Bio

Bio


I completed residency in pediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco and then fellowships in pediatric cardiology and pediatric critical care medicine at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford. I am an attending physician in the Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit at LPCH/Stanford and I enjoy caring for children with critical congenital and acquired cardiac disease. I am interested in clinical research focused on improving the care of children with cardiac disease, specifically investigating the frequent complication of acute kidney injury that occurs in this population. I also have a passion for educating and training nurses, students, and residents/fellows who care for children with cardiac disease.

Clinical Focus


  • Pediatric Cardiology
  • Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Board Certification: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics (2012)
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (2005)
  • Residency:Univ of California San Francisco (2005) CA
  • Internship:Univ of California San Francisco (2003) CA
  • Fellowship:Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2009) CA
  • Fellowship:Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2011) CA
  • Board Certification: Pediatric Cardiology, American Board of Pediatrics (2010)
  • Medical Education:Ohio State University (2002) OH

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Diagnosis and treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children with cardiac disease, especially after surgical repair with cardiopulmonary bypass. Currently studying prophylactic aminophylline use in children who undergo surgery with bypass; the "KID PRO-AM" (KIDney PROtection with AMinophyllline) study.

Clinical Trials


  • Aminophylline to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury in Children After Cardiac Surgery Not Recruiting

    Children with congenital heart defects often need cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (the "heart-lung machine"). Approximately 35 to 50% of these children will have "acute kidney injury," or damage to the kidneys, after the procedure. We currently have few medications to prevent this kidney injury. The hypothesis of this study is that giving aminophylline after heart surgery can decrease the acute kidney injury.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

    View full details

  • Heparin and the Reduction of Thrombosis (HART) Trial Not Recruiting

    Heparin is frequently used in central venous catheters (CVCs) in post-operative cardiac patients. It remains unclear if a heparin infusion, compared to a normal saline infusion, prevents thrombosis of CVCs after surgery. This study will answer the question: does a low-dose heparin infusion (10 units/kg/h) prevent thrombosis, compared to a normal saline infusion, in patients less than one year of age after cardiac surgery?

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact David Axelrod, (415) 607 - 2463.

    View full details

Teaching

Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

All Publications


  • Isolation of the right subclavian artery in a patient with d-transposition of the great arteries. Annals of pediatric cardiology Arunamata, A., Perry, S. B., Kipps, A. K., Vasanawala, S. S., Axelrod, D. M. 2015; 8 (2): 161-163

    Abstract

    Isolation of the right subclavian artery (RSCA) is rare, and this finding in association with d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) is extremely unusual. We present a case of an isolated RSCA in a newborn with d-TGA in whom the clinical presentation was diagnostic. We discuss the imaging modalities used to confirm the diagnosis, the embryological basis of the finding, and the surgical repair.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/0974-2069.154154

    View details for PubMedID 26085773

  • Diminished exercise capacity and chronotropic incompetence in pediatric patients with congenital complete heart block and chronic right ventricular pacing. Heart rhythm Motonaga, K. S., Punn, R., Axelrod, D. M., Ceresnak, S. R., Hanisch, D., Kazmucha, J. A., Dubin, A. M. 2015; 12 (3): 560-565

    Abstract

    Chronic right ventricular (RV) pacing has been associated with decreased exercise capacity and left ventricular (LV) function in adults with congenital complete atrioventricular block (CCAVB), but not in children.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the exercise capacity and LV function in pediatric patients with CCAVB receiving chronic RV pacing.We prospectively evaluated pediatric patients with isolated CCAVB receiving atrial synchronous RV pacing for at least 5 years. Supine bicycle ergometry was performed, and LV ejection fraction (EF) was evaluated by echocardiography.Ten CCAVB subjects and 31 controls were matched for age, gender, and body surface area. CCAVB subjects had normal resting EF (63.1% ± 4.0%) and had been paced for 7.9 ± 1.4 years. Exercise testing demonstrated reduced functional capacity in CCAVB patients compared to controls with a lower VO2peak (26.0 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min vs 39.9 ± 7.0 mL/kg/min, P <.001), anaerobic threshold (15.6 ± 3.9 mL/kg/min vs 18.8 ± 2.7 mL/kg/min, P = .007), and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (1210 ± 406 vs 1841 ± 452, P <.001). Maximum heart rate (165 ± 8 bpm vs 185 ± 9 bpm, P <.001) and systolic blood pressure (159 ± 17 mm Hg vs 185 ± 12 mm Hg, P <.019) also were reduced in CCAVB patients despite maximal effort (respiratory exchange ratio 1.2 ± 0.1). EF was augmented with exercise in controls but not in CCAVB patients (13.2% ± 9.3% vs 0.2% ± 4.8% increase, P <.001).Clinically asymptomatic children with chronic RV pacing due to CCAVB have significant reductions in functional capacity accompanied by chronotropic incompetence and inability to augment EF with exercise.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.11.036

    View details for PubMedID 25433143

  • Utility of Clinical Biomarkers to Predict Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infections After Congenital Heart Surgery. Pediatric infectious disease journal Shin, A. Y., Jin, B., Hao, S., Hu, Z., Sutherland, S., McCammond, A., Axelrod, D., Sharek, P., Roth, S. J., Ling, X. B. 2015; 34 (3): 251-254

    Abstract

    Central line associated bloodstream infections is an important contributor of morbidity and mortality in children recovering from congenital heart surgery. The reliability of commonly used biomarkers to differentiate these patients have not been specifically studied.This was a retrospective cohort study in a university-affiliated children's hospital examining all patients with congenital or acquired heart disease admitted to the cardiovascular intensive care unit following cardiac surgery who underwent evaluation for a catheter-associated bloodstream infection.Among 1260 cardiac surgeries performed, 451 encounters underwent an infection evaluation post-operatively. Twenty-five instances of CLABSI and 227 instances of a negative infection evaluation were the subject of analysis. Patients with CLABSI tended to be younger (1.34 vs 4.56 years, p = 0.011) and underwent more complex surgery (RACHS-1 score 3.79 vs 3.04, p = 0.039). The two groups were indistinguishable in WBC, PMNs and band count at the time of their presentation. On multivariate analysis, CLABSI was associated with fever (adjusted OR 4.78; 95% CI, 1.6 to 5.8) and elevated CRP (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.68) after adjusting for differences between the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated the discriminatory power of both fever and CRP (area under curve 0.7247, 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.74 and 0.58, 95% CI 0.4208 to 0.7408). We calculated multilevel likelihood ratios for a spectrum of temperature and CRP values.We found commonly used serum biomarkers such as fever and CRP not to be helpful discriminators in patients following congenital heart surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0000000000000553

    View details for PubMedID 25232780

  • A novel approach to the management of critically ill neonatal Ebstein's anomaly: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to promote right ventricular recovery. Annals of pediatric cardiology Bauser-Heaton, H., Nguyen, C., Tacy, T., Axelrod, D. 2015; 8 (1): 67-70

    Abstract

    This is the first report of the use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a neonate with severe Ebstein's anomaly. The report suggests the use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the immediate neonatal period may be a useful therapy in severe Ebstein's anomaly. By providing adequate oxygenation independent of the patient's native pulmonary blood flow, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation allows the pulmonary vascular resistance to decrease and may promote right ventricular recovery.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/0974-2069.149527

    View details for PubMedID 25684893

  • Predictors of Mortality in Pediatric Patients on Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Punn, R., Axelrod, D. M., Sherman-Levine, S., Roth, S. J., Tacy, T. A. 2014; 15 (9): 870-877

    Abstract

    Currently, there are no established echocardiographic or hemodynamic predictors of mortality after weaning venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children. We wished to determine which measurements predict mortality.Over 3 years, we prospectively assessed six echo and six hemodynamic variables at 3-5 circuit rates while weaning extracorporeal membrane oxygenation flow. Hemodynamic measurements were heart rate, inotropic score, arteriovenous oxygen difference, pulse pressure, oxygenation index, and lactate. Echo variables included shortening/ejection fraction, outflow tract Doppler-derived stroke distance (velocity-time integral), degree of atrioventricular valve regurgitation, longitudinal strain (global longitudinal strain), and circumferential strain (global circumferential strain).Cardiovascular ICU at Lucille Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, CA.Patients were stratified into those who died or required heart transplant (Gr1) and those who did not (Gr2). For each patient, we compared the change for each variable between full versus minimum extracorporeal membrane oxygenation flow for each group.None.We enrolled 21 patients ranging in age from 0.02 to 15 years. Five had dilated cardiomyopathy, and 16 had structural heart disease with severe ventricular dysfunction. Thirteen of 21 patients (62%) comprised Gr1, including two patients with heart transplants. Eight patients constituted Gr2. Gr1 patients had a significantly greater increase in oxygenation index (35% mean increase; p < 0.01) off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation compared to full flow, but no change in velocity-time integral or arteriovenous oxygen difference. In Gr2, velocity-time integral increased (31% mean increase; p < 0.01), with no change in arteriovenous oxygen difference or oxygenation index. Pulse pressure increased modestly with flow reduction only in Gr1 (p < 0.01).Failure to augment velocity-time integral or an increase in oxygenation index during the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation weaning is associated with poor outcomes in children. We propose that these measurements should be performed during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation wean, as they may discriminate who will require alternative methods of circulatory support for survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000236

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346400100015

    View details for PubMedID 25230312

  • Outcomes Following Cardiac Catheterization After Congenital Heart Surgery CATHETERIZATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS Siehr, S. L., Martin, M. H., Axelrod, D., Efron, B., Peng, L., Roth, S. J., Perry, S., Shin, A. Y. 2014; 84 (4): 622-628

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ccd.25490

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342826900018

  • A child with purulent pericarditis and Streptococcus intermedius in the presence of a pericardial teratoma: an unusual presentation. journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Presnell, L., Maeda, K., Griffin, M., Axelrod, D. 2014; 147 (3): e23-4

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2013.11.025

    View details for PubMedID 24373623

  • Initial Experience Using Aminophylline to Improve Renal Dysfunction in the Pediatric Cardiovascular ICU PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Axelrod, D. M., Anglemyer, A. T., Sherman-Levine, S. F., Zhu, A., Grimm, P. C., Roth, S. J., Sutherland, S. M. 2014; 15 (1): 21-27

    Abstract

    To determine if aminophylline administration is associated with improved creatinine clearance and greater urine output in children with acute kidney injury in the cardiovascular ICU.Single-center retrospective cohort study.Pediatric cardiovascular ICU, university-affiliated children's hospital.Children with congenital or acquired heart disease in the cardiovascular ICU who received aminophylline to treat oliguric acute kidney injury and fluid overload.Patients received aminophylline after consultation with a pediatric nephrologist. Data were collected retrospectively over 7 days to assess if aminophylline was associated with improvement in creatinine clearance, urine output, and fluid overload.Thirty-one patients received 52 aminophylline courses. Over the 7-day study period, serum creatinine decreased from a mean of 1.13 ± 0.91 to 0.87 ± 0.83 mg/dL (-0.05 mg/dL/d, p < 0.001). A concomitant increase was seen in estimated glomerular filtration rate from a mean of 50.0 ± 30.0 to 70.6 ± 58.1 mL/min/1.73 m (+3.66 mL/min/1.73 m/d, p < 0.001). Average daily urine output increased by 0.22 mL/kg/hr (p < 0.001), and fluid overload decreased on average by 0.42% per day in the 7-day study period (p = 0.005). Although mean furosemide dose increased slightly (0.12 mg/kg/d, p = 0.01), hydrochlorothiazide dosing did not significantly change over the study period. There were no complications related to aminophylline administration.Our study suggests that aminophylline therapy may be associated with significantly improved renal excretory function and may augment urine output in children who experience oliguric acute kidney injury in the cardiovascular ICU. Additionally, we did not identify any aminophylline-related side effects in this high-risk cardiac population. Future prospective studies are necessary to confirm the safety profile and to ensure that the beneficial effects are independent of other clinical interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.pcc.0000436473.12082.2f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329368400007

  • One Hundred Useful References in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care: The 2012 Update PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Axelrod, D. M., Klugman, D., Wright, G. E., Chang, A., Bronicki, R., Roth, S. J. 2013; 14 (8): 770-785

    Abstract

    The specialty of pediatric cardiac critical care has undergone rapid scientific and clinical growth in the last 25 years. The Board of Directors of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society assembled an updated list of sentinel references focused on the critical care of children with congenital and acquired heart disease. We encouraged board members to select articles that have influenced and informed their current practice or helped to establish the standard of care. The objective of this article is to provide clinicians with a compilation and brief summary of these updated 100 useful references.The list of 'One Hundred Useful References for Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care' (2004) and relevant literature to the practice of cardiac intensive care.A subset of Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society board members compiled the initial list of useful references in 2004, which served as the basis of the new updated list. Suggestions for relevant articles were submitted by the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society board members and selected pediatric cardiac intensivists with an interest in this project following the Society's meeting in 2010. Articles were considered for inclusion if they were named in the original list from 2004 or were suggested by Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society board members and published before December 31, 2011.Following submission of the complete list by the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society board and contributing Society members, articles were complied by the two co-first authors (D.A., D.K.). The authors also performed Medline searches to ensure comprehensive inclusion of all relevant articles. The final list was then submitted to the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society board members, who ranked each publication.Rankings were compiled and the top 100 articles with the highest scores were selected for inclusion in this publication. The two co-first authors (D.A., D.K.) reviewed all existing summaries and developed summaries of the newly submitted articles.An updated compilation of 100 useful references for the critical care of children with congenital and acquired heart disease has been compiled and summarized here. Clinicians and trainees may wish to use this document as a reference for education in this complex and challenging subspecialty.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.PCC.0000434621.25332.71

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336518300011

  • A continuous heparin infusion does not prevent catheter-related thrombosis in infants after cardiac surgery PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Schroeder, A. R., Axelrod, D. M., Silverman, N. H., Rubesova, E., Merkel, E., Roth, S. J. 2010; 11 (4): 489-495

    Abstract

    To determine whether a continuous infusion of heparin reduces the rate of catheter-related thrombosis in neonates and infants post cardiac surgery. Central venous and intracardiac catheters are used routinely in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients. Catheter-related thrombosis occurs in 8% to 45% of pediatric patients with central venous catheters.Single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial.Cardiovascular intensive care unit, university-affiliated children's hospital.Children <1 yr of age recovering from cardiac surgery.Patients were randomized to receive either continuous heparin at 10 units/kg/hr or placebo. The primary end point was catheter-related thrombosis as assessed by serial ultrasonography.Study enrollment was discontinued early based on results from an interim futility analysis. Ninety subjects were enrolled and received the study drug (heparin, 53; placebo, 37). The catheter-related thrombosis rate in the heparin group, compared with the placebo group, was 15% vs. 16% (p = .89). Subjects in the heparin group had a higher mean partial thromboplastin time (52 secs vs. 42 secs, p = .001), and this difference was greater for those aged <30 days (64 secs vs. 43 secs, p = .008). Catheters in place > or = 7 days had both a greater risk of thrombus formation (odds ratio, 4.3; p = .02) and catheter malfunction (odds ratio, 11.2; p = .008). We observed no significant differences in other outcome measures or in the frequency of adverse events.A continuous infusion of heparin at 10 units/kg/hr was safe but did not reduce catheter-related thrombus formation. Heparin at this dose caused an increase in partial thromboplastin time values, which, unexpectedly, was more pronounced in neonates.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181ce6e29

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279641500008

    View details for PubMedID 20101197

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