Emeritus Faculty, Acad Council, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine
Pharmacokinetics and dynamics of anesthetic drugs.
To compare the pharmacokinetics of intravenous, oral immediate-release (IR), and oral extended-release (OROS ) formulations of hydromorphone.In this randomized, six-session, crossover-design study, 12 subjects received hydromorphone 8-mg intravenous, 8-mg IR oral, and 8-, 16-, and 32-mg OROS formulations or placebo orally followed by plasma sampling for hydromorphone determination. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM. Using the disposition of hydromorphone from the intravenous administration, deconvolution was used to estimate the input rate function (release rate from the gut to the blood) for the IR and OROS formulations. A linear spline was used to describe the drug input rate function.The deconvolution using linear splines described the release characteristics of both the IR and OROS formulations. The mean absolute bioavailability for the 8-mg OROS formulation was significantly larger ( = 0.025) than for the 8-mg IR formulation: 0.24 (SD 0.059) versus 0.19 (SD 0.054), respectively. The bioavailability was the same for the three doses of the OROS formulation. Predicted degree of fluctuation of plasma concentrations would be expected to be 130% and 39% for the IR and OROS 8-mg doses, respectively.The OROS formulation of hydromorphone produced continued release of medication over 24 h, which should allow for once-daily oral dosing. The extended release of hydromorphone will produce less fluctuation of plasma concentrations compared with IR formulations, which should provide for more constant pain control. The in vivo release of hydromorphone from both IR and OROS formulations were adequately described using a linear spline deconvolution approach. The increased bioavailability from the OROS formulation may be related to decreased metabolism by a first-pass effect or enterohepatic recycling of hydromorphone.
View details for Web of Science ID 000178409800012
View details for PubMedID 12357147
The disposition kinetics of hydromorphone generally necessitates oral administration every 4 h of the conventional immediate-release tablet to provide sustained pain relief. This trial examined time course and magnitude of analgesia to experimental pain after administration of sustained-release hydromorphone as compared with that after immediate-release hydromorphone or placebo.Using a 4 x 4 Latin square double-blind design, 12 subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of 8, 16, and 32 mg sustained-release hydromorphone and placebo. The same subjects had received 8 mg immediate-release hydromorphone before this study. Using an electrical experimental pain paradigm, analgesic effects were assessed for up to 30 h after administration, and venous hydromorphone plasma concentrations were measured at corresponding times.The hydromorphone plasma concentration peaked significantly later (12.0 h [12.0--18.0] vs. 0.8 h [0.8--1.0]; median and interquartile range) but was maintained significantly longer at greater than 50% of peak concentration (22.7 +/- 8.2 h vs. 1.1 +/- 0.7 h; mean +/- SD) after sustained-release than after immediate-release hydromorphone. Similarly, sustained-release hydromorphone produced analgesic effects that peaked significantly later (9.0 h [9.0--12.0] vs. 1.5 h [1.0--2.0]) but were maintained significantly longer at greater than 50% of peak analgesic effect (13.3 +/- 6.3 h vs. 3.6 +/- 1.7 h). A statistically significant linear relation between the hydromorphone plasma concentration and the analgesic effect on painful stimuli existed.A single oral dose of a new sustained-release formulation of hydromorphone provided analgesia to experimental pain beyond 24 h of its administration.
View details for Web of Science ID 000166262300010
View details for PubMedID 11135723
Epidural administration of morphine is a common analgesic technique to manage pain. Morphine spreads from the epidural space to the cerebrospinal fluid and then rostrally, causing side effects mediated by the brain stem. However, data on the rostral spread of morphine-mediated analgesia are sparse. This study examined the rostral spread of analgesic effects on heat and electrical pain after epidural administration of morphine.In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 5 mg morphine or saline placebo were injected into the lumbar epidural space in nine healthy volunteers. Correct needle placement was confirmed with fluoroscopy. Analgesia to experimental nociceptive heat and electrical stimuli was measured at lumbar (L4), thoracic (T10), cervical (C2), and trigeminal (V2) levels before and 2, 5, 10, and 24 h after epidural injection. Plasma samples for assaying morphine concentrations were drawn before and after each analgesic evaluation.Epidural morphine significantly attenuated experimental heat pain at all dermatomes tested compared with saline placebo. Analgesic effects were significant at L4 after 2, 5, and 10 h, at T10 after 5, 10, and 24 h, and at V2 after 10 h. Electrical pain was attenuated at the lumbar and thoracic but not at the cervical dermatome. Analgesic effects were significant at L4 after 2, 5, and 10 h and at T10 after 5 and 10 h. Morphine plasma concentrations were below the detection limit (1 ng/ml) in eight of the nine subjects 10 h after epidural injection.Lumbar epidural injection of morphine attenuated cutaneous heat pain up to the trigeminal dermatome during a 24-h observation period. In a clinical context, this implies that some types of pain may be attenuated up to the supraspinal level after lumbar epidural administration of morphine.
View details for Web of Science ID 000085078600007
View details for PubMedID 10691216
The safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the investigational partial opioid agonist, mirfentanil, were determined in a dose-escalating, Phase 1 study in healthy male volunteers. Hemodynamic, central nervous system, and respiratory monitoring were used for safety assessment. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was evaluated as a surrogate measure of drug effect. Butorphanol was chosen as the control drug. In the mirfentanil group (n = 8) the dose was increased in sequential subjects from 25 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 30 min to 450 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 15 min, and in the butorphanol group (n = 10) from 2 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 30 min to 25 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 15 min. In the mirfentanil group, serious side effects were observed at plasma concentrations more than 2000 ng/mL: heart rates exceeded 130 bpm (n = 2), epileptiform EEG potentials (n = 2), and a convulsion (n = 1). The clearance of mirfentanil was high (5.8-7.2 L/min), and the volume of distribution large (247-348 L). The EEG of the subjects receiving mirfentanil showed no changes typical for opioids. Butorphanol however, caused intermittent slowing in the delta and theta ranges. The results of our study define the upper limit of safe plasma concentrations in future mirfentanil studies.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995RA33000024
View details for PubMedID 7762853