless of exercise status and age, reported preferences for moderate-intensity activity occurring away from the workplace which could be performed on one's own rather than in a group or class. Implications of the findings with respect to development of educational and behavioral programs for the current employee population are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DX06600004

    View details for PubMedID 2228630



    The Stanford Five-City Project was initiated in 1978 to evaluate the effects of a community-wide health education program on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure. Two treatment cities received an education program, which used the mass media, various community-based programs, and health professionals, designed to encourage individuals to learn their blood pressure levels, stay in the care of a physician if hypertensive, achieve ideal weight, exercise regularly, and reduce dietary sodium. Physicians were encouraged to follow national hypertension treatment guidelines and were provided with a range of patient education materials. To evaluate the effect of the intervention on cardiovascular risk factors, four independent cross-sectional surveys of randomly selected households and four repeated surveys of a cohort were conducted in both treatment cities and in two of the three control cities. After 5-1/3 years of intervention, blood pressure in the treatment cities exhibited an overall decline of 7.4 and 5.5 mmHg systolic and 5.0 and 3.7 mmHg diastolic in the cohort and independent surveys, respectively. These declines produced net changes between the treatment and control cities ranging from -1.1 to -3.8 mmHg. While the magnitude of these changes is not large, the results are significant from a public health perspective because they reflect changes in the overall community.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EB31400004

    View details for PubMedID 2403104

  • PSYCHOSOCIAL PREDICTORS OF PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENTS PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Reynolds, K. D., Killen, J. D., Bryson, S. W., Maron, D. J., Taylor, C. B., MACCOBY, N., Farquhar, J. W. 1990; 19 (5): 541-551


    Regular physical activity consistently demonstrates an inverse relationship with coronary heart disease and has positive effects on quality of life and other psychological variables. Despite the benefits of exercise, many youth and adults maintain a sedentary lifestyle. Interventions are needed, particularly with youth, to increase levels of physical activity. A better understanding of the psychosocial predictors of physical activity will aid in structuring these interventions. Longitudinal data from a cohort of 743 10th-grade students from the control condition of the Stanford Adolescent Heart Health Program were analyzed. Regression analysis indicated that psychosocial variables were significantly related to physical activity after controlling for baseline levels of physical activity and BMI. Associations with physical activity were found for intention to exercise, self-efficacy, stress, and direct social influence. The designers of future interventions should consider including program components that target these variables.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DX46600005

    View details for PubMedID 2235921



    Current national data indicate that a greater percentage of women entering their fifth and sixth decades of life are current, as opposed to former, smokers, while for men the opposite pattern is present. A representative sample of 1876 men and women aged 50 to 65 years living in a northern California community were interviewed to examine factors related to gender differences in quit rates in this age group. In this well-educated community, a significantly greater percentage of women (25.6%) continued to smoke relative to men (18.6%), with a greater percentage of men reporting being former smokers. Multivariate analysis revealed educational level and marital status, rather than gender, to be significant, Independent factors associated both with current cigarette use and with successful quitting. Our data indicate that it is not being female per se, but rather the disparities in educational level and marital status that are linked with being an older woman, that are associated with continued smoking in this age group. In light of this, delivery of relevant information and support on the part of physicians and other health professionals may be of particular use to this population segment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DY36400009

    View details for PubMedID 2393315



    To test whether communitywide health education can reduce stroke and coronary heart disease, we compared two treatment cities (N = 122,800) and two control cities (N = 197,500) for changes in knowledge of risk factors, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol level, smoking rate, body weight, and resting pulse rate. Treatment cities received a 5-year, low-cost, comprehensive program using social learning theory, a communication-behavior change model, community organization principles, and social marketing methods that resulted in about 26 hours of exposure to multichannel and multifactor education. Risk factors were assessed in representative cohort and cross-sectional surveys at baseline and in three later surveys. After 30 to 64 months of education, significant net reductions in community averages favoring treatment occurred in plasma cholesterol level (2%), blood pressure (4%), resting pulse rate (3%), and smoking rate (13%) of the cohort sample. These risk factor changes resulted in important decreases in composite total mortality risk scores (15%) and coronary heart disease risk scores (16%). Thus, such low-cost programs can have an impact on risk factors in broad population groups.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DN16400032

    View details for PubMedID 2362332



    To determine the effect of a nurse-managed intervention for smoking cessation in patients who have had a myocardial infarction.Randomized, with a 6-month treatment period and a 6-month follow-up.Kaiser Foundation hospitals in Redwood City, Santa Clara, Hayward, and San Jose, California.Sequential sample of 173 patients, 70 years of age or younger, who were smoking before hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction. Eighty-six patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and 87 to usual care; 130 patients (75%) completed the study and were available for follow-up.Nurse-managed and focused on preventing relapse to smoking, the intervention was initiated in the hospital and maintained thereafter primarily through telephone contact. Patients were given an 18-page manual that emphasized how to identify and cope with high-risk situations for smoking relapse.One year after myocardial infarction, the smoking cessation rate, verified biochemically, was 71% in the intervention group compared with 45% in the usual care group, a 26% difference (95% CI, 9.5% to 42.6%). Assuming that all surviving patients lost to follow-up were smoking, the 12-month smoking cessation rate was 61% in the intervention group compared with 32% in the usual care group, a 29% difference (95% CI, 14.5% to 43.5%). Patients who either resumed smoking within 3 weeks after infarction or expressed little intention of stopping in the hospital were unlikely to have stopped by 12 months.A nurse-managed smoking cessation intervention largely conducted by telephone, initiated in the hospital, and focused on relapse prevention can significantly reduce smoking rates at 12 months in patients who have had a myocardial infarction.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DN08300006

    View details for PubMedID 2360750



    Skin conductance habituation was compared between 38 patients meeting DSM-III criteria for Panic Disorder and 29 normal controls. Approximately half of each group was randomly assigned to be given 100 dB SPL tones and the other half 75 dB tones. All indices pointed to slowed habituation in patients compared with normals: number of trials to response habituation, total number of responses, and slope of decline of skin conductance level. Patient-normal differences were not significantly larger for 100 dB than for 75 dB. In addition, patients compared with normals had more nonspecific fluctuations, higher skin conductance levels, and a shorter response latency to the first stimulus. Stepwise discriminant analyses classified patients and normals better in the 100 dB than in the 75 dB condition, and showed that the various skin conductancy variables were largely redundant at the higher intensity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DF72900007

    View details for PubMedID 2191728

  • SURREPTITIOUS DRUG-USE BY PATIENTS IN A PANIC DISORDER STUDY AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Clark, D. B., Taylor, C. B., Roth, W. T., Hayward, C., Ehlers, A., MARGRAF, J., Agras, W. S. 1990; 147 (4): 507-509


    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing alprazolam and imipramine for panic disorder, serum analysis revealed that a substantial proportion of the patients took explicitly prohibited anxiolytic medication. Excluding these patients changed the results.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CW81000023

    View details for PubMedID 1969248



    Seventy-nine patients with panic disorder were randomized to an 8-week double-blind treatment with alprazolam, imipramine, or placebo. Patients kept daily records of panic attacks, activity, anxiety, sleep, and medication use. Weekly measures of anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, fears, avoidance, disability, and improvement were obtained. All patients underwent a symptom-limited exercise treadmill and other cardiovascular measures. By physician and patient global assessment, patients receiving alprazolam or imipramine were significantly better than patients on placebo. The alprazolam effects were apparent by week 1; the imipramine effects by week 4. All groups showed significant reductions in anxiety, depression, somatic measures, and panic attack frequency. At 8 weeks, patients in the alprazolam group reported significantly less fear than patients in the other two groups. Subjects in the imipramine group showed a significant increase in heart rate and blood pressure.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CX84900006

    View details for PubMedID 2187912

  • MOTOR-ACTIVITY AND TONIC HEART-RATE IN PANIC DISORDER PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH Clark, D. B., Taylor, C. B., Hayward, C., King, R., MARGRAF, J., Ehlers, A., Roth, W. T., Agras, W. S. 1990; 32 (1): 45-53


    Motor activity and tonic heart rate were monitored in 62 drug-free panic disorder patients and 40 normal control subjects. Mean daily activity, mean waking heart rate controlled for activity, and mean sleeping heart rate were determined. Panic disorder patients without phobic avoidance showed higher activity than control subjects or patients with limited or extensive avoidance. Similarly, an "inverted U", relationship between trait anxiety and activity was observed. On the other hand, neither mean waking nor sleeping heart rate showed significant differences between patients and controls, suggesting that the differences previously reported in laboratory studies result from anticipatory anxiety.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DC99700006

    View details for PubMedID 2349312



    The Fear and Avoidance Scales (FAS) is an 11-item questionnaire consisting of two subscales that measure features of agoraphobia and claustrophobia and that were demonstrated to be valid Guttman scales in a British clinical population. The purposes of the study reported here were to replicate the scale characteristics in the United States and to determine if improvement during treatment would follow the sequence predicted by the hierarchy implied in the scales. The FAS was given to 25 female agoraphobics before and after behavioural treatment. A principal components analysis replicated the agoraphobia and claustrophobia factors established in the British sample. Scalogram analyses showed that the Claustrophobia subscale of the FAS was a valid Guttman scale in the US sample whereas the Agoraphobia subscale yielded a high coefficient of reproducibility but a low coefficient of scalability. Treatment reduced the patients' fears and avoidances in the predicted sequence since for both scales the hierarchy of items remained unchanged following treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CP17400004

    View details for PubMedID 2310869

  • Developing computer-assisted therapy for the treatment of obesity Behavior Therapy Agras WS, Taylor CB, Fedlman DE, Losch M, Bunett KF 1990; 212: 99-109
  • Guttman scaling in agoraphobia: Cross-cultural replication and prediction of treatment response patterns Behavioral Psychotherapy Margraf J, Taylor CB, Arnow BA, Ehlers A, Roth WT 1990; 29: 37-41


    In assessing the level of stenosis in extracranial Doppler analysis, spectral analysis has until now been used qualitatively, for the most part. Owing to the many variables affecting the measurements (mainly noise level and instrument setting made subjectively by the operator), the reliability of the inferences on the degree of stenosis is not clearly definable. Under such conditions the need arises for algorithms and systems that can estimate spectral parameters with a higher degree of accuracy, to verify whether reliable inferences can indeed by made or if this technique is only a qualitative one. In the paper a real-time spectral analysis system is described. The system relies on a new spectral estimation algorithm which gives estimates with good robustness with respect to noise. Moreover, a clear measurement procedure which eliminates the many subjective factors affecting the estimates has also been proposed and used. The system has been evaluated with simulated signals and in clinical trials and has shown better performance than the commonly used commercial analysers.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CQ04900009

    View details for PubMedID 2182949

  • Cardiovascular considerations in selection of antipanic pharmacotherapy Journal of Psychiatry Research Taylor CB, Hayward C 1990; 24 (Suppl 2): 25-31


    The current study explored the relationship between repressive coping and blood pressure responses at rest and during a mental challenge. One hundred and twenty healthy, middle-aged men and women completed anxiety and defensiveness measures. Subjects scoring below the median on anxiety and above the median on defensiveness were categorized as repressors; those below the median on both measures as low-anxious; those above the median on anxiety and below the median on defensiveness as moderately anxious; and those above the median on both measures as defensive moderately-anxious. As predicted, repressors showed greater systolic blood pressure reactivity in response to a mental challenge relative to the other groups (p less than 0.01). Repressors also had greater resting systolic blood pressure levels than the other groups (p less than 0.001). The findings are discussed with respect to the potential influence of this response pattern on blood pressure and other CVD risk factors and behaviors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DN57200012

    View details for PubMedID 2376846



    Patients with panic disorder may be at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is also preliminary evidence that some cardiovascular risk factors may be increased in patients with panic disorder. Since anti-panic medications can alter cardiovascular function, the cardiovascular effect of these medications should be considered, particularly when used in patients with cardiovascular disease. This article will review the cardiovascular side effects of anti-panic medications.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EJ50000005

    View details for PubMedID 1980698



    Behavioural researchers have long relied on the use of diaries for the collection of self-report data. We discuss the characteristics of a programmable hand-held computer used to collect hourly and event generated data for 7 days on 20 subjects with panic disorder. In the application described, subjects answered a series of 19 or more questions on the hour from 0700 to 2300 or when they were having a panic attack. Subjects completed 88% of all the hourly ratings (range 64-98%). The system was well accepted by the subjects and provided relatively inexpensive data collection and management.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CJ56700012

    View details for PubMedID 2302155

  • Position paper of the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation: the efficacy of risk factor intervention and psychosomatic aspects of cardiac rehabilitation Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabiliation Miller NH, Taylor CB, Davidson DM, Hill MN, Krantz DS 1990; 10: 198-209


    A survey of 794 subjects volunteering for studies of panic disorder with or without phobic avoidance revealed that fewer than 15% had received imipramine and fewer than 15% had undergone in vivo exposure, although the majority had engaged in some form of counseling and had used benzodiazepines. Subjects with spontaneous panic attacks reported more avoidance than subjects with situational attacks. One-half of the subjects were unemployed. The authors recommend wider use of the available effective treatments for panic disorder and phobic avoidance.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AX18500005

    View details for PubMedID 2817112


    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AT81400032

    View details for PubMedID 2794264

  • PANIC ATTACKS IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B. 1989; 146 (8): 1061-1062


    The lifetime prevalence of interview-determined four-symptom panic attacks in 95 ninth graders was 11.6%. Those with panic attacks were significantly more depressed, were significantly more likely to have separated or divorced parents, and tended to be more likely to have tried cigarette smoking.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AH11900022

    View details for PubMedID 2787606



    Plasma lipids were measured in 102 subjects with panic disorder or agoraphobia. In women, but not men, a significantly higher than expected number of subjects had cholesterol values that exceeded the 75th percentile of national reference values for their sex and age.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AD14300020

    View details for PubMedID 2742017



    Twenty patients with panic attacks and ten controls were given a standardised interview about thoughts occurring during times of anxiety or panic attacks. The interviewer was blind to the subject's diagnosis. The 20 panic patients underwent a psychophysiological test battery which included a cold pressor test, mental arithmetic task, and 5.5% CO2 inhalation. More patients than controls reported thoughts centered on fears of losing control and shame when anxious. Panic patients rated their thoughts as stronger and clearer than did controls and they had more difficulty excluding them from their minds. A feeling of anxiety preceded anxious thoughts in patients. This suggests that 'faulty cognitions' are not the initial event in a panic attack, although anxious thoughts may exacerbate or maintain them. Significant correlations were found between the intensity of anxiety-related thoughts in anticipation of mental arithmetic and changes in diastolic blood pressure and heart rate during mental arithmetic.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AJ61700013

    View details for PubMedID 2605437

  • Behavioral medicine: Research and development in disease preventon Behaviour Change Taylor CB, Owen N 1989; 6: 3-11


    This study examined the interpersonal behavior and concomitant cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) of hypertensive patients whose resting blood pressure was controlled by antihypertensive medication. Thirty hypertensive and 30 normotensive subjects matched for age, sex and occupational status were recruited from an industrial setting. The groups were compared on measures of interpersonal behavior, blood pressure and heart rate while they engaged in both role-played (RP) and naturalistic interactions (NI) requiring positive and negative assertion. Interpersonal behavior of the groups was generally similar, with two exceptions: hypertensives made fewer requests for new behavior in the negative RP and verbalized more praise statements in the positive NI. There were no differences between the groups on measures of CVR during interpersonal interactions. Overall effectiveness during scenes requiring negative assertion was associated with increased cardiovascular reactivity, especially for hypertensives. The interpersonal behavior and cardiovascular responses of patients taking beta-blocker medication did not differ from those taking diuretics. These findings are discussed with regard to methodological considerations pertinent to the assessment of interpersonal behavior and the issue of heterogeneity among hypertensives.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AN36600008

    View details for PubMedID 2571726

  • Smoking cessation in patients with cardiovascular disease Quality of Life and Cardiovascular Care Taylor CB, Houston-Miller N 1989; 5: 19-35
  • Computer-assisted behavioral health counseing for high school students Journal of Counseling Psychology Burnett KF, Magel PE, Harrington S, Taylor CB 1989; 36: 1-5
  • ROLE OF COGNITIVE APPRAISAL IN PANIC-RELATED AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Telch, M. J., Brouillard, M., Telch, C. F., Agras, W. S., Taylor, C. B. 1989; 27 (4): 373-383


    The present study examined several dimensions of panic cognitions to test whether panic appraisals predict phobicity among panic sufferers. Thirty-five patients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder with minimal or no phobic avoidance were compared to 40 patients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder with agoraphobia (severe). The two groups looked strikingly similar on measures of panic symptoms, panic frequency and panic severity. As expected, patients diagnosed as having panic disorder with agoraphobia reported significantly more depression and phobic avoidance than patients with PD. Striking differences emerged on each of the following panic appraisal dimensions: (a) anticipated panic, (b) perceived consequences of panic, and (c) perceived self-efficacy in coping with panic. In each case, patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia reported significantly more dysfunctional panic appraisals than patients with panic disorder and no avoidance. Of those panic appraisal dimensions studied, anticipated panic emerged as the most potent correlate of agoraphobic avoidance. These findings support the hypothesis that cognitive appraisal factors may play an important role in the genesis or maintenance of phobic avoidance among panic patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AH15600007

    View details for PubMedID 2775146

  • Taks force III: Assessment of psychological status in patients with ischemic heart disease Journal of the American College of Cardiology Blumenthal JA, Bradley W, Dimsdale JE, Kasl SV, Powell LH, Taylor CB 1989; 14: 1034-42


    Although a variety of psychological benefits have been attributed to regular exercise, few experimentally controlled studies of healthy individuals currently exist. One hundred twenty healthy, sedentary, middle-aged men and women were randomly assigned to either a 6-month home-based aerobic exercise training program or to an assessment-only control condition. Adherence across the 6-month period was found by both self-report and heart rate microprocessor methods to exceed 75% in both sexes. To assess changes in a variety of psychological variables over time, a 14-item Likert rating scale was completed and returned on a biweekly basis throughout the 6-month period. Slope analyses conducted on the 11 items attaining acceptable test-retest reliability coefficients showed significant between-groups differences on the 3 items most closely associated with the actual physical changes that occurred with exercise (all ps less than .004). Implications in relation to repeated measurement of psychological changes in nonclinical populations and the determination of the relevant population-, activity-, and program-specific parameters involved are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AF90200003

    View details for PubMedID 2767021



    All tenth graders in four senior high schools (N = 1447) from two school districts participated in a cardiovascular disease risk-reduction trial. Within each district, one school was assigned at random to receive a special 20-session risk-reduction intervention and one school served as a control. At a two-month follow-up, risk factor knowledge scores were significantly greater for students in the treatment group. Compared with controls, a higher proportion of those in the treatment group who were not exercising regularly at baseline reported regular exercise at follow-up. Almost twice as many baseline experimental smokers in the treatment group reported quitting at follow-up, while only 5.6% of baseline experimental smokers in the treatment group graduated to regular smoking compared with 10.3% in the control group. Students in the treatment group were more likely to report that they would choose "heart-healthy" snack items. Beneficial treatment effects were observed for resting heart rate, body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness, and subscapular skin fold thickness. The results suggest that it is feasible to provide cardiovascular disease risk-reduction training to a large segment of the population through school-based primary prevention approaches.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q100100023

    View details for PubMedID 3411756



    This experiment tested the hypothesis that perceived self-inefficacy in exercising control over cognitive stressors activates endogenous opioid systems. Subjects performed mathematical operations under conditions in which they could exercise full control over the cognitive task demands or in which the cognitive demands strained or exceeded their cognitive capabilities. Subjects with induced high perceived self-efficacy exhibited little stress, whereas those with induced low perceived self-efficacy experienced a high level of stress and autonomic arousal. Subjects were then administered either an inert saline solution or naloxone, an opiate antagonist that blocks the analgesic effects of endogenous opiates, whereupon their level of pain tolerance was measured. The self-efficacious nonstressed subjects gave no evidence of opioid activation. The self-inefficacious stressed subjects were able to withstand increasing amounts of pain stimulation under saline conditions. However, when endogenous opioid mechanisms that control pain were blocked by naloxone, the subjects were unable to bear much pain stimulation. This pattern of changes suggests that the stress-induced analgesia found under the saline condition was mediated by endogenous opioid mechanisms and counteracted by the opiate antagonist.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P923300012

    View details for PubMedID 3171918



    To determine if an occupational work evaluation could shorten the time to return to work, 201 employed men aged 49 +/- 7 years who were recovering from uncomplicated myocardial infarction were randomized to usual care (n = 102) or to an occupational work evaluation (n = 99). The occupational work evaluation consisted of a symptom-limited treadmill test performed 23 +/- 3 days after myocardial infarction and a formal recommendation to the patient and primary physician that the patient return to work within the next two weeks. The groups did not differ in age, medical status, comorbid disease, occupation type, or years on the job. At six months, 92% of patients receiving the intervention and 88% of patients receiving usual care were working either full- or part-time. Return to full-time work occurred at a median of 51 days in patients receiving the intervention and 75 days in patients receiving usual care. This 32% reduction in the convalescence period was associated with +2102 of additional earned salary per intervention patient in the six months after myocardial infarction. One or more recurrent cardiac events occurred in 14 intervention patients (one death, one nonfatal myocardial infarction, three angioplasties, and nine coronary surgeries) and in 13 usual-care patients (two deaths, three nonfatal myocardial infarctions, six angioplasties, and seven coronary surgeries) in the six months after myocardial infarction. The early return to work of low-risk patients based on an occupational work evaluation is associated with important economic benefits.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P049200024

    View details for PubMedID 3385897



    Personality theorists have long predicted a relationship between personality traits and autonomic activation. In this study, 48 patients with panic disorder underwent personality assessment by questionnaire (Eysenck Personality Inventory: 48 patients) and by interview (Personality Disorders Examination: 35 patients). Ambulatory heart rate and activity were measured by the Vitalog method and were used as measures of activation and autonomic arousal. There was a significant positive correlation between histrionic traits and activity level and a significant negative correlation between sociability and heart rate. The findings are consistent with previous studies showing a negative relationship between sensation-seeking personality traits and cerebrospinal fluid levels of norepinephrine and a positive relationship between extroversion and cerebrospinal fluid levels of dopamine.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P894700008

    View details for PubMedID 3217468



    Twenty-three patients meeting DSM-III criteria for agoraphobia with panic attacks and 14 age-, race-, and sex-matched nonanxious controls were tested in the laboratory and on a test walk in a shopping mall. The patients were tested before and after about 15 weeks of treatment with placebo and exposure therapy, imipramine and exposure therapy, or imipramine and initial antiexposure instructions. Controls were tested twice at a similar interval, but without any treatment. On test day 1, patients compared to controls showed higher average heart rate and skin conductance levels and greater numbers of skin conductance fluctuations in the laboratory, and higher heart rates before and during the test walk. Between pretreatment and posttreatment tests, clinical ratings improved and skin conductance levels decreased in all treatment groups. Heart rate levels in the laboratory, on the other hand, decreased in patients on placebo and rose in patients on imipramine. Thus, imipramine compromises the usefulness of heart rate as a measure of emotional arousal. Higher pretreatment heart rates predicted greater clinical improvement.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N420300012

    View details for PubMedID 3393620



    Two studies were undertaken to compare strategies for the adoption and maintenance of moderate-intensity, home-based exercise training. In the study of adoption, 52 men and women who had served for 6 months as controls for a study of moderate-intensity, home-based exercise training received 30 minutes of baseline instruction. They were then randomized to receive continuing instruction and support through 10 staff-initiated telephone contacts of 5 minutes each every 2 weeks, or to receive no telephone contacts. In subjects receiving telephone contacts, peak oxygen uptake increased significantly after 6 months, whereas no increase was observed in subjects receiving no staff support (p less than 0.05). In the maintenance study, 51 men and women who had significantly increased their peak oxygen uptake by 6 months of moderate-intensity, home-based exercise training were randomized to undergo daily self-monitoring and receive adherence instructions, or undergo weekly self-monitoring only, during a second 6-month period of training. Subjects performing daily self-monitoring reported completing significantly more exercise training sessions during the 6 months of training than subjects performing weekly self-monitoring; functional capacity in both groups remained higher than before training (p less than 0.05). Taken together, these studies suggest that brief baseline instruction followed by continuing telephone contact with staff can be used to help people adopt a moderate-intensity, home-based exercise training program that can be maintained by simple self-monitoring strategies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N611800025

    View details for PubMedID 3344690



    To determine the influence of exercise training on smoking after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), smoking rates in 42 pre-AMI smokers assigned to exercise training were compared with 26 pre-AMI smokers assigned to no training. Exercise training occurred 3-26 weeks after AMI. The increase in functional capacity in 3-26 weeks was significantly greater in training than in no-training patients: 1.8 vs. 1.2 METs respectively (p less than 0.05). Adherence to exercise training was higher in non-smokers and former smokers than in those who continued to smoke: 89% and 88% vs. 80% respectively (NS). The prevalence of smoking 6 months post-AMI was lower in training than in no-training patients: 31% vs. 39% respectively (NS). Plasma thiocyanates collected on a random sample of 42 patients suggested that 19% of patients who are smoking after MI fail to report doing so. Self-reported cigarette consumption at 28 weeks was half as great in training as in no-training patients: 11 +/- 7 vs. 22 +/- 16 cigarettes per day (p less than 0.03). Firm advice to stop smoking followed by medically supervised exercise training with frequent followup reduces self-reported cigarette consumption in patients after AMI.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q956300003

    View details for PubMedID 3239464

  • Ambulatory computer-assisted therapy: Impliations for cliical team management of weight, diet, and exercise in the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus Diabetes Educator Burnett KF, Taylor CB, Agras WS 1988; 13: 234-236

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988L510500001

    View details for PubMedID 3341996

  • Treadmill exercise test and ambulatory measures in panic attacks. American journal of cardiology Taylor, C. B., King, R., Ehlers, A., MARGRAF, J., Clark, D., Hayward, C., Roth, W. T., Agras, S. 1987; 60 (18): 48J-52J


    Treadmill exercise test performance and ambulatory heart rate and activity patterns of 40 patients with panic attacks were compared with 20 age-matched controls (control group 1) and 20 nonexercising controls (control group 2). All patients underwent a symptom-limited exercise stress test. Panic attack patients and control group 1 wore an ambulatory heart rate/activity monitor for up to 3 days. Panic patients had a significantly higher heart rate at 4 and 6 METS than either control group. The max METS were 11.2 +/- 2.3, 13.5 +/- 2.3 and 11.2 +/- 1.8 for the panic attack patients and control groups 1 and 2, respectively. One panic patient had ischemia on the treadmill at 12 METS. Panic patients had a significantly higher standing heart rate than controls. Furthermore, 11 of 39 panic patients had tachycardia on standing compared with 3 of 40 controls. Panic attack patients had higher wake and sleep heart rates than control group 1, but the differences were not significant. These results are consistent with autonomic dysfunction in panic patients but may also be due to differences in physical conditioning. The treadmill can be useful for reassuring patients and for identifying the rare patient with ischemia on exercise.

    View details for PubMedID 3425557



    We surveyed 646 tenth grade females in Northern California to assess the prevalence of binge eating and purging behaviors. Of these, 10.3 per cent met study criteria for bulimia and an additional 10.4 per cent reported purging behaviors for weight control. Bulimics and purgers were heavier, had greater triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, and reported higher rates of drunkenness, marijuana use, cigarette use, and greater levels of depressive symptomatology.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987K958400013

    View details for PubMedID 3674255

  • PERSPECTIVES ON ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE USE - A DEFINED POPULATION STUDY JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Robinson, T. N., Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B., Telch, M. J., Bryson, S. W., Saylor, K. E., Maron, D. J., MACCOBY, N., Farquhar, J. W. 1987; 258 (15): 2072-2076


    We asked 1447 tenth graders to complete a survey on physical activity, nutrition, stress, and substance use and to undergo basic physical assessments. In a multiple regression analysis, increased level of substance use by both boys and girls was most strongly predicted by friends' marijuana use. For boys, this was followed by perceived safety of cigarette smoking; poor school performance; parents' education; and use of diet pills, laxatives, or diuretics for weight control, accounting for 44% of the overall variation in substance use. For girls, friends' marijuana use was followed by poor school performance; self-induced vomiting for weight control; perceived safety of cigarette smoking; use of diet pills, laxatives, or diuretics for weight control; parents' education; perceived adult attitudes about cigarettes; and nonuse of seat belts, accounting for 53% of the overall variance. Separate multiple regression analyses for each substance produced similar results. The homogeneity of the study population precluded ethnic comparisons. These findings suggest that for many purposes substance use may be considered a single behavior regardless of the specific substance(s) used and that substance use may exist as part of a syndrome of adolescent problem behaviors. In addition, the potent influence of perceived social environment suggests that a social influence resistance model may represent the most successful preventive strategy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987K353200022

    View details for PubMedID 3656622



    In this experiment, we tested for opioid and nonopioid mechanisms of pain control through cognitive means and the relation of opioid involvement to perceived coping efficacy. Subjects were taught cognitive methods of pain control, were administered a placebo, or received no intervention. Their pain tolerance was then measured at periodic intervals after they were administered either a saline solution or naloxone, an opiate antagonist that blocks the effects of endogenous opiates. Training in cognitive control strengthened perceived self-efficacy both to withstand and to reduce pain; placebo medication enhanced perceived efficacy to withstand pain but not reductive efficacy; and neither form of perceived self-efficacy changed without any intervention. Regardless of condition, the stronger the perceived self-efficacy to withstand pain, the longer subjects endured mounting pain stimulation. The findings provide evidence that attenuation of the impact of pain stimulation through cognitive control is mediated by both opioid and nonopioid mechanisms. Cognitive copers administered naloxone were less able to tolerate pain stimulation than were their saline counterparts. The stronger the perceived self-efficacy to reduce pain, the greater was the opioid activation. Cognitive copers were also able to achieve some increase in pain tolerance even when opioid mechanisms were blocked by naloxone, which is in keeping with a nonopioid component in cognitive pain control. We found suggestive evidence that placebo medication may also activate some opioid involvement. Because placebos do not impart pain reduction skills, it was perceived self-efficacy to endure pain that predicted degree of opioid activation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987J918000015

    View details for PubMedID 2821217


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