Bio

Bio


I completed residency in pediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco and then fellowships in pediatric cardiology and pediatric critical care medicine at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford. I am an attending physician in the Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit at LPCH/Stanford and I enjoy caring for children with critical congenital and acquired cardiac disease. I am interested in clinical research focused on improving the care of children with cardiac disease, specifically investigating the frequent complication of acute kidney injury that occurs in this population. I also have a passion for educating and training nurses, students, and residents/fellows who care for children with cardiac disease.

Clinical Focus


  • Pediatric Cardiology
  • Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Board Certification: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics (2012)
  • Residency:Univ of California San Francisco (2005) CA
  • Internship:Univ of California San Francisco (2003) CA
  • Fellowship:Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2009) CA
  • Fellowship:Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2011) CA
  • Board Certification: Pediatric Cardiology, American Board of Pediatrics (2010)
  • Medical Education:Ohio State University (2002) OH

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Diagnosis and treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children with cardiac disease, especially after surgical repair with cardiopulmonary bypass. Currently studying prophylactic aminophylline use in children who undergo surgery with bypass; the "KID PRO-AM" (KIDney PROtection with AMinophyllline) study.

Clinical Trials


  • Aminophylline to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury in Children After Cardiac Surgery Not Recruiting

    Children with congenital heart defects often need cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (the "heart-lung machine"). Approximately 35 to 50% of these children will have "acute kidney injury," or damage to the kidneys, after the procedure. We currently have few medications to prevent this kidney injury. The hypothesis of this study is that giving aminophylline after heart surgery can decrease the acute kidney injury.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

    View full details

  • Heparin and the Reduction of Thrombosis (HART) Trial Not Recruiting

    Heparin is frequently used in central venous catheters (CVCs) in post-operative cardiac patients. It remains unclear if a heparin infusion, compared to a normal saline infusion, prevents thrombosis of CVCs after surgery. This study will answer the question: does a low-dose heparin infusion (10 units/kg/h) prevent thrombosis, compared to a normal saline infusion, in patients less than one year of age after cardiac surgery?

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact David Axelrod, (415) 607 - 2463.

    View full details

Teaching

Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

All Publications


  • Impact of ventricular assist device placement on longitudinal renal function in children with end-stage heart failure. journal of heart and lung transplantation May, L. J., Montez-Rath, M. E., Yeh, J., Axelrod, D. M., Chen, S., Maeda, K., Almond, C. S., Rosenthal, D. N., Hollander, S. A., Sutherland, S. M. 2016; 35 (4): 449-456

    Abstract

    Although ventricular assist devices (VADs) restore hemodynamics in those with heart failure, reversibility of end-organ dysfunction with VAD support is not well characterized. Renal function often improves in adults after VAD placement, but this has not been comprehensively explored in children.Sixty-three children on VAD support were studied. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined by the Schwartz method. Generalized linear mixed-effects models compared the pre-VAD and post-VAD eGFR for the cohort and sub-groups with and without pre-VAD renal dysfunction (pre-VAD eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)).The pre-VAD eGFR across the cohort was 84.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (interquartile range [IQR] 62.3-122.7), and 55.6% (34 of 63) had pre-VAD renal dysfunction. AKI affected 60.3% (38 of 63), with similar rates in those with and without pre-existing renal dysfunction. Within the cohort, the nadir eGFR occurred 1 day post-operatively (62.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2); IQR, 51.2-88.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2); p < 0.001). By Day 5, however, the eGFR exceeded the baseline (99.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2); IQR, 59.3-146.7 ml/min/1.73 m(2); p = 0.03) and remained significantly higher through the first post-operative week. After adjusting for age, gender, and AKI, the eGFR continued to increase throughout the entire 180-day study period (β = 0.0025; 95% confidence interval, 0.0015-0.0036; p < 0.001). Patients with pre-VAD renal dysfunction experienced the greatest improvement in the eGFR (β = 0.0051 vs β = 0.0013, p < 0.001).Renal dysfunction is prevalent in children with heart failure undergoing VAD placement. Although peri-operative AKI is common, renal function improves substantially in the first post-operative week and for months thereafter. This is particularly pronounced in those with pre-VAD renal impairment, suggesting that VADs may facilitate recovery and maintenance of kidney function in children with advanced heart failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2015.10.039

    View details for PubMedID 26653933

  • Management of the Preterm Infant with Congenital Heart Disease CLINICS IN PERINATOLOGY Axelrod, D. M., Chock, V. Y., Reddy, V. M. 2016; 43 (1): 157-?
  • Management of the Preterm Infant with Congenital Heart Disease. Clinics in perinatology Axelrod, D. M., Chock, V. Y., Reddy, V. M. 2016; 43 (1): 157-171

    Abstract

    The premature neonate with congenital heart disease (CHD) represents a challenging population for clinicians and researchers. The interaction between prematurity and CHD is poorly understood; epidemiologic study suggests that premature newborns are more likely to have CHD and that fetuses with CHD are more likely to be born premature. Understanding the key physiologic features of this special patient population is paramount. Clinicians have debated optimal timing for referral for cardiac surgery, and management in the postoperative period has rapidly advanced. This article summarizes the key concepts and literature in the care of the premature neonate with CHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clp.2015.11.011

    View details for PubMedID 26876128

  • Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society 2014 Consensus Statement: Pharmacotherapies in Cardiac Critical Care Fluid Management PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE McCammond, A. N., Axelrod, D. M., Bailly, D. K., Ramsey, E. Z., Costello, J. M. 2016; 17 (3): S35-S48

    Abstract

    In this Consensus Statement, we review the etiology and pathophysiology of fluid disturbances in critically ill children with cardiac disease. Clinical tools used to recognize pathologic fluid states are summarized, as are the mechanisms of action of many drugs aimed at optimal fluid management.The expertise of the authors and a review of the medical literature were used as data sources.The authors synthesized the data in the literature in order to present clinical tools used to recognize pathologic fluid states. For each drug, the physiologic rationale, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics are synthesized, and the evidence in the literature to support the therapy is discussed.Fluid management is challenging in critically ill pediatric cardiac patients. A myriad of causes may be contributory, including intrinsic myocardial dysfunction with its associated neuroendocrine response, renal dysfunction with oliguria, and systemic inflammation with resulting endothelial dysfunction. The development of fluid overload has been associated with adverse outcomes, including acute kidney injury, prolonged mechanical ventilation, increased vasoactive support, prolonged hospital length of stay, and mortality. An in-depth understanding of the many factors that influence volume status is necessary to guide optimal management.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000633

    View details for Web of Science ID 000371830300005

    View details for PubMedID 26945328

  • Dexmedetomidine Is Associated With Lower Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury After Congenital Heart Surgery PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Kwiatkowski, D. M., Axelrod, D. M., Sutherland, S. M., Tesoro, T. M., Krawczeski, C. D. 2016; 17 (2): 128-134

    Abstract

    Recent data have suggested an association between the use of dexmedetomidine and a decreased incidence of acute kidney injury in adult patients after cardiopulmonary bypass. However, no study has focused on this association among pediatric populations where the incidence of acute kidney injury is particularly high and of critical significance. The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the use of postoperative dexmedetomidine and the incidence of acute kidney injury in pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. The secondary objective was to determine whether there was an association between dexmedetomidine use and duration of mechanical ventilation or cardiovascular ICU stay.Single-center retrospective matched cohort study.A 20-bed quaternary cardiovascular ICU in a university-based pediatric hospital in California.Children less than 18 years old admitted after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between January 1, 2012, and May 31, 2014.None.Data from a cohort of 102 patients receiving dexmedetomidine during the first postoperative day after cardiac surgery were compared to an age- and procedure-matched cohort not receiving dexmedetomidine. Cohorts had similar baseline and demographic characteristics. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine were less likely to develop acute kidney injury (24% vs 36%; odds ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29-0.99; p = 0.046). After adjusting for age, bypass time, nephrotoxin use, and vasoactive inotropic score, the use of dexmedetomidine was associated with a lower incidence of acute kidney injury with adjusted odds ratio of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.27-0.98; p = 0.048). There was no difference between the cohorts with respect to the duration of mechanical duration (1 d each; p = 0.98) or cardiovascular ICU stays (5 vs 6 d; p = 0.91).The use of a dexmedetomidine infusion in pediatric patients after congenital heart surgery was associated with a decreased incidence of acute kidney injury; however, it was not associated with changes in clinical outcomes. Further prospective study is necessary to validate these findings.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000611

    View details for Web of Science ID 000369672900004

    View details for PubMedID 26673841

  • A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Aminophylline to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury in Children Following Congenital Heart Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Axelrod, D. M., Sutherland, S. M., Anglemyer, A., Grimm, P. C., Roth, S. J. 2016; 17 (2): 135-143

    Abstract

    Acute kidney injury occurs commonly in children following congenital cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Aminophylline, a methylxanthine nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, has been effective in the management of acute kidney injury in certain populations. This study sought to determine whether postoperative administration of aminophylline attenuates acute kidney injury in children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Single-center, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.Tertiary center, pediatric cardiovascular ICU.A total of 144 children after congenital heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Seventy-two patients were randomized to receive aminophylline and 72 patients received placebo. Study drug was administered every 6 hours for 72 hours.The primary outcome variable was the development of any acute kidney injury, defined by the serum creatinine criteria of the Kidney Diseases: Improving Global Outcomes. Secondary outcomes included the development of severe acute kidney injury, time between cardiovascular ICU admission and first successful extubation, percent fluid overload, total fluid balance, urine output, bioelectrical impedance, and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. The unadjusted rate and severity of acute kidney injury were not different between groups; 43 of 72 (60%) of the treatment group and 36 of 72 (50%) of the placebo group developed acute kidney injury (p = 0.32). Stage 2/3 acute kidney injury occurred in 23 of 72 (32%) of the treatment group and 15 of 72 (21%) of the placebo group (p = 0.18). Secondary outcome measures also demonstrated no significant difference between treatment and placebo groups. Aminophylline administration was safe; no deaths occurred in either group, and rates of adverse events were similar (14% in the treatment group vs 18% in the placebo group; p = 0.30).In this placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, we found no effect of aminophylline to prevent acute kidney injury in children recovering from cardiac surgery performed with cardiopulmonary bypass. Future study of preoperative aminophylline administration to prevent acute kidney injury may be warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000612

    View details for Web of Science ID 000369672900005

    View details for PubMedID 26669642

  • Training Pathways in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care: Proceedings From the 10th International Conference of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery Anand, V., Kwiatkowski, D. M., Ghanayem, N. S., Axelrod, D. M., DiNardo, J., Klugman, D., Krishnamurthy, G., Siehr, S., Stromberg, D., Yates, A. R., Roth, S. J., Cooper, D. S. 2016; 7 (1): 81-88

    Abstract

    The increase in pediatric cardiac surgical procedures and establishment of the practice of pediatric cardiac intensive care has created the need for physicians with advanced and specialized knowledge and training. Current training pathways to become a pediatric cardiac intensivist have a great deal of variability and have unique strengths and weaknesses with influences from critical care, cardiology, neonatology, anesthesiology, and cardiac surgery. Such variability has created much confusion among trainees looking to pursue a career in our specialized field. This is a report with perspectives from the most common advanced fellowship training pathways taken to become a pediatric cardiac intensivist as well as various related topics including scholarship, qualifications, and credentialing.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2150135115614576

    View details for PubMedID 26714998

  • Immunologic and Infectious Diseases in Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care: Proceedings of the 10th International Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society Conference. World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery Axelrod, D. M., Alten, J. A., Berger, J. T., Hall, M. W., Thiagarajan, R., Bronicki, R. A. 2015; 6 (4): 575-587

    Abstract

    Since the inception of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society (PCICS) in 2003, remarkable advances in the care of children with critical cardiac disease have been developed. Specialized surgical approaches, anesthesiology practices, and intensive care management have all contributed to improved outcomes. However, significant morbidity often results from immunologic or infectious disease in the perioperative period or during a medical intensive care unit admission. The immunologic or infectious illness may lead to fever, which requires the attention and resources of the cardiac intensivist. Frequently, cardiopulmonary bypass leads to an inflammatory state that may present hemodynamic challenges or complicate postoperative care. However, inflammation unchecked by a compensatory anti-inflammatory response may also contribute to the development of capillary leak and lead to a complicated intensive care unit course. Any patient admitted to the intensive care unit is at risk for a hospital acquired infection, and no patients are at greater risk than the child treated with mechanical circulatory support. In summary, the prevention, diagnosis, and management of immunologic and infectious diseases in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit is of paramount importance for the clinician. This review from the tenth PCICS International Conference will summarize the current knowledge in this important aspect of our field.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2150135115598211

    View details for PubMedID 26467872

  • Isolation of the right subclavian artery in a patient with d-transposition of the great arteries. Annals of pediatric cardiology Arunamata, A., Perry, S. B., Kipps, A. K., Vasanawala, S. S., Axelrod, D. M. 2015; 8 (2): 161-163

    Abstract

    Isolation of the right subclavian artery (RSCA) is rare, and this finding in association with d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) is extremely unusual. We present a case of an isolated RSCA in a newborn with d-TGA in whom the clinical presentation was diagnostic. We discuss the imaging modalities used to confirm the diagnosis, the embryological basis of the finding, and the surgical repair.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/0974-2069.154154

    View details for PubMedID 26085773

  • Diminished exercise capacity and chronotropic incompetence in pediatric patients with congenital complete heart block and chronic right ventricular pacing HEART RHYTHM Motonaga, K. S., Punn, R., Axelrod, D. M., Ceresnak, S. R., Hanisch, D., Kazmucha, J. A., Dubin, A. M. 2015; 12 (3): 560-565

    Abstract

    Chronic right ventricular (RV) pacing has been associated with decreased exercise capacity and left ventricular (LV) function in adults with congenital complete atrioventricular block (CCAVB), but not in children.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the exercise capacity and LV function in pediatric patients with CCAVB receiving chronic RV pacing.We prospectively evaluated pediatric patients with isolated CCAVB receiving atrial synchronous RV pacing for at least 5 years. Supine bicycle ergometry was performed, and LV ejection fraction (EF) was evaluated by echocardiography.Ten CCAVB subjects and 31 controls were matched for age, gender, and body surface area. CCAVB subjects had normal resting EF (63.1% ± 4.0%) and had been paced for 7.9 ± 1.4 years. Exercise testing demonstrated reduced functional capacity in CCAVB patients compared to controls with a lower VO2peak (26.0 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min vs 39.9 ± 7.0 mL/kg/min, P <.001), anaerobic threshold (15.6 ± 3.9 mL/kg/min vs 18.8 ± 2.7 mL/kg/min, P = .007), and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (1210 ± 406 vs 1841 ± 452, P <.001). Maximum heart rate (165 ± 8 bpm vs 185 ± 9 bpm, P <.001) and systolic blood pressure (159 ± 17 mm Hg vs 185 ± 12 mm Hg, P <.019) also were reduced in CCAVB patients despite maximal effort (respiratory exchange ratio 1.2 ± 0.1). EF was augmented with exercise in controls but not in CCAVB patients (13.2% ± 9.3% vs 0.2% ± 4.8% increase, P <.001).Clinically asymptomatic children with chronic RV pacing due to CCAVB have significant reductions in functional capacity accompanied by chronotropic incompetence and inability to augment EF with exercise.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.11.036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349966100018

    View details for PubMedID 25433143

  • Utility of Clinical Biomarkers to Predict Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infections After Congenital Heart Surgery PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Shin, A. Y., Jin, B., Hao, S., Hu, Z., Sutherland, S., McCammond, A., Axelrod, D., Sharek, P., Roth, S. J., Ling, X. B. 2015; 34 (3): 251-254

    Abstract

    Central line associated bloodstream infections is an important contributor of morbidity and mortality in children recovering from congenital heart surgery. The reliability of commonly used biomarkers to differentiate these patients have not been specifically studied.This was a retrospective cohort study in a university-affiliated children's hospital examining all patients with congenital or acquired heart disease admitted to the cardiovascular intensive care unit following cardiac surgery who underwent evaluation for a catheter-associated bloodstream infection.Among 1260 cardiac surgeries performed, 451 encounters underwent an infection evaluation post-operatively. Twenty-five instances of CLABSI and 227 instances of a negative infection evaluation were the subject of analysis. Patients with CLABSI tended to be younger (1.34 vs 4.56 years, p = 0.011) and underwent more complex surgery (RACHS-1 score 3.79 vs 3.04, p = 0.039). The two groups were indistinguishable in WBC, PMNs and band count at the time of their presentation. On multivariate analysis, CLABSI was associated with fever (adjusted OR 4.78; 95% CI, 1.6 to 5.8) and elevated CRP (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.68) after adjusting for differences between the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated the discriminatory power of both fever and CRP (area under curve 0.7247, 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.74 and 0.58, 95% CI 0.4208 to 0.7408). We calculated multilevel likelihood ratios for a spectrum of temperature and CRP values.We found commonly used serum biomarkers such as fever and CRP not to be helpful discriminators in patients following congenital heart surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0000000000000553

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349909700012

  • A novel approach to the management of critically ill neonatal Ebstein's anomaly: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to promote right ventricular recovery. Annals of pediatric cardiology Bauser-Heaton, H., Nguyen, C., Tacy, T., Axelrod, D. 2015; 8 (1): 67-70

    Abstract

    This is the first report of the use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a neonate with severe Ebstein's anomaly. The report suggests the use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the immediate neonatal period may be a useful therapy in severe Ebstein's anomaly. By providing adequate oxygenation independent of the patient's native pulmonary blood flow, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation allows the pulmonary vascular resistance to decrease and may promote right ventricular recovery.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/0974-2069.149527

    View details for PubMedID 25684893

  • Predictors of Mortality in Pediatric Patients on Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Punn, R., Axelrod, D. M., Sherman-Levine, S., Roth, S. J., Tacy, T. A. 2014; 15 (9): 870-877

    Abstract

    Currently, there are no established echocardiographic or hemodynamic predictors of mortality after weaning venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children. We wished to determine which measurements predict mortality.Over 3 years, we prospectively assessed six echo and six hemodynamic variables at 3-5 circuit rates while weaning extracorporeal membrane oxygenation flow. Hemodynamic measurements were heart rate, inotropic score, arteriovenous oxygen difference, pulse pressure, oxygenation index, and lactate. Echo variables included shortening/ejection fraction, outflow tract Doppler-derived stroke distance (velocity-time integral), degree of atrioventricular valve regurgitation, longitudinal strain (global longitudinal strain), and circumferential strain (global circumferential strain).Cardiovascular ICU at Lucille Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, CA.Patients were stratified into those who died or required heart transplant (Gr1) and those who did not (Gr2). For each patient, we compared the change for each variable between full versus minimum extracorporeal membrane oxygenation flow for each group.None.We enrolled 21 patients ranging in age from 0.02 to 15 years. Five had dilated cardiomyopathy, and 16 had structural heart disease with severe ventricular dysfunction. Thirteen of 21 patients (62%) comprised Gr1, including two patients with heart transplants. Eight patients constituted Gr2. Gr1 patients had a significantly greater increase in oxygenation index (35% mean increase; p < 0.01) off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation compared to full flow, but no change in velocity-time integral or arteriovenous oxygen difference. In Gr2, velocity-time integral increased (31% mean increase; p < 0.01), with no change in arteriovenous oxygen difference or oxygenation index. Pulse pressure increased modestly with flow reduction only in Gr1 (p < 0.01).Failure to augment velocity-time integral or an increase in oxygenation index during the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation weaning is associated with poor outcomes in children. We propose that these measurements should be performed during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation wean, as they may discriminate who will require alternative methods of circulatory support for survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000236

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346400100015

  • Outcomes Following Cardiac Catheterization After Congenital Heart Surgery CATHETERIZATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS Siehr, S. L., Martin, M. H., Axelrod, D., Efron, B., Peng, L., Roth, S. J., Perry, S., Shin, A. Y. 2014; 84 (4): 622-628

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ccd.25490

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342826900018

  • A child with purulent pericarditis and Streptococcus intermedius in the presence of a pericardial teratoma: an unusual presentation. journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Presnell, L., Maeda, K., Griffin, M., Axelrod, D. 2014; 147 (3): e23-4

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2013.11.025

    View details for PubMedID 24373623

  • Initial Experience Using Aminophylline to Improve Renal Dysfunction in the Pediatric Cardiovascular ICU PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Axelrod, D. M., Anglemyer, A. T., Sherman-Levine, S. F., Zhu, A., Grimm, P. C., Roth, S. J., Sutherland, S. M. 2014; 15 (1): 21-27

    Abstract

    To determine if aminophylline administration is associated with improved creatinine clearance and greater urine output in children with acute kidney injury in the cardiovascular ICU.Single-center retrospective cohort study.Pediatric cardiovascular ICU, university-affiliated children's hospital.Children with congenital or acquired heart disease in the cardiovascular ICU who received aminophylline to treat oliguric acute kidney injury and fluid overload.Patients received aminophylline after consultation with a pediatric nephrologist. Data were collected retrospectively over 7 days to assess if aminophylline was associated with improvement in creatinine clearance, urine output, and fluid overload.Thirty-one patients received 52 aminophylline courses. Over the 7-day study period, serum creatinine decreased from a mean of 1.13 ± 0.91 to 0.87 ± 0.83 mg/dL (-0.05 mg/dL/d, p < 0.001). A concomitant increase was seen in estimated glomerular filtration rate from a mean of 50.0 ± 30.0 to 70.6 ± 58.1 mL/min/1.73 m (+3.66 mL/min/1.73 m/d, p < 0.001). Average daily urine output increased by 0.22 mL/kg/hr (p < 0.001), and fluid overload decreased on average by 0.42% per day in the 7-day study period (p = 0.005). Although mean furosemide dose increased slightly (0.12 mg/kg/d, p = 0.01), hydrochlorothiazide dosing did not significantly change over the study period. There were no complications related to aminophylline administration.Our study suggests that aminophylline therapy may be associated with significantly improved renal excretory function and may augment urine output in children who experience oliguric acute kidney injury in the cardiovascular ICU. Additionally, we did not identify any aminophylline-related side effects in this high-risk cardiac population. Future prospective studies are necessary to confirm the safety profile and to ensure that the beneficial effects are independent of other clinical interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.pcc.0000436473.12082.2f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329368400007

    View details for PubMedID 24212284

  • One Hundred Useful References in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care: The 2012 Update PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Axelrod, D. M., Klugman, D., Wright, G. E., Chang, A., Bronicki, R., Roth, S. J. 2013; 14 (8): 770-785

    Abstract

    The specialty of pediatric cardiac critical care has undergone rapid scientific and clinical growth in the last 25 years. The Board of Directors of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society assembled an updated list of sentinel references focused on the critical care of children with congenital and acquired heart disease. We encouraged board members to select articles that have influenced and informed their current practice or helped to establish the standard of care. The objective of this article is to provide clinicians with a compilation and brief summary of these updated 100 useful references.The list of 'One Hundred Useful References for Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care' (2004) and relevant literature to the practice of cardiac intensive care.A subset of Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society board members compiled the initial list of useful references in 2004, which served as the basis of the new updated list. Suggestions for relevant articles were submitted by the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society board members and selected pediatric cardiac intensivists with an interest in this project following the Society's meeting in 2010. Articles were considered for inclusion if they were named in the original list from 2004 or were suggested by Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society board members and published before December 31, 2011.Following submission of the complete list by the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society board and contributing Society members, articles were complied by the two co-first authors (D.A., D.K.). The authors also performed Medline searches to ensure comprehensive inclusion of all relevant articles. The final list was then submitted to the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society board members, who ranked each publication.Rankings were compiled and the top 100 articles with the highest scores were selected for inclusion in this publication. The two co-first authors (D.A., D.K.) reviewed all existing summaries and developed summaries of the newly submitted articles.An updated compilation of 100 useful references for the critical care of children with congenital and acquired heart disease has been compiled and summarized here. Clinicians and trainees may wish to use this document as a reference for education in this complex and challenging subspecialty.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.PCC.0000434621.25332.71

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336518300011

  • A continuous heparin infusion does not prevent catheter-related thrombosis in infants after cardiac surgery PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Schroeder, A. R., Axelrod, D. M., Silverman, N. H., Rubesova, E., Merkel, E., Roth, S. J. 2010; 11 (4): 489-495

    Abstract

    To determine whether a continuous infusion of heparin reduces the rate of catheter-related thrombosis in neonates and infants post cardiac surgery. Central venous and intracardiac catheters are used routinely in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients. Catheter-related thrombosis occurs in 8% to 45% of pediatric patients with central venous catheters.Single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial.Cardiovascular intensive care unit, university-affiliated children's hospital.Children <1 yr of age recovering from cardiac surgery.Patients were randomized to receive either continuous heparin at 10 units/kg/hr or placebo. The primary end point was catheter-related thrombosis as assessed by serial ultrasonography.Study enrollment was discontinued early based on results from an interim futility analysis. Ninety subjects were enrolled and received the study drug (heparin, 53; placebo, 37). The catheter-related thrombosis rate in the heparin group, compared with the placebo group, was 15% vs. 16% (p = .89). Subjects in the heparin group had a higher mean partial thromboplastin time (52 secs vs. 42 secs, p = .001), and this difference was greater for those aged <30 days (64 secs vs. 43 secs, p = .008). Catheters in place > or = 7 days had both a greater risk of thrombus formation (odds ratio, 4.3; p = .02) and catheter malfunction (odds ratio, 11.2; p = .008). We observed no significant differences in other outcome measures or in the frequency of adverse events.A continuous infusion of heparin at 10 units/kg/hr was safe but did not reduce catheter-related thrombus formation. Heparin at this dose caused an increase in partial thromboplastin time values, which, unexpectedly, was more pronounced in neonates.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181ce6e29

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279641500008

    View details for PubMedID 20101197