I conduct clinical research on a variety of gastrointestinal cancers and provide care for patients with those cancers. We have trials of combined modality therapy (surgery +/- radiation +/- chemotherapy) on gastric, esophageal, pancreas and rectal cancers. We also perform phase I and II trials of biologically targeted agents as well as newer immunotherapeutics. In collaboration with a number of colleagues, we conduct translational studies analyzing novel imaging (e.g. contrast enhanced ultrasound and perfusion scans) and molecular biomarkers (e.g. CDX2 as a prognostic and predictive factor in colon cancer and matrix metalloproteinases as prognostic factors in pancreas cancer). Neuroendocrine tumors, pancreas, colorectal and gastro-esophageal cancers have been areas of particular research focus with multiple therapeutic and translational studies devote to each. Examples of recently completed trials include a randomized phase III trial of a vaccine (algenpantucel) for resected pancreas cancer, phase Ib trial of anti-PD-L1 and separate phase II trials using PD-1 antibody for tumors with micro satellite instability and chemotherapy with angiogenesis inhibitors for advanced neuroendocrine tumors and gastro-esophageal adenocarcinomas. Currently active areas of study include combining immunomodulating antibodies in combination therapy and randomized phase II colon cancer trials of an antibody to interleukin 1 or a first in class agent known as RadioRx. Participation and leadership in NCI cooperative group protocols gives our patients access to the randomized trials that hope to establish new standards of care for a variety of GI cancers.

Clinical Focus

  • Cancer > GI Oncology
  • Medical Oncology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer of the Pancreas
  • Colorectal Neoplasms
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors
  • gastro esophageal cancer
  • gastric cancer
  • stomach cancer
  • pancreatic neoplasms
  • small intestinal cancer
  • cholangiocarcinoma
  • bile duct cancer
  • gall bladder cancer
  • carcinoid tumor
  • appendiceal cancer

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Director, Cancer Clinical Trials Office (2004 - 2013)
  • Vice Chair GI Committee, ECOG-ACRIN (2015 - Present)
  • Physician Leader, GI Clinical Research Group (2010 - 2015)
  • Physician Leader, GI Oncology Disease Management Group (2011 - 2015)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Member, Scientific and Medical Advisory Board, Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (2012 - Present)
  • Member and Treasurer, Executive Committee, North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS) (2009 - Present)
  • Executive Committee Member, North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (2011 - Present)
  • Co-Chair Scientific Advisory Board, Neuroendocrine Tumor Research Foundation (2011 - Present)
  • Co-Chair; Scientific Advisory Board, Caring for Carcinoid Foundation (2012 - Present)
  • Vice Chair; GI Committee, ECOG/ACRIN (2015 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship:Stanford University Medical Center (1993) CA
  • Residency:Stanford University Medical Center (1989) CA
  • Internship:Stanford University Medical Center (1988) CA
  • Medical Education:Stanford University School of Medicine (1987) CA
  • BS, Stanford University, Biology (1976)
  • PhD, Stanford University, Cancer Biology (1987)
  • MD, Stanford University, Medicine (1987)
  • Residency, Stanford University, Internal Medicine (1989)
  • Fellowship, Stanford University, Medical Oncology (1993)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Clinical expertise in GI cancers with research which emphasizes Phase I and II clinical trials of novel therapies but also includes translational studies including biomarkers, molecular imaging, tumor immunology and development of immunotherapeutic trials.


2015-16 Courses


All Publications

  • CDX2 as a Prognostic Biomarker in Stage II and Stage III Colon Cancer NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Dalerba, P., Sahoo, D., Paik, S., Guo, X., Yothers, G., Song, N., Wilcox-Fogel, N., Forgo, E., Rajendran, P. S., Miranda, S. P., Hisamori, S., Hutchison, J., Kalisky, T., Qian, D., Wolmark, N., Fisher, G. A., van de Rijn, M., Clarke, M. F. 2016; 374 (3): 211-222
  • PD-1 Blockade in Tumors with Mismatch-Repair Deficiency NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Le, D. T., Uram, J. N., Wang, H., BARTLETT, B. R., Kemberling, H., Eyring, A. D., Skora, A. D., Luber, B. S., Azad, N. S., Laheru, D., Biedrzycki, B., Donehower, R. C., Zaheer, A., Fisher, G. A., Crocenzi, T. S., Lee, J. J., Duffy, S. M., Goldberg, R. M., de la Chapelle, A., Koshiji, M., Bhaijee, F., Huebner, T., Hruban, R. H., Wood, L. D., Cuka, N., Pardoll, D. M., Papadopoulos, N., KINZLER, K. W., Zhou, S., Cornish, T. C., Taube, J. M., ANDERS, R. A., Eshleman, J. R., VOGELSTEIN, B., Diaz, L. A. 2015; 372 (26): 2509-2520


    Somatic mutations have the potential to encode "non-self" immunogenic antigens. We hypothesized that tumors with a large number of somatic mutations due to mismatch-repair defects may be susceptible to immune checkpoint blockade.We conducted a phase 2 study to evaluate the clinical activity of pembrolizumab, an anti-programmed death 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, in 41 patients with progressive metastatic carcinoma with or without mismatch-repair deficiency. Pembrolizumab was administered intravenously at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight every 14 days in patients with mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers, patients with mismatch repair-proficient colorectal cancers, and patients with mismatch repair-deficient cancers that were not colorectal. The coprimary end points were the immune-related objective response rate and the 20-week immune-related progression-free survival rate.The immune-related objective response rate and immune-related progression-free survival rate were 40% (4 of 10 patients) and 78% (7 of 9 patients), respectively, for mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers and 0% (0 of 18 patients) and 11% (2 of 18 patients) for mismatch repair-proficient colorectal cancers. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were not reached in the cohort with mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancer but were 2.2 and 5.0 months, respectively, in the cohort with mismatch repair-proficient colorectal cancer (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.10 [P<0.001], and hazard ratio for death, 0.22 [P=0.05]). Patients with mismatch repair-deficient noncolorectal cancer had responses similar to those of patients with mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancer (immune-related objective response rate, 71% [5 of 7 patients]; immune-related progression-free survival rate, 67% [4 of 6 patients]). Whole-exome sequencing revealed a mean of 1782 somatic mutations per tumor in mismatch repair-deficient tumors, as compared with 73 in mismatch repair-proficient tumors (P=0.007), and high somatic mutation loads were associated with prolonged progression-free survival (P=0.02).This study showed that mismatch-repair status predicted clinical benefit of immune checkpoint blockade with pembrolizumab. (Funded by Johns Hopkins University and others; number, NCT01876511.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1500596

    View details for Web of Science ID 000356788200007

    View details for PubMedID 26028255

  • Phase 2 Multi-institutional Trial Evaluating Gemcitabine and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced Unresectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma CANCER Herman, J. M., Chang, D. T., Goodman, K. A., Dholakia, A. S., Raman, S. P., Hacker-Prietz, A., Iacobuzio-Donahue, C. A., Griffith, M. E., Pawlik, T. M., Pai, J. S., O'Reilly, E., Fisher, G. A., Wild, A. T., Rosati, L. M., Zheng, L., Wolfgang, C. L., Laheru, D. A., Columbo, L. A., Sugar, E. A., Koong, A. C. 2015; 121 (7): 1128-1137


    This phase 2 multi-institutional study was designed to determine whether gemcitabine (GEM) with fractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) results in acceptable late grade 2 to 4 gastrointestinal toxicity when compared with a prior trial of GEM with single-fraction SBRT in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC).A total of 49 patients with LAPC received up to 3 doses of GEM (1000 mg/m(2) ) followed by a 1-week break and SBRT (33.0 gray [Gy] in 5 fractions). After SBRT, patients continued to receive GEM until disease progression or toxicity. Toxicity was assessed using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.0] and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and pancreatic cancer-specific QLQ-PAN26 module before SBRT and at 4 weeks and 4 months after SBRT.The median follow-up was 13.9 months (range, 3.9-45.2 months). The median age of the patients was 67 years and 84% had tumors of the pancreatic head. Rates of acute and late (primary endpoint) grade ≥2 gastritis, fistula, enteritis, or ulcer toxicities were 2% and 11%, respectively. QLQ-C30 global quality of life scores remained stable from baseline to after SBRT (67 at baseline, median change of 0 at both follow-ups; P>.05 for both). Patients reported a significant improvement in pancreatic pain (P = .001) 4 weeks after SBRT on the QLQ-PAN26 questionnaire. The median plasma carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) level was reduced after SBRT (median time after SBRT, 4.2 weeks; 220 U/mL vs 62 U/mL [P<.001]). The median overall survival was 13.9 months (95% confidence interval, 10.2 months-16.7 months). Freedom from local disease progression at 1 year was 78%. Four patients (8%) underwent margin-negative and lymph node-negative surgical resections.Fractionated SBRT with GEM results in minimal acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity. Future studies should incorporate SBRT with more aggressive multiagent chemotherapy. Cancer 2015;121:1128-1137. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.29161

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351615800022

  • Single-versus Multifraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Outcomes and Toxicity INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Pollom, E. L., Alagappan, M., von Eyben, R., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Kamaya, A., Cox, V. L., Columbo, L. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2014; 90 (4): 918-925
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: hypoenhancement on arterial phase computed tomography predicts biological aggressiveness HPB Worhunsky, D. J., Krampitz, G. W., Poullos, P. D., Visser, B. C., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2014; 16 (4): 304-311


    Contrary to pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNET) are commonly hyperenhancing on arterial phase computed tomography (APCT). However, a subset of these tumours can be hypoenhancing. The prognostic significance of the CT appearance of these tumors remains unclear.From 2001 to 2012, 146 patients with well-differentiated PNET underwent surgical resection. The degree of tumour enhancement on APCT was recorded and correlated with clinicopathological variables and overall survival.APCT images were available for re-review in 118 patients (81%). The majority had hyperenhancing tumours (n = 80, 68%), 12 (10%) were isoenhancing (including cases where no mass was visualized) and 26 (22%) were hypoenhancing. Hypoenhancing PNET were larger, more commonly intermediate grade, and had higher rates of lymph node and synchronous liver metastases. Hypoenhancing PNET were also associated with significantly worse overall survival after a resection as opposed to isoenhancing and hyperenhancing tumours (5-year, 54% versus 89% versus 93%). On multivariate analysis of factors available pre-operatively, only hypoenhancement (HR 2.32, P = 0.02) was independently associated with survival.Hypoenhancement on APCT was noted in 22% of well-differentiated PNET and was an independent predictor of poor outcome. This information can inform pre-operative decisions in the multidisciplinary treatment of these neoplasms.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12139

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332989700002

    View details for PubMedID 23991643

  • Reassessment of the Current American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Qadan, M., Ma, Y., Visser, B. C., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2014; 218 (2): 188-195


    Adopting a unified staging system for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) has been challenging. Currently, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) recommends use of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma staging system for PNETs. We sought to explore the prognostic usefulness of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma staging system for PNETs.The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data were used to identify patients with PNETs who underwent curative-intent surgical resection from 1983 to 2008. The discriminatory ability of the AJCC system was examined and a new TNM system was devised using extent of disease variables.In 1,202 patients identified, lymph node metastasis was associated with worse 10-year overall survival after resection (51% vs 63%; p < 0.0001), as was the presence of distant metastatic disease (35% vs 62%; p < 0.0001). The current AJCC system (recorded by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program in 412 patients since 2004) distinguished 5-year overall survival only between stages I and II (p = 0.01), but not between stages II and III (p = 0.97), or stages III and IV (p = 0.36). By modifying the T stage to be based on size alone (0.1 to 1.0 cm, 1.1 to 2.0 cm, 2.1 to 4.0 cm, and >4.0 cm) and revising the TNM subgroups, we propose a novel TNM system with improved discriminatory ability between disease stages (stages I vs II; p = 0.16; II vs III; p < 0.0001; and III vs IV; p = 0.008).In this study evaluating the current AJCC staging system for PNETs, there were no significant differences detected between stages II and III or stages III and IV. We propose a novel TNM system that might better discriminate between outcomes after surgical resection of PNETs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2013.11.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329763900008

    View details for PubMedID 24321190

  • Randomized Phase 2 Study of Pegylated SN-38 (EZN-2208) or Irinotecan Plus Cetuximab in Patients With Advanced Colorectal Cancer CANCER Garrett, C. R., Bekaii-Saab, T. S., Ryan, T., Fisher, G. A., Clive, S., Kavan, P., Shacham-Shmueli, E., Buchbinder, A., Goldberg, R. M. 2013; 119 (24): 4223-4230


    Irinotecan is cytotoxic in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). SN-38 (10-hydroxy-7-ethyl-camptothecin) is the active metabolite of irinotecan. Attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer chains (pegylation) to SN-38 (EZN-2208) increases the solubility, exposure, and half-life of SN-38. Preclinical studies demonstrated superior in vitro efficacy of EZN-2208 when it was tested in irinotecan-refractory human CRC cell lines.Patients with metastatic or locally recurrent CRC who had previously received 5-flurouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin, and irinotecan were assigned to receive EZN-2208 monotherapy (9 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days for patients with KRAS-mutant tumors only [arm A]), and patients with KRAS wild-type tumors were randomized (2:1) to receive either EZN-2208 plus cetuximab (400 mg/m(2) loading dose on day 1 followed by 250 mg/m(2) weekly starting on day 8 [arm B]) or irinotecan 125 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 every 21 days plus cetuximab at the same doses indicated above (arm C).The overall response rate and progression-free survival were 0% and 1.8 months, respectively, in arm A; 10.7% and 4.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2-5.8 months), respectively, in arm B; and 14.3% and 3.7 months (95% CI, 2.1-5.8 months), respectively, in arm C. EZN-2208 was well tolerated in combination with cetuximab. No statistically significant difference in survival was observed between arm B (9.8 months; 95% CI, 7.2-11.2 months) and arm C (9.1 months; 95% CI, 6.0-13.0 months).EZN-2208, either as monotherapy or in combination with cetuximab, was well tolerated in patients with refractory CRC. Overall survival and progression-free survival were similar in the cetuximab plus irinotecan arm and the EZN-2208 arm.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.28358

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330091900005

    View details for PubMedID 24105075

  • Seventh Edition (2010) of the AJCC/UICC Staging System for Gastric Adenocarcinoma: Is there Room for Improvement? ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Patel, M. I., Rhoads, K. F., Ma, Y., Ford, J. M., Visser, B. C., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Chang, D. T., Koong, A., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2013; 20 (5): 1631-1638


    The gastric cancer AJCC/UICC staging system recently underwent significant revisions, but studies on Asian patients have reported a lack of adequate discrimination between various consecutive stages. We sought to validate the new system on a U.S. population database.California Cancer Registry data linked to the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge abstracts were used to identify patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (esophagogastric junction and gastric cardia tumors excluded) who underwent curative-intent surgical resection in California from 2002 to 2006. AJCC/UICC stage was recalculated based on the latest seventh edition. Overall survival probabilities were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.Of 1905 patients analyzed, 54 % were males with a median age of 70 years. Median number of pathologically examined lymph nodes was 12 (range, 1-90); 40 % of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, and 31 % received adjuvant radiotherapy. The seventh edition AJCC/UICC system did not distinguish outcome adequately between stages IB and IIA (P = 0.40), or IIB and IIIA (P = 0.34). By merging stage II into 1 category and moving T2N1 to stage IB and T2N2, T1N3 to stage IIIA, we propose a new grouping system with improved discriminatory abilityIn this first study validating the new seventh edition AJCC/UICC staging system for gastric cancer on a U.S. population with a relatively limited number of lymph nodes examined, we found stages IB and IIA, as well as IIB and IIIA to perform similarly. We propose a revised stage grouping for the AJCC/UICC staging system that better discriminates between outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-012-2724-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317308200032

    View details for PubMedID 23149854

  • Systemic Treatment in Unresectable Metastatic Well-Differentiated Carcinoid Tumors Consensus Results From a Modified Delphi Process PANCREAS Strosberg, J. R., Fisher, G. A., Benson, A. B., Malin, J. L., Cherepanov, D., Broder, M. S. 2013; 42 (3): 397-404


    This study aimed to develop expert consensus for the use of systemic treatments for unresectable metastatic well-differentiated (grade 1-2) carcinoid tumors using the RAND/UCLA modified Delphi process.After a comprehensive literature review, 404 patient scenarios addressing the use of systemic treatments for carcinoid tumors were constructed. A multidisciplinary panel of 10 physicians assessed the scenarios as appropriate, inappropriate, or uncertain (on a 1-9 scale) or as an area of disagreement before and after an extended discussion of the evidence.Experts were medical and surgical oncologists, interventional radiologists, and gastroenterologists. Among rated scenarios, disagreement decreased from 14% before the meeting to 4% after. Consensus statements about midgut carcinoids included the following: (1) Somatostatin analogs are appropriate as first-line therapy for all patients; (2) In patients with uncontrolled secretory symptoms, it is appropriate to increase the dose/frequency of octreotide long-acting repeatable up to 60 mg every 4 weeks or up to 40 mg every 3 weeks as second-line therapy for refractory carcinoid syndrome. Other options may also be appropriate. Consensus was similar for non-midgut carcinoids.The Delphi process provided a structured methodological approach to assist clinician experts in reaching consensus on the appropriateness of specific medical therapies for the treatment of advanced carcinoid tumors.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MPA.0b013e31826d3a17

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316201700003

    View details for PubMedID 23211372

  • Capecitabine-Induced Chest Pain Relieved by Diltiazem AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Ambrosy, A. P., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Witteles, R. M. 2012; 110 (11): 1623-1626


    Five patients with primary colorectal adenocarcinoma or anal squamous cell carcinoma were started on a 2-weeks-on, 1-week-off capecitabine dosing regimen in addition to other chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiation. Within the first few doses, patients experienced chest pain and/or dyspnea at rest or with exertion. Acute electrocardiographic findings suggestive of ischemia were found in some cases at initial presentation, and 1 patient had troponin elevation consistent with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Subsequent ischemia evaluations were not suggestive of clinically significant coronary artery disease. All patients experienced immediate and sustained relief from chest pain after discontinuation of capecitabine and were able to successfully tolerate retreatment using a novel management strategy based on secondary prophylaxis with diltiazem. In conclusion, guidelines for the evaluation of and therapy for capecitabine-induced chest pain are proposed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.07.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311868000011

    View details for PubMedID 22939579

  • Long-Term Survivors of Gastric Cancer: A California Population-Based Study JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Kunz, P. L., Gubens, M., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Lichtensztajn, D. Y., Clarke, C. A. 2012; 30 (28): 3507-3515


    In the United States, gastric cancer is rapidly fatal with a 25% 5-year survival. Of the few patients who survive, little is known about their demographic, clinical, and tumor characteristics.Data regarding all cases of gastric and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma diagnosed in California between 1988 and 2005 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry, a member of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. A Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to understand the independent relationships of patient demographic, disease, and treatment factors with survival.We identified 47,647 patients diagnosed with gastric or GEJ cancer. Of those, only 9,325 (20%) survived at least 3 years. Variables associated with longer survival were localized stage (hazard ratio [HR], 0.20), surgery with diagnosis in 2002 or later (HR, 0.34), surgery with diagnosis in 2001 or before (0.37), regional stage (HR, 0.53), chemotherapy (HR, 0.56), intestinal histology (HR, 0.74), well- or moderately differentiated tumors (HR, 0.76), radiation (HR, 0.80), Asian/Pacific Islander race (HR, 0.81), treatment at an academic hospital (HR, 0.85), fundus/body/antrum location (HR, 0.90), highest socioeconomic status quintile (HR, 0.91), female sex (HR, 0.92), Hispanic race (HR, 0.92), and hospital size more than 150 beds (HR, 0.94). Kaplan-Meier curves showed longer median disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with tumors originating in the fundus/body/antrum compared with esophagus/cardia (13.4 v 10.8 months). Intestinal histology had significantly longer median DSS (28.9 months) compared with other (11.0 months) or diffuse (10.1 months) histology.Patients who survive gastric and GEJ cancer more than 3 years after diagnosis have demographic and pathologic characteristics distinct from those who do not survive.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2011.35.8028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309517700016

    View details for PubMedID 22949151

  • Clinicopathologic and molecular features of sporadic early-onset colorectal adenocarcinoma: an adenocarcinoma with frequent signet ring cell differentiation, rectal and sigmoid involvement, and adverse morphologic features MODERN PATHOLOGY Chang, D. T., Pai, R. K., Rybicki, L. A., DiMaio, M. A., Limaye, M., Jayachandran, P., Koong, A. C., Kunz, P. A., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Welton, M., Shelton, A., Ma, L., Arber, D. A., Pai, R. K. 2012; 25 (8): 1128-1139


    Recent literature suggests an increasing incidence of colorectal carcinoma in young patients. We performed a histologic, molecular, and immunophenotypic analysis of patients with sporadic early-onset (?40 years of age) colorectal carcinoma seen at our institution from the years 2000-2010 and compared these tumors to a cohort of consecutively resected colorectal carcinomas seen in patients >40 years of age. A total of 1160 primary colorectal adenocarcinomas were surgically resected for the years 2000 through 2010. Of these, 75 (6%) were diagnoses in patients ?40 years of age of which 13 (17%) demonstrated abnormalities in DNA mismatch repair, 4 (5%) were in patients with known germline genetic disorders (two patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, one patient with juvenile polyposis, and one patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome), and three patients (4%) had long-standing chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The sporadic early-onset colorectal carcinoma group comprised a total of 55 patients (55/1160, 5%) and were compared with a control group comprising 73 consecutively resected colorectal carcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair in patients >40 years of age. For the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group, most cases (33/55, 60%) were diagnosed between the age of 35 and 40 years of age. Compared with the control group, the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group was significantly different with respect to tumor location (P<0.007) with 80% (44/55 cases) identified in either the sigmoid colon (24/55, 44%) or rectum (20/55, 36%). Morphologically, early-onset colorectal carcinomas more frequently displayed adverse histologic features compared with the control colorectal carcinoma group such as signet ring cell differentiation (7/55, 13% vs 1/73, 1%, P=0.021), perineural invasion (16/55, 29% vs 8/73, 11%, P=0.009) and venous invasion (12/55, 22% vs 4/73, 6%, P=0.006). A precursor adenomatous lesion was less frequently identified in the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group compared with the control group (19/55, 35% vs 39/73, 53%, P=0.034). Of the early-onset colorectal carcinomas, only 2/45 cases (4%) demonstrated KRAS mutations compared with 11/73 (15%) of the control group colorectal adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.13). BRAF V600E mutations were not identified in the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group. No difference was identified between the two groups with regard to tumor stage, tumor size, number of lymph node metastases, lymphatic invasion, tumor budding, mucinous histology, or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Both groups had similar recurrence-free (P=0.28) and overall survival (P=0.73). However, patients in the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group more frequently either presented with or developed metastatic disease during their disease course compared with the control colorectal carcinoma group (25/55, 45% vs 18/73, 25%, P=0.014). In addition, 8/55 patients (15%) in the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group developed local recurrence of their tumor while no patients in the control colorectal carcinoma group developed local recurrence (P<0.001), likely due to the increased incidence of rectal carcinoma in the patients with early-onset colorectal carcinoma. Our study demonstrates that colorectal carcinoma is not infrequently diagnosed in patients ?40 years of age and is not frequently the result of underlying Lynch syndrome or associated with other cancer-predisposing genetic conditions or chronic inflammatory conditions. These tumors have a striking predilection for the distal colon, particularly the sigmoid colon and rectum and are much more likely to demonstrate adverse histologic factors, including signet ring cell differentiation, venous invasion, and perineural invasion.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/modpathol.2012.61

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307222200008

    View details for PubMedID 22481281



    This study analyzed the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) for locally advanced pancreas cancer patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).Fifty-five previously untreated, unresectable pancreas cancer patients received a single fraction of 25-Gy SBRT sequentially with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. On the preradiation PET-CT, the tumor was contoured and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and metabolic tumor burden (MTB) were calculated using an in-house software application. High-SUVmax and low-SUVmax subgroups were created by categorizing patients above or below the median SUVmax. The analysis was repeated to form high-MTB and low-MTB subgroups as well as clinically relevant subgroups with SUVmax values of <5, 5-10, or >10. Multivariate analysis analyzing SUVmax, MTB, age, chemotherapy cycles, and pretreatment carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 was performed.For the entire population, median survival was 12.7 months. Median survival was 9.8 vs.15.3 months for the high- and low- SUVmax subgroups (p <0.01). Similarly, median survival was 10.1 vs. 18.0 months for the high MTB and low MTB subgroups (p <0.01). When clinical SUVmax cutoffs were used, median survival was 6.4 months in those with SUVmax >10, 9.5 months with SUVmax 5.0-10.0, and 17.7 months in those with SUVmax <5 (p <0.01). On multivariate analysis, clinical SUVmax was an independent predictor for overall survival (p = 0.03) and progression-free survival (p = 0.03).PET scan parameters can predict for length of survival in locally advanced pancreas cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.06.049

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280459700020

    View details for PubMedID 20056345

  • Clinical decision making based on radionuclide determined ejection fraction in oncology patients JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Peng, N. J., Advani, R., Kopiwoda, S., Fisher, G., Strauss, H. W. 1997; 38 (5): 702-705


    Decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a relative contraindication for the use of potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy. A resting LVEF of 50% is usually used as the lower limit of normal values. The decision to change chemotherapy, however, is complex and is affected by many factors, including ejection fraction.To determine how LVEF data were used by clinical oncologists in clinical decision making, we performed a retrospective analysis of patients referred for ejection fraction measurements from the hematology/oncology divisionS of Stanford University from March 1992 through March 1995. The records of 565 patients treated with potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy were evaluated.LVEFs < 50% were found in 153 patients. The charts of patients with reduced ejection fractions were reviewed to determine if the radionuclide measurement resulted in either discontinuation of the cardiotoxic agent or substitution of a less cardiotoxic drug or mode of administration. These specific changes in therapy occurred in only 43 of the 153 (28%) patients with ejection fractions below 50%; 24 of the 43 (57%) had ejection fractions < or = 40%. Patients with lower ejection fraction values were more likely to have their therapy changed than those with LVEFs close to normal. Patients with ejection fractions < or = 30 generally had cardiotoxic agents discontinued. Of patients who had a resting LVEF < 50% and whose therapy was not changed, 81% had a normal increase in LVEF with exercise.In clinical practice at our institution, ejection fraction < 50% is not used as an absolute contraindication to cardiotoxic chemotherapy. When the LVEF is less than 40%, potentially cardiotoxic therapy is most often discontinued or omitted. Radionuclide evidence of cardiac reserve may account for decisions to continue cardiotoxic agents despite ejection fractions < 50% in the majority of patients. Further study will be needed to establish standard criteria. Reserve function, as measured by the change in ejection fraction from rest to stress may be an important parameter used by oncologists to help select patients for continued therapy in spite of a reduced ejection fraction. Our results argue that use of fixed criteria may be too restrictive.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WX89600017

    View details for PubMedID 9170431

  • Limitations of body surface area-based activity calculation for radioembolization of hepatic metastases in colorectal cancer. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology Lam, M. G., Louie, J. D., Abdelmaksoud, M. H., Fisher, G. A., Cho-Phan, C. D., Sze, D. Y. 2014; 25 (7): 1085-1093


    To calculate absorbed radiation doses in patients treated with resin microspheres prescribed by the body surface area (BSA) method and to analyze dose-response and toxicity relationships.A retrospective review was performed of 45 patients with colorectal carcinoma metastases who received single-session whole-liver resin microsphere radioembolization. Prescribed treatment activity was calculated using the BSA method. Liver volumes and whole-liver absorbed doses (D(WL)) were calculated. D(WL) was correlated with toxicity and radiographic and biochemical response.The standard BSA-based administered activity (range, 0.85-2.58 GBq) did not correlate with D(WL) (mean, 50.4 Gy; range, 29.8-74.7 Gy; r = -0.037; P = .809) because liver weight was highly variable (mean, 1.89 kg; range, 0.94-3.42 kg) and strongly correlated with D(WL) (r = -0.724; P < .001) but was not accounted for in the BSA method. Patients with larger livers were relatively underdosed, and patients with smaller livers were relatively overdosed. Patients who received D(WL) > 50 Gy experienced more toxicity and adverse events (> grade 2 liver toxicity, 46% vs 17%; P < .05) but also responded better to the treatment than patients who received D(WL)< 50 Gy (disease control, 88% vs 24%; P < .01).Using the standard BSA formula, the administered activity did not correlate with D(WL). Based on this short-term follow-up after salvage therapy in patients with late stage metastatic colorectal carcinoma, dose-response and dose-toxicity relationships support using a protocol based on liver volume rather than BSA to prescribe the administered activity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvir.2013.11.018

    View details for PubMedID 24457263

  • Limitations of Body Surface Area-Based Activity Calculation for Radioembolization of Hepatic Metastases in Colorectal Cancer JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY Lam, M. G., Louie, J. D., Abdelmaksoud, M. H., Fisher, G. A., Cho-Phan, C. D., Sze, D. Y. 2014; 25 (7): 1085-1093
  • Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Radiographic Calcifications Correlate with Grade and Metastasis ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Poultsides, G. A., Huang, L. C., Chen, Y., Visser, B. C., Pai, R. K., Jeffrey, R. B., Park, W. G., Chen, A. M., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Norton, J. A. 2012; 19 (7): 2295-2303


    Studies to identify preoperative prognostic variables for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) have been inconclusive. Specifically, the prevalence and prognostic significance of radiographic calcifications in these tumors remains unclear.From 1998 to 2009, a total of 110 patients with well-differentiated PNET underwent surgical resection at our institution. Synchronous liver metastases present in 31 patients (28%) were addressed surgically with curative intent. Patients with high-grade PNET were excluded. The presence of calcifications in the primary tumor on preoperative computed tomography was recorded and correlated with clinicopathologic variables and overall survival.Calcifications were present in 16% of patients and were more common in gastrinomas and glucagonomas (50%), but never encountered in insulinomas. Calcified tumors were larger (median size 4.5 vs. 2.3 cm, P=0.04) and more commonly associated with lymph node metastasis (75 vs. 35%, P=0.01), synchronous liver metastasis (62 vs. 21%, P<0.01), and intermediate tumor grade (80 vs. 31%, P<0.01). On multivariate analysis of factors available preoperatively, calcifications (P=0.01) and size (P<0.01) remained independent predictors of lymph node metastasis. Overall survival after resection was significantly worse in the presence of synchronous liver metastasis (5-year, 64 vs. 86%, P=0.04), but not in the presence of radiographic calcifications.Calcifications on preoperative computed tomography correlate with intermediate grade and lymph node metastasis in well-differentiated PNET. This information is available preoperatively and supports the routine dissection of regional lymph nodes through formal pancreatectomy rather than enucleation in calcified PNET.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-012-2305-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305558000030

    View details for PubMedID 22396008

  • A phase I trial of vandetanib combined with capecitabine, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab for the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUGS Cabebe, E. C., Fisher, G. A., Sikic, B. I. 2012; 30 (3): 1082-1087


    Vandetanib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of both the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR) and epidermal growth factor (EGFR) receptors. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the maximum tolerated dose of vandetanib with capecitabine and oxaliplatin, without and with bevacizumab, for the first line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), and to define the dose limiting toxicities.Three cohorts of patients were studied, with capecitabine at 1,000 mg/m(2) twice daily p.o. on days 1-14 of a 3 week cycle, with oxaliplatin i.v. at 130 mg/m(2) on day 1. Vandetanib dosing was 100 mg/day in cohort 1 and 300 mg/day in cohorts 2 and 3. Bevacizumab was added in cohort 3 at 7.5 mg/kg i.v. on day 1 every 3 weeks.Thirteen patients were enrolled and received from one to eight cycles per patient. Grade 4 dermatitis developed in one patient in the first cohort, and the cohort was expanded to six patients with no further dose limiting toxicities (DLT). The second cohort of 3 patients was well tolerated. The third cohort resulted in grade 3 diarrhea, requiring several days of hospitalization and i.v. hydration, in 3 of the 4 patients. Given the severity and duration of diarrhea, each of these was considered a DLT, and therefore cohort 3 was considered to be above the maximum tolerated dose. Six of the 13 patients achieved a partial or complete remission (46%). The time to progression ranged from 2 to 14 months.Vandetanib at doses of 100 mg and 300 mg daily in combination with capecitabine and oxaliplatin was well tolerated. However, the addition of bevacizumab resulted in severe diarrhea in three out of four patients. Bevacizumab was not well tolerated with vandetanib and XELOX in combination.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10637-011-9656-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303878700023

    View details for PubMedID 21404105

  • A phase I dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study of enzastaurin and erlotinib in patients with advanced solid tumors CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AND PHARMACOLOGY Padda, S. K., Krupitskaya, Y., Chhatwani, L., Fisher, G. A., Colevas, A. D., Pedro-Salcedo, M. S., Decker, R., Latz, J. E., Wakelee, H. A. 2012; 69 (4): 1013-1020


    Enzastaurin, an oral serine/threonine kinase inhibitor, targets the protein kinase C and AKT pathways with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects. Erlotinib, an oral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, has activity in solid tumors. Based on the promising combination of EGFR inhibitors and anti-angiogenic agents, this phase I trial was initiated.This single-institution, open-label, non-randomized trial used a standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation model in patients with advanced solid malignancies including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two dose levels of enzastaurin (with loading doses) were explored: 250 mg daily and 500 mg daily. Erlotinib was given at 150 mg daily.Sixteen patients were enrolled in this study (median age, 64 years). Most patients were heavily pre-treated, female, and Caucasian and had NSCLC. The highest dose of enzastaurin, 500 mg daily, was tolerated with no unexpected adverse events and no alteration in the pharmacokinetics of either drug at this dose level. The mean clearance was 5.75 L/h for erlotinib and 53.8 L/h for enzastaurin. The most common possibly drug-related grade 3-4 adverse events included diarrhea (25.0%), neurologic symptoms (18.8%), and vomiting (18.8%). Activity was noted, with a partial response in one patient and prolonged disease stability for >12 cycles in three patients.The combination of enzastaurin 500 mg daily and erlotinib 150 mg daily is well tolerated and does not alter the pharmacokinetics of the individual drugs, with clinical activity seen. A phase II trial of this combination has been initiated in patients with advanced-stage NSCLC.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00280-011-1792-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302327300019

    View details for PubMedID 22160298

  • Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Abelson, J. A., Murphy, J. D., Minn, A. Y., Chung, M., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Kunz, P., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: E595-E601


    To report the outcomes and toxicities in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Forty-seven patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with IMRT between 2003 and 2008. Of these 47 patients, 29 were treated adjuvantly and 18 definitively. All received concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. The treatment plans were optimized such that 95% of the planning target volume received the prescription dose. The median delivered dose for the adjuvant and definitive patients was 50.4 and 54.0 Gy, respectively.The median age at diagnosis was 63.9 years. For adjuvant patients, the 1- and 2-year overall survival rate was 79% and 40%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year recurrence-free survival rate was 58% and 17%, respectively. The local-regional control rate at 1 and 2 years was 92% and 80%, respectively. For definitive patients, the 1-year overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and local-regional control rate was 24%, 16%, and 64%, respectively. Four patients developed Grade 3 or greater acute toxicity (9%) and four developed Grade 3 late toxicity (9%).Survival for patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor. A small percentage of adjuvant patients have durable disease control, and with improved therapies, this proportion will increase. Systemic therapy offers the greatest opportunity. The present results have demonstrated that IMRT is well tolerated. Compared with those who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in previously reported prospective clinical trials, patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with IMRT in our series had improved acute toxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.09.035

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300980300003

    View details for PubMedID 22197234

  • HER2 Expression in Gastric and Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma in a US Population: Clinicopathologic Analysis With Proposed Approach to HER2 Assessment APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY Kunz, P. L., Mojtahed, A., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Chang, D. T., Balise, R. R., Bangs, C. D., Cherry, A. M., Pai, R. K. 2012; 20 (1): 13-24


    Recent evidence suggests that trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody which targets HER2, in combination with chemotherapy is a therapeutic option in patients with HER2-positive gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer. Widely accepted guidelines for HER2 testing in gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer have not been established. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence and patterns of HER2 expression in gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer using a tissue microarray approach, which closely simulates small biopsies routinely tested for HER2. One hundred sixty-nine patients, including 99 primary gastric adenocarcinomas and 70 primary gastroesophageal junction carcinomas were analyzed for HER2 overexpression by immunohistochemistry and HER2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization using scoring schemes proposed by both American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) and the results of the recently published Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer (ToGA) trial. In our analysis, 19 adenocarcinomas were HER2 positive, defined as either a HER2/CEP17 ratio >2.2 and/or a 3+ HER2 immunohistochemistry score with either the ASCO/CAP or ToGA scoring schemes. Of the 19 HER2-positive adenocarcinomas, 8 (42%) exhibited a characteristic strongly intense basolateral membranous staining pattern which would be interpreted as negative (1+) using the accepted ASCO/CAP scoring scheme for HER2 assessment in breast carcinoma, but were correctly labeled as 3+ positive using the proposed ToGA scoring scheme. Of the 19 HER2-positive adenocarcinomas, 8 (42%) demonstrated heterogeneous HER2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Twelve of 99 (12%) gastric carcinomas were positive for HER2. Of these, HER2 was more often identified in intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (10 of 52, 19%) compared with diffuse (2 of 34, 6%) adenocarcinoma. Seven of 70 (10%) gastroesophageal junction carcinomas were positive for HER2 of which all were intestinal type (7 of 58, 12%). HER2 status or primary tumor site did not correlate with patient survival. Gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas typically display a characteristic basolateral membranous pattern of HER2 expression which is often heterogeneous rendering routine evaluation of HER2 status on small tissue samples challenging.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PAI.0b013e31821c821c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298846500003

    View details for PubMedID 21617522

  • Phase I trial of oblimersen (GenasenseA (R)) and gemcitabine in refractory and advanced malignancies INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUGS Galatin, P. S., Advani, R. H., Fisher, G. A., Francisco, B., Julian, T., Losa, R., Sierra, M. I., Sikic, B. I. 2011; 29 (5): 971-977


    Overexpression of Bcl-2 is associated with worse prognosis for a number of cancer types. The present study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oblimersen (antisense Bcl-2) and gemcitabine when administered to patients with refractory malignancies.Sixteen patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapies were treated with escalating doses of oblimersen continuous, 120-h intravenous infusion given every 14 days, with a fixed-dose-rate intravenous infusion of gemcitabine administered on day 5 of each cycle. Serial plasma samples were collected to calculate the pharmacokinetics of oblimersen and gemcitabine, and also to measure the effect of oblimersen on Bcl-2 expression.7 women and 9 men, median age 55 years (range 35-74 years), received a 5-day infusion of oblimersen at dose levels of 5 mg/kg/day (n = 4) or 7 mg/kg/day (n = 12). On the 5th day of the infusion, gemcitabine was given at 10 mg/m(2)/h for a total dose of 1,000 mg/m(2) (n = 7; cohorts I and II), 1,200 mg/m(2) (n = 3; cohort III), or 1,500 mg/m(2) (n = 6; cohort IV). Edema was the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), necessitating expansion of cohort IV. No subsequent DLTs were noted. Thus, the maximum planned doses were well tolerated, and a formal MTD was not determined. Most hematologic toxicities were grade 1 or 2. There was low-grade fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and myalgias/arthralgias. Oblimersen C(ss) and AUC increased in relation to the dose escalation, but gemcitabine triphosphate levels did not correlate well with dose. There were no objective responses, though 5 patients had stable disease. A >75% reduction in Bcl-2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes was seen more frequently in patients who achieved stable disease than in progressing patients.The maximal planned dose levels of oblimersen and gemcitabine in combination were well tolerated. Only one DLT (edema) occurred. There was a correlation between Bcl-2 reduction and stable disease. The recommended doses of the drugs for future studies are 7 mg/kg/day of oblimersen on days 1-5, and gemcitabine 1,500 mg/m(2) on day 5, every two weeks.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10637-010-9416-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294223500027

    View details for PubMedID 20349264

  • Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal CANCER Bazan, J. G., Hara, W., Hsu, A., Kunz, P. A., Ford, J., Fisher, G. A., Welton, M. L., Shelton, A., Kapp, D. S., Koong, A. C., Goodman, K. A., Chang, D. T. 2011; 117 (15): 3342-3351


    The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in patients with anal canal squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) who were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy by either intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or conventional radiotherapy (CRT).Forty-six patients who received definitive chemoradiotherapy from January 1993 to August 2009 were included. Forty-five patients received 5-fluorouracil with mitomycin C (n = 39) or cisplatin (n = 6). Seventeen (37%) were treated with CRT and 29 (63%) with IMRT. The median dose was 54 Gy in both groups. Median follow-up was 26 months (CRT) and 32 months (IMRT). T3-T4 stage (P = .18) and lymph node-positive disease (P = .6) were similar between groups.The CRT group required longer treatment duration (57 days vs 40 days, P < .0001), more treatment breaks (88% vs 34.5%, P = .001), and longer breaks (12 days vs 1.5 days, P < .0001) than patients treated with IMRT. Eleven (65%) patients in the CRT group experienced grade >2 nonhematologic toxicity compared with 6 (21%) patients in the IMRT group (P = .003). The 3-year overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and progression-free survival were 87.8%, 91.9%, and 84.2%, respectively, for the IMRT groups and 51.8%, 56.7%, and 56.7%, respectively, for the CRT group (all P < .01). On multivariate analysis, T stage, use of IMRT, and treatment duration were associated with OS, and T stage and use of IMRT were associated with LRC.The use of IMRT was associated with less toxicity, reduced need for treatment breaks, and excellent LRC and OS compared with CRT in patients with SCCA of the anal canal.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.25901

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293103800008

    View details for PubMedID 21287530

  • Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors With Major Vascular Abutment, Involvement, or Encasement and Indication for Resection ARCHIVES OF SURGERY Norton, J. A., Harris, E. J., Chen, Y., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Kunz, P. C., Fisher, G. A., Jensen, R. T. 2011; 146 (6): 724-732


    Surgery for pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) with blood vessel involvement is controversial.Resection of PETs with major blood vessel involvement can be beneficial.The combined databases of the National Institutes of Health and Stanford University hospitals were queried.Operation, pathologic condition, complications, and disease-free and overall survival.Of 273 patients with PETs, 46 (17%) had preoperative computed tomography evidence of major vascular involvement. The mean size for the primary PET was 5.0 cm. The involved major vessel was as follows: portal vein (n = 20), superior mesenteric vein or superior mesenteric artery (n = 16), inferior vena cava (n = 4), splenic vein (n = 4), and heart (n = 2). Forty-two of 46 patients had a PET removed: 12 (27%) primary only, 30 (68%) with lymph nodes, and 18 (41%) with liver metastases. PETs were removed by either enucleation (n = 7) or resection (n = 35). Resections included distal or subtotal pancreatectomy in 23, Whipple in 10, and total in 2. Eighteen patients had concomitant liver resection: 10 wedge resection and 8 anatomic resections. Nine patients had vascular reconstruction: each had reconstruction of the superior mesenteric vein and portal vein, and 1 had concomitant reconstruction of the superior mesenteric artery. There were no deaths, but 12 patients had complications. Eighteen patients (41%) were immediately disease free, and 5 recurred with follow-up, leaving 13 (30%) disease-free long term. The 10-year overall survival was 60%. Functional tumors were associated with a better overall survival (P < .001), and liver metastases decreased overall survival (P < .001).These findings suggest that surgical resection of PETs with vascular abutment/invasion and nodal or distant metastases is indicated.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291851500018

    View details for PubMedID 21690450

  • F-18-5-fluorouracil dynamic positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows decreased tracer activity after bevacizumab in colorectal metastases NUCLEAR MEDICINE COMMUNICATIONS Zissen, M. H., Kunz, P., Subbarayan, M., Chin, F. T., Conti, P. S., Fisher, G. A., Quon, A. 2011; 32 (5): 343-347


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of fluorine-18 (F)-5-fluorouracil (F-5-FU) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to show differences in 5-FU activity in metastatic colorectal cancer before and after treatment with bevacizumab.This was a pilot study of five patients with newly diagnosed and untreated metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma. The presence of cancer was confirmed by histopathological analysis before enrollment. Patients underwent F-5-FU PET/CT scanning before treatment and at approximately 24 h postbevacizumab. PET/CT scanning consisted of a dynamic acquisition of images taken 0-20 min after injection of radiotracer. The degree of F-5-FU activity at the metastatic sites was assessed using visual interpretation and semiquantitative standardized uptake value analyses.The sizes of the metastatic lesions ranged from the smallest lesion measuring 3.04 × 1.50 cm to the largest measuring 4.19 × 2.76 cm. By drawing regions of interest, time-activity curves were generated at each tumor site and area under the curve (AUC) analyses were carried out. At baseline, during the first 5 min after F-5-FU injection the mean AUCtumor/AUCaorta ratio was 1.24 ± 0.30 (range, 0.424-2.14). Less than 24 h after the administration of bevacizumab, the AUCtumor/AUCaorta ratio decreased to 1.06 ± 0.32 (range, 0.23-2.13, P=0.04), which represented an average decline of 20.2% (range, 0.4-45%). Radiotracer uptake on the 5, 10, 15, and 20-min images did not show any significant change between baseline and posttreatment. Follow-up CT imaging showed stable tumor size in one patient and a decrease in metastasis size in the remaining four patients.In this pilot study of five patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma, F-5-FU PET/CT scanning showed a significant perfusion-related decrease in tracer activity 24 h postbevacizumab.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MNM.0b013e328344894b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289761500003

    View details for PubMedID 21412178

  • Future Directions in the Treatment of Neuroendocrine Tumors: Consensus Report of the National Cancer Institute Neuroendocrine Tumor Clinical Trials Planning Meeting JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Kulke, M. H., Siu, L. L., Tepper, J. E., Fisher, G., Jaffe, D., Haller, D. G., Ellis, L. M., Benedetti, J. K., Bergsland, E. K., Hobday, T. J., Van Cutsem, E., Pingpank, J., Oberg, K., Cohen, S. J., Posner, M. C., Yao, J. C. 2011; 29 (7): 934-943


    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from a variety of anatomic sites and share the capacity for production of hormones and vasoactive peptides. Because of their perceived rarity, NETs have not historically been a focus of rigorous clinical research. However, the diagnosed incidence of NETs has been increasing, and the estimated prevalence in the United States exceeds 100,000 individuals. The recent completion of several phase III studies, including those evaluating octreotide, sunitinib, and everolimus, has demonstrated that rigorous evaluation of novel agents in this disease is both feasible and can lead to practice-changing outcomes. The NET Task Force of the National Cancer Institute GI Steering Committee convened a clinical trials planning meeting to identify key unmet needs, develop appropriate study end points, standardize clinical trial inclusion criteria, and formulate priorities for future NET studies for the US cooperative group program. Emphasis was placed on the development of well-designed clinical trials with clearly defined efficacy criteria. Key recommendations include the evaluation of pancreatic NET separately from NETs of other sites and the exclusion of patients with poorly differentiated histologies from trials focused on low-grade histologies. Studies evaluating novel agents for the control of hormonal syndromes should avoid somatostatin analog washout periods when possible and should include quality-of-life end points. Because of the observed long survival after progression of many patients, progression-free survival is recommended as a feasible and relevant primary end point for both phase III studies and phase II studies where a delay in progression is expected in the absence of radiologic responses.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2010.33.2056

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287729900037

    View details for PubMedID 21263089

  • Expression of p16(INK4A) But Not Hypoxia Markers or Poly Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose Polymerase Is Associated With Improved Survival in Patients With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Chang, D. T., Chapman, C. H., Norton, J. A., Visser, B., Fisher, G. A., Kunz, P., Ford, J. M., Koong, A. C., Pai, R. K. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2010: 5179-5187


    Pancreatic cancer is associated with mutations in the tumor suppressor gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16(INK4A) ), a regulator of the cell cycle and apoptosis. This study investigates whether immunohistochemical expression of p16(INK4A) as well as hypoxia markers and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) correlates with survival in patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Seventy-three patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent curative resection at Stanford University were included. From the surgical specimens, a tissue microarray was constructed using triplicate tissue cores from the primary tumor and used for immunohistochemical staining for the following markers: carbonic anhydrase IX, dihydrofolate reductase, p16(INK4A) , and PARP1/2. Staining was scored as either positive or negative and percentage positive staining. Staining score was correlated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).Of the markers tested, only immunohistochemical expression of p16(INK4A) correlated with clinical outcome. On univariate analysis, p16(INK4A) expression in the tumor was associated with improved OS (P = .038) but not PFS (P = .28). The median survival for patients with positive versus negative p16(INK4A) staining was 28.8 months versus 18 months. On multivariate analysis, p16(INK4A) expression was associated with improved OS (P = .026) but not PFS (P = .25). Age (P = .0019) and number of nodes involved (P = .025) were also significant for OS. Adjuvant chemotherapy and margin status did not correlate with OS or PFS.Expression of p16(INK4A) is associated with improved OS in patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Further investigation is needed for validation, given conflicting data in the published literature. .

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.25481

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284047400009

    View details for PubMedID 20665497

  • Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy as Adjuvant Therapy for Gastric Cancer Minn, A. Y., Hsu, A., La, T., Kunz, P., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Norton, J. A., Visser, B., Goodman, K. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 2010: 3943-3952


    The current study was performed to compare the clinical outcomes and toxicity in patients treated with postoperative chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT).Fifty-seven patients with gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer were treated postoperatively: 26 with 3D CRT and 31 with IMRT. Concurrent chemotherapy was capecitabine (n=31), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (n=25), or none (n=1). The median radiation dose was 45 Gy. Dose volume histogram parameters for kidney and liver were compared between treatment groups.The 2-year overall survival rates for 3D CRT versus IMRT were 51% and 65%, respectively (P=.5). Four locoregional failures occurred each in the 3D CRT (15%) and the IMRT (13%) patients. Grade>or=2 acute gastrointestinal toxicity was found to be similar between the 3D CRT and IMRT patients (61.5% vs 61.2%, respectively) but more treatment breaks were needed (3 vs 0, respectively). The median serum creatinine from before radiotherapy to most recent creatinine was unchanged in the IMRT group (0.80 mg/dL) but increased in the 3D CRT group from 0.80 mg/dL to 1.0 mg/dL (P=.02). The median kidney mean dose was higher in the IMRT versus the 3D CRT group (13.9 Gy vs 11.1 Gy; P=.05). The median kidney V20 was lower for the IMRT versus the 3D CRT group (17.5% vs 22%; P=.17). The median liver mean dose for IMRT and 3D CRT was 13.6 Gy and 18.6 Gy, respectively (P=.19). The median liver V30 was 16.1% and 28%, respectively (P<.001).Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was well tolerated. IMRT was found to provide sparing to the liver and possibly renal function.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.25246

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280677100025

    View details for PubMedID 20564136

  • Pathological response after chemoradiation for T3 rectal cancer. Colorectal disease Chennupati, S. K., Kamaya, A., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Kunz, P., Itakura, H., Welton, M. L., Shelton, A., Van Dam, J., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2010; 12 (7 Online): e24-30


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on nodal disease in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma.Thirty-two patients staged uT3N0 and 27 patients staged uT3N1 rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent pre-CRT staging using endoscopic ultrasound or rectal protocol CT were included. The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range: 45-50.4 Gy) at 1.8 Gy per fraction and all patients received concurrent 5-FU or capecitabine-based chemotherapy. Low anterior resection or abdomino-perineal resection occurred at a median of 46 days (range: 27-112 days) after CRT.Eleven of 32 uT3N0 patients (34.4%) and 13 of 26 uT3N1 patients (50.0%) had ypN+ (P = 0.29). For patients with uT3N0, 10 of 20 (50.0%) with ypT2-3 and 1 of 12 (8.3%) with ypT0-1 were ypN+ (P = 0.02). For patients with uT3N1, 12 of 20 (60.0%) with ypT2-3 and 1 of 6 (16.7%) with ypT0-1 were ypN+ (P = 0.16). Overall, the ypN+ rate was 11.1% in the ypT0-yT1 group compared with 55.0% in the ypT2-yT3 group (P = 003). Among patients with uT3N0 disease, the ypN+ rate in patients who had surgery > 46 days vs 46 days vs 46 days vs

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1463-1318.2009.02013.x

    View details for PubMedID 19614668

  • Pathological response after chemoradiation for T3 rectal cancer COLORECTAL DISEASE Chennupati, S. K., Kamaya, A., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Kunz, P., Itakura, H., Welton, M. L., Shelton, A., Van Dam, J., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2010; 12 (7): E24-E30
  • Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of lexatumumab (HGS-ETR2) given every 2 weeks in patients with advanced solid tumors ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY Wakelee, H. A., Patnaik, A., Sikic, B. I., Mita, M., Fox, N. L., Miceli, R., Ullrich, S. J., Fisher, G. A., Tolcher, A. W. 2010; 21 (2): 376-381


    Lexatumumab (HGS-ETR2) is a fully human agonistic mAb to the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 that activates the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and has potent preclinical antitumor activity. Materials and methods: This phase 1, dose escalation study assessed the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PKs) and immunogenicity of lexatumumab administered i.v. every 14 days in patients with advanced solid tumors.Thirty-one patients received lexatumumab over five dose levels (0.1-10 mg/kg). Most (26 of 31) received four or more cycles of treatment. One patient at 10 mg/kg experienced a possibly related dose-limiting toxicity of grade 3 hyperamylasemia. Nine patients achieved stable disease. One patient with chemotherapy-refractive Hodgkin's disease experienced a mixed response. Lexatumumab PKs were linear up to 10 mg/kg. At the 10 mg/kg dose, the mean (+/-standard deviation) t(1/2b) was 13.67 +/- 4.07 days, clearance was 4.95 +/- 1.93 ml/day/kg, V(1) was 45.55 ml/kg and V(ss) was 79.08 ml/kg, indicating that lexatumumab distributes outside the plasma compartment. No human antihuman antibodies were detected.Lexatumumab can be safely administered every 14 days at 10 mg/kg. The PK profile supports this schedule. Further evaluation of lexatumumab at this dose schedule is warranted, including combination trials with other agents.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/annonc/mdp292

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274087600029

    View details for PubMedID 19633048

  • Advances in the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Clinical and experimental gastroenterology Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A. 2010; 3: 79-86


    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are a rare and heterogeneous class of neoplasms. While surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, non-surgical therapies play a role in the setting of unresectable and metastatic disease. The goals of medical therapy are directed both at alleviating symptoms of peptide release and shrinking tumor mass. Biotherapies such as somatostatin analogs and interferon can decrease the secretion of peptides and inhibit their end-organ effects. A second objective for treatment of unresectable GEP-NETs is limiting tumor growth. Options for limiting tumor growth include somatostatin analogs, systemic chemotherapy, locoregional therapies, ionizing radiation, external beam radiation, and newer targeted agents. In particular, angiogenesis inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and mTOR inhibitors have shown early promising results. The rarity of these tumors, their resistance to standard chemotherapy, and the excellent performance status of most of these patients, make a strong argument for consideration of novel therapeutic trials.

    View details for PubMedID 21694850

  • Multimodality treatment with intensity modulated radiation therapy for esophageal cancer DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS La, T. H., Minn, A. Y., Su, Z., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Kunz, P., Goodman, K. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2010; 23 (4): 300-308


    The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility and report the outcome of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer treated with preoperative or definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Between 2003 and 2007, 30 patients with non-cervical esophageal cancer received concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT at Stanford University. Eighteen patients were planned for definitive CRT and 12 were planned for preoperative CRT. All patients had computed tomography-based treatment planning and received IMRT. The median dose delivered was 50.4 Gy. Patients planned for preoperative CRT underwent surgery 4-13 weeks (median 8.3 weeks) following completion of CRT. Median follow-up of surviving patients from start of RT was 24.2 months (range 8.2-38.3 months). The majority of tumors were adenocarcinomas (67%) and poorly differentiated (57%). Tumor location was 7% upper, 20% mid, 47% lower, and 27% gastroesophageal junction. Actuarial 2-year local-regional control (LRC) was 64%. High tumor grade was an adverse prognostic factor for LRC and overall survival (OS) (P= 0.015 and 0.012, respectively). The 2-year LRC was 83% vs. 51% for patients treated preoperatively vs. definitively (P= 0.32). The 2-year disease-free and OS were 38% and 56%, respectively. Twelve patients (40%) required feeding tube placement, and the average weight loss from baseline was 4.8%. Twelve (40%) patients experienced grade 3+ acute complications and one patient died of complications following feeding tube placement. Three patients (10%) required a treatment break. Eight patients (27%) experienced grade 3 late complications. No grade 4 complications were seen. IMRT was effective and well tolerated. Disease recurrence remains a challenge and further investigation with dose escalation to improve LRC and OS is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1442-2050.2009.01004.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278109300005

    View details for PubMedID 19732129

  • Identification of a biomarker panel using a multiplex proximity ligation assay improves accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnosis JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Chang, S. T., Zahn, J. M., Horecka, J., Kunz, P. L., Ford, J. M., Fisher, G. A., Le, Q. T., Chang, D. T., Ji, H., Koong, A. C. 2009; 7


    Pancreatic cancer continues to prove difficult to clinically diagnose. Multiple simultaneous measurements of plasma biomarkers can increase sensitivity and selectivity of diagnosis. Proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a highly sensitive technique for multiplex detection of biomarkers in plasma with little or no interfering background signal.We examined the plasma levels of 21 biomarkers in a clinically defined cohort of 52 locally advanced (Stage II/III) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases and 43 age-matched controls using a multiplex proximity ligation assay. The optimal biomarker panel for diagnosis was computed using a combination of the PAM algorithm and logistic regression modeling. Biomarkers that were significantly prognostic for survival in combination were determined using univariate and multivariate Cox survival models.Three markers, CA19-9, OPN and CHI3L1, measured in multiplex were found to have superior sensitivity for pancreatic cancer vs. CA19-9 alone (93% vs. 80%). In addition, we identified two markers, CEA and CA125, that when measured simultaneously have prognostic significance for survival for this clinical stage of pancreatic cancer (p < 0.003).A multiplex panel assaying CA19-9, OPN and CHI3L1 in plasma improves accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnosis. A panel assaying CEA and CA125 in plasma can predict survival for this clinical cohort of pancreatic cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1479-5876-7-105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272889900001

    View details for PubMedID 20003342

  • Impaired interferon signaling is a common immune defect in human cancer PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Critchley-Thorne, R. J., Simons, D. L., Yan, N., Miyahira, A. K., Dirbas, F. M., Johnson, D. L., Swetter, S. M., Carlson, R. W., Fisher, G. A., Koong, A., Holmes, S., Lee, P. P. 2009; 106 (22): 9010-9015


    Immune dysfunction develops in patients with many cancer types and may contribute to tumor progression and failure of immunotherapy. Mechanisms underlying cancer-associated immune dysfunction are not fully understood. Efficient IFN signaling is critical to lymphocyte function; animals rendered deficient in IFN signaling develop cancer at higher rates. We hypothesized that altered IFN signaling may be a key mechanism of immune dysfunction common to cancer. To address this, we assessed the functional responses to IFN in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with 3 major cancers: breast cancer, melanoma, and gastrointestinal cancer. Type-I IFN (IFN-alpha)-induced signaling was reduced in T cells and B cells from all 3 cancer-patient groups compared to healthy controls. Type-II IFN (IFN-gamma)-induced signaling was reduced in B cells from all 3 cancer patient groups, but not in T cells or natural killer cells. Impaired-IFN signaling was equally evident in stage II, III, and IV breast cancer patients, and downstream functional defects in T cell activation were identified. Taken together, these findings indicate that defects in lymphocyte IFN signaling arise in patients with breast cancer, melanoma, and gastrointestinal cancer, and these defects may represent a common cancer-associated mechanism of immune dysfunction.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0901329106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266580500043

    View details for PubMedID 19451644

  • Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Unresectable Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas CANCER Chang, D. T., Schellenberg, D., Shen, J., Kim, J., Goodman, K. A., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Desser, T., Quon, A., Koong, A. C. 2009; 115 (3): 665-672


    The authors report on the local control and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Seventy-seven patients with unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas received 25 gray (Gy) in 1 fraction. Forty-five patients (58%) had locally advanced disease, 11 patients (14%) had medically inoperable disease, 15 patients (19%) had metastatic disease, and 6 patients (8%) had locally recurrent disease. Nine patients (12%) had received prior chemoradiotherapy. Sixteen patients (21%) received between 45 to 54 Gy of fractionated radiotherapy and SBRT. Various gemcitabine-based chemotherapy regimens were received by 74 patients (96%), but 3 patients (4%) did not receive chemotherapy until they had distant failure.The median follow-up was 6 months (range, 3-31 months) and, among surviving patients, it was 12 months (range, 3-31 months). The overall rates of freedom from local progression (FFLP) at 6 months and 12 months were 91% and 84%, respectively. The 6- and 12-month isolated local recurrence rates were 5% and 5%, respectively. There was no difference in the 12-month FFLP rate based on tumor location (head/uncinate, 91% vs body/tail, 86%; P = .52). The progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 6 months and 12 months were 26% and 9%, respectively. The PFS rate at 6 months was superior for patients who had nonmetastatic disease versus patients who had metastatic disease (28% vs 15%; P = .05). The overall survival (OS) rates at 6 months and 12 months from SBRT were 56% and 21%, respectively. Four patients (5%) experienced grade > or = 2 acute toxicity. Three patients (4%) experienced grade 2 late toxicity, and 7 patients (9%) experienced grade > or = 3 late toxicity. At 6 months and 12 months, the rates of grade > or = 2 late toxicity were 11% and 25%, respectively.SBRT for pancreatic adenocarcinoma was effective for local control with associated risk of toxicity and should be used with rigorous attention to quality assurance. Efforts to reduce complications are warranted. Distant metastases account for the vast majority of disease-related mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.24059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263003400025

    View details for PubMedID 19117351

  • Gemcitabine chemotherapy and single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Schellenberg, D., Goodman, K. A., Lee, F., Chang, S., Kuo, T., Ford, J. M., Fisher, G. A., Quon, A., Desser, T. S., Norton, J., Greco, R., Yang, G. P., Koong, A. C. 2008; 72 (3): 678-686


    Fractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer achieves only modest local control. This prospective trial evaluated the efficacy of a single fraction of 25 Gy stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivered between Cycle 1 and 2 of gemcitabine chemotherapy.A total of 16 patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic, pancreatic adenocarcinoma received gemcitabine with SBRT delivered 2 weeks after completion of the first cycle. Gemcitabine was resumed 2 weeks after SBRT and was continued until progression or dose-limiting toxicity. The gross tumor volume, with a 2-3-mm margin, was treated in a single 25-Gy fraction by Cyberknife. Patients were evaluated at 4-6 weeks, 10-12 weeks, and every 3 months after SBRT.All 16 patients completed SBRT. A median of four cycles (range one to nine) of chemotherapy was delivered. Three patients (19%) developed local disease progression at 14, 16, and 21 months after SBRT. The median survival was 11.4 months, with 50% of patients alive at 1 year. Patients with normal carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 levels either at diagnosis or after Cyberknife SBRT had longer survival (p <0.01). Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was mild, with 2 cases of Grade 2 (13%) and 1 of Grade 3 (6%) toxicity. Late gastrointestinal toxicity was more common, with five ulcers (Grade 2), one duodenal stenosis (Grade 3), and one duodenal perforation (Grade 4). A trend toward increased duodenal volumes radiated was observed in those experiencing late effects (p = 0.13).SBRT with gemcitabine resulted in comparable survival to conventional chemoradiotherapy and good local control. However, the rate of duodenal ulcer development was significant.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.01.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259894300008

    View details for PubMedID 18395362

  • A Phase II Study of Gefitinib, 5-Fluorouracil, Leucovorin, and Oxaliplatin in Previously Untreated Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Fischer, G., Kuo, T., Ramsey, M., Schwartz, E., Rouse, R., Cho, C. D., Halsey, J., Sikic, B. I. 2008; 14 (21): 7074-7079


    We investigated the gefitinib, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin and oxaliplatin (IFOX) regimen as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.Eligible patients had stage IV colorectal adenocarcinoma, and had not received prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Each cycle consisted of 14 days. Cycle 1 consisted of oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and 5-FU (FOLFOX-4). All subsequent cycles consisted of FOLFOX-4 with gefitinib at 500 mg orally daily throughout the 14-day cycle.Forty-five patients were enrolled and were assessable for toxicity. Forty-three patients were assessable for response. Thirty-one of the 43 patients (72%) had either a complete or partial response by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Median overall survival was 20.5 months. Median time to progression was 9.3 months. Commonly encountered grade 3 or 4 toxicities included diarrhea in 67% of patients and neutropenia in 60%. Grade 2 acneiform skin rash typical of gefitinib occurred in 60% of patients.IFOX is an active first-line regimen in patients with metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma, showing higher response rates but also increased toxicities compared with FOLFOX-4 alone in a similar patient population.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-1014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260732200044

    View details for PubMedID 18981005

  • Cardiotoxicity associated with the cancer therapeutic agent sunitinib malate ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY Telli, M. L., Witteles, R. M., Fisher, G. A., Srinivas, S. 2008; 19 (9): 1613-1618


    In the pivotal phase III metastatic renal cell carcinoma trial, updated data indicates that 21% of sunitinib-treated patients experienced a decline in left ventricular ejection fraction to below normal. This cardiotoxicity was reported to be reversible and without clinical sequelae. We conducted a retrospective analysis of our institutional experience of cardiotoxicity with sunitinib after observing a high incidence of symptomatic heart failure.Patients receiving sunitinib at Stanford University from 1 July 2004 to 1 July 2007 were identified. Medical records were reviewed and those patients experiencing symptomatic grade 3/4 left ventricular systolic dysfunction were identified. Potential cardiac risk factors were analyzed.Forty-eight patients treated with sunitinib were assessable. Seven patients experienced symptomatic grade 3/4 left ventricular dysfunction 22-435 days after initiation of sunitinib. Three patients had persistent cardiac dysfunction after discontinuation of sunitinib and initiation of heart failure therapy. A history of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and lower body mass index were factors associated with increased risk.Among patients treated with sunitinib at our institution, 15% developed symptomatic grade 3/4 heart failure. Future studies of sunitinib-related cardiotoxicity are urgently needed, particularly as the oncologic indications for this drug continue to expand.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/annonc/mdn168

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259505400015

    View details for PubMedID 18436521

  • Tissue effects after stereotactic body radiotherapy using cyberknife for patients with abdominal malignancies CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Cupp, J. S., Koong, A. C., Fisher, G. A., NORTON, J. A., Goodman, K. A. 2008; 20 (1): 69-75


    To report the tissue effects of treatment with single fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using Cyberknife on malignant tumours of the abdomen and adjacent normal organs.The data from four autopsies with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma and one lymph node excision from a case of recurrent neuroblastoma were reviewed for radiation-related tissue effects within the primary cancer and the normal organs within the radiation field.Cases of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma consistently showed radiation-induced changes in both the primary tumour and the adjacent, non-malignant colorectal tissue. An additional case of lymph nodes exposed to stereotactic radiation showed typical radiation-related changes, including lymphocyte depletion and capsular fibrosis.A myriad of radiation-related tissue effects are seen after SBRT with Cyberknife. The changes parallel those reported after conventionally fractionated radiotherapy and suggest that the pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced normal tissue damage are similar for biologically equivalent single and fractionated doses of radiotherapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clon.2007.08.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253281700013

    View details for PubMedID 17900882

  • Phase H study of imatinib in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY-CANCER CLINICAL TRIALS Lin, A. Y., Fisher, G. A., So, S., Tang, C., Levitt, L. 2008; 31 (1): 84-88


    The expression of platelet-derived growth factor, a potent mitogen, and its receptor both in tissue and serum correlate with the severity of liver cirrhosis. Over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor has been demonstrated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors and cell lines. Imatinib, a potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL and c-kit, also inhibits the platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. The trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of imatinib in patients with unresectable HCC.Eligibility criteria consisted of HCC patient over the age of 18 with reasonable organ function, unresectable but measurable disease, not candidates for chemoinfusion, and a performance status of 0 to 2. Imatinib was started at 300 mg/d orally with 100 mg/wk dose escalation up to 800 mg/d if toxicity permitted.Fifteen patients, median age 58 years, were enrolled and treated with imatinib. Most, or 7, patients had hepatitis B virus as a risk factor for HCC, followed by hepatitis C virus in 3 patients. Metastatic disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IV) was noted in 13 patients and locally advanced (stage III) in the remainder. The median dose-level of imatinib was 500 mg/d. Two patients had stable disease lasting more than 2 months. The remainder progressed within 2 months of initiation of imatinib. No grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity was observed. Two patients had grade 3 elevated liver function tests during treatment; otherwise, there was no other grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicity noted.Although toxicities were tolerable, imatinib as a monotherapy for the treatment of unresectable HCC has little, if any, significant efficacy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/COC.0b013e3181131db9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253102700014

    View details for PubMedID 18376233

  • NCCN Task Force report: management of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)--update of the NCCN clinical practice guidelines. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Demetri, G. D., Benjamin, R. S., Blanke, C. D., Blay, J., Casali, P., Choi, H., Corless, C. L., Debiec-Rychter, M., DeMatteo, R. P., Ettinger, D. S., Fisher, G. A., Fletcher, C. D., Gronchi, A., Hohenberger, P., Hughes, M., Joensuu, H., Judson, I., Le Cesne, A., Maki, R. G., Morse, M., Pappo, A. S., Pisters, P. W., Raut, C. P., Reichardt, P., Tyler, D. S., Van Den Abbeele, A. D., von Mehren, M., Wayne, J. D., Zalcberg, J. 2007; 5: S1-29


    The NCCN Soft Tissue Sarcoma Guidelines include a subsection about treatment recommendations for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The standard of practice rapidly changed after the introduction of effective molecularly targeted therapy (such as imatinib and sunitinib) for GIST. Because of these changes, NCCN organized a multidisciplinary panel composed of experts in the fields of medical oncology, molecular diagnostics, pathology, radiation oncology, and surgery to discuss the optimal approach for the care of patients with GIST at all stages of the disease. The GIST Task Force is composed of NCCN faculty and other key experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia. The Task Force met for the first time in October 2003 and again in December 2006 with the purpose of expanding on the existing NCCN guidelines for gastrointestinal sarcomas and identifying areas of future research to optimize our understanding and treatment of GIST.

    View details for PubMedID 17624289

  • Clinical trials of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in pancreatic cancer EXPERT OPINION ON INVESTIGATIONAL DRUGS Cabebe, E., Fisher, G. A. 2007; 16 (4): 467-476


    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries and is among the deadliest diseases in humans. At present, gemcitabine is the standard chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer, although (despite its use) prognosis continues to be dismal with a median survival of < 6 months. While targeting tumor vasculature has provided improved outcomes in colon, lung, breast and renal cell cancers, trials of angiogenesis inhibitors have lagged behind in pancreatic cancer. This review provides the rationale for exploring antiangiogenic therapies in the treatment of pancreatic cancer as well as summarizes present clinical development of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their application to pancreatic cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1517/13543784.16.4.467

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245307500007

    View details for PubMedID 17371195

  • Phase I study of I-131-chimeric(ch) TNT-1/B monoclonal antibody for the treatment of advanced colon cancer CANCER BIOTHERAPY AND RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS Street, H. H., Goris, M. L., Fisher, G. A., Wessels, B. W., Cho, C., Hernandez, C., Zhu, H. J., Zhang, Y., Nangiana, J. S., Shan, J. S., Roberts, K., Knox, S. J. 2006; 21 (3): 243-256


    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution and toxicity of 131I-chimeric(ch) TNT-1/B monoclonal antibody (MAB), which binds to intracellular antigens of necrotic regions within tumors, in patients with advanced colon or colorectal cancer. The rationale for targeting areas of tumor necrosis is the observation that necrotic lesions are more abundant in cancer lesions than in surrounding tissues.Cohorts of patients with advanced colon or colorectal cancer were administered a one-time 30-60-minute intravenous (i.v.) infusion of 131I-chTNT-1/B at doses ranging from 12.95 to 66.23 MBq/kg (0.35-1.79 mCi/kg).The dose-limiting toxicity, experienced at 66.23 MBq/kg (1.79 mCi/kg) 131I-chTNT-1/B MAB, was myelosuppression. Two (2) patients at the 66.23-MBq/kg (1.79 mCi/kg) dose level had both grade 3 thrombocytopenia and grade 3 neutropenia that persisted for at least 2 weeks but were reversible. The maximum tolerated dose was 58.09 MBq/kg (1.57 mCi/kg) 131I-chTNT-1/B MAB. Of the 21 patients, one developed a moderate human antichimeric antibody (HACA) response and 6 developed low HACA responses.The infusion of 131I-chTNT-1/B MAB was well tolerated, without significant nonhematological toxicity. No patient obtained a complete or partial response, based on tumor cross-product response criteria. Tumor localization was seen in patients with dose levels at, and exceeding, 50.23 MBq/kg (1.36 mCi/kg) 131I-chTNT-1/B MAB.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239162600010

    View details for PubMedID 16918301

  • Phase I study of gefitinib, oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFOX) in patients with advanced solid malignancies INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUGS Cho, C. D., Fisher, G. A., Halsey, J., Sikic, B. I. 2006; 24 (2): 117-123


    Aphase 1 study of gefitinib in combination with oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (IFOX)was conducted to evaluate the safety and feasibility of this regimen.Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with escalating doses of gefitinib (250 mg or 500 mg once daily) in combination with FOLFOX (oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin). The initial dose of oxaliplatin was 70 mg/m2 with sequential dose escalation to 85 mg/m2.Sixteen patients received a total of 138 14-day courses of daily gefitinib in combination with FOLFOX. Escalation of gefitinib from 250 mg/d to 500 mg/d with FOLFOX was well-tolerated. In addition, no severe toxicities precluded subsequent dose escalation of oxaliplatin from 70 mg/m2 to 85 mg/m2 at which no dose-limiting toxicity was seen. No further dose escalation was performed as this represented the oxaliplatin dose administered in the standard FOLFOX-4 regimen. The most predominant toxicity was diarrhea, which was well controlled with oral antidiarrheal agents. Four partial remissions occurred in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.Gefitinib as a 500 mg daily continuous dose was well tolerated in combination with full doses of FOLFOX-4.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10637-006-2032-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236793800003

    View details for PubMedID 16683204

  • A phase I trial of liposomal doxorubicin, paclitaxel and valspodar (PSC-833), an inhibitor of multidrug resistance ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY Advani, R., Lum, B. L., Fisher, G. A., Halsey, J., Chin, D. L., Jacobs, C. D., Sikic, B. I. 2005; 16 (12): 1968-1973


    The aim of this study was to determine (i) the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of liposomal doxorubicin (L-DOX) and paclitaxel (DP), (ii) the MTD of DP plus valspodar (DPV) and (iii) pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions of valspodar with L-DOX and paclitaxel.Twenty-three patients with metastatic cancers received DP, followed 4 weeks later by DPV. Dose levels of DP were (mg/m2 for L-DOX/paclitaxel): 30/135 (n = 7), 30/150 (n = 4), 35/150 (n = 8) and 40/150 (n = 4). Dose levels of DPV were 15/70 (n = 10) and 15/60 (n = 10). Serial, paired PK studies were performed.The MTD of DP was 40/150. For DPV at 15/70, five of 10 patients experienced grade 4 neutropenia. In the next cohort, a reduced dose of 15/60 was well tolerated. Valspodar produced reversible grade 3 ataxia in seven patients, requiring dose reduction from 5 to 4 mg/kg. Paired PK studies indicated no interaction between L-DOX and valspodar, and a 49% increase in the median half-life of paclitaxel. Two partial and one minor remissions were noted.The use of valspodar necessitated dose reductions of DP, with neutropenia being dose limiting. Valspodar PK interactions were observed with paclitaxel but not L-DOX.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/annonc/mdi396

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233489600018

    View details for PubMedID 16126736

  • Current status of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor in colorectal cancer. Clinical colorectal cancer Kuo, T., Fisher, G. A. 2005; 5: S62-70


    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is expressed in the majority of colorectal cancers (CRCs) and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Ample evidence suggests that inhibition of this pathway by monoclonal antibodies directed against EGFR leads to antitumor activity in CRC. Small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) provide distinct advantages over monoclonal antibodies by virtue of lower production costs, ease of oral administration, and ability to target multiple cellular survival pathways. Despite theoretical advantages, multiple early-phase trials of EGFR TKIs fail to demonstrate single-agent activity in CRC. However, the unusually high response rates observed when gefitinib, an EGFR TKI, is combined with chemotherapy for patients with metastatic CRC suggest a possible synergistic effect. This effect is not seen in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), for which larger phase III trials have been conducted. The differences between NSCLC and CRC with respect to EGFR expression and mutation status do not completely explain this dichotomy, and further investigation into the pharmacogenomics of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition in CRC is under way. Significant effort is directed toward newer strategies targeted at the EGFR in CRC. A new generation of small-molecule TKIs is emerging in which multiple receptor pathways, including ErbB2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, can be simultaneously targeted with EGFR. These agents are still in early-phase clinical trials, and specific data for patients with CRC are forthcoming.

    View details for PubMedID 16336751

  • A phase I trial of aprinocarsen (ISIS 3521/LY900003), an antisense inhibitor of protein kinase C-alpha administered as a 24-hour weekly infusion schedule in patients with advanced cancer INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUGS Advani, R., Lum, B. L., Fisher, G. A., Halsey, J., Geary, R. S., Holmlund, J. T., Kwoh, T. J., DORR, F. A., Sikic, B. I. 2005; 23 (5): 467-477


    A phase I study was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety profile and pharmacology of aprinocarsen (ISIS 3521), an antisense oligonucleotide to protein kinase C-alpha, in patients with refractory solid tumors.Fourteen patients were treated in sequential cohorts of aprinocarsen by 24-hour continuous infusion (CIV), weekly, at doses of 6, 12, 18 and 24 mg/kg.One grade 4 toxicity was observed, transient grade 4 neutropenia at 18 mg/kg. Grade 3 toxicities included neutropenia at 12 mg/kg, fever and hemorrhage at 18 mg/kg, and neutropenia, nausea, and chills at 24 mg/kg. Grade 2 toxicities included thrombocytopenia myalgias, chills, headache, fatigue, fever and nausea/vomiting. Mean prothrombin times and activated partial thromboplastin times (aPTT) increased by 10% and 29% from baseline (p = 0.006 and 0.005). Mean complement split products (Bb and C3a) increased 1.6-fold and 3.6-fold (from p = 0.014 and 0.004, respectively). These changes correlated with dose and were transient with recovery to baseline by day 7. Steady state plasma concentrations (Css) of aprinocarsen were achieved within four hours. Css better described changes in aPTT than dose. Clinical evidence of complement activation was not observed.In contrast to 21-day protracted infusion schedules, delivery of aprinocarsen over a 24-hour infusion schedule showed concentration-dependent effects on coagulation and complement, which are consistent with nonclinical toxicology studies performed in the phosphorothioate DNA antisense drug class. These coagulation and complement changes resulted in a maximum tolerated dose 24 mg/kg.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10637-005-2906-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231245000008

    View details for PubMedID 16133798

  • Phase II study to assess the efficacy of conventionally fractionated radiotherapy followed by a stereotactic radiosurgery boost in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Koong, A. C., Christofferson, E., Le, Q. T., Goodman, K. A., Ho, A., Kuo, T., Ford, J. M., Fisher, G. A., Greco, R., Norton, J., Yang, G. P. 2005; 63 (2): 320-323


    To determine the efficacy of concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) followed by body stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.In this prospective study, all patients (19) had pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and were uniformly staged. Our treatment protocol consisted of 45 Gy IMRT with concurrent 5-FU followed by a 25 Gy SRS boost to the primary tumor.Sixteen patients completed the planned therapy. Two patients experienced Grade 3 toxicity (none had more than Grade 3 toxicity). Fifteen of these 16 patients were free from local progression until death. Median overall survival was 33 weeks.Concurrent IMRT and 5-FU followed by SRS in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer results in excellent local control, but does not improve overall survival and is associated with more toxicity than SRS, alone.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.07.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232083700002

    View details for PubMedID 16168826

  • Phase II study of gefitinib, fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin therapy in previously treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Kuo, T., Cho, C. D., Halsey, J., Wakelee, H. A., Advani, R. H., Ford, J. M., Fisher, G. A., Sikic, B. I. 2005; 23 (24): 5613-5619


    To investigate the gefitinib, fluorouracil (FU), leucovorin, and oxaliplatin regimen (IFOX) in previously treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.Eligible patients had stage IV colorectal adenocarcinoma and had demonstrated progression or intolerance to a prior chemotherapy regimen not including oxaliplatin. Each cycle consisted of 14 days. Cycle 1 consisted of oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) during 2 hours on day 1, hours 0 to 2; leucovorin 200 mg/m2 IV on days 1 and 2, hours 0 to 2; FU 400 mg/m2 IV push on days 1 and 2; and FU 600 mg/m2 IV on days 1 and 2, hours 2 to 24 (FOLFOX-4). All subsequent cycles consisted of FOLFOX-4 with gefitinib at 500 mg/d administered orally throughout the 14-day cycle.Twenty-seven patients were enrolled onto the study. The median number of prior chemotherapy regimens was two, and 74% of all patients received prior irinotecan. Nine of the 27 patients (33%) and six of the 20 patients (30%) who had prior FU and irinotecan had a partial response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Group criteria. Median overall survival was 12.0 months. Median event-free survival was 5.4 months. Grade 3 to 4 toxicities included neutropenia (48%), diarrhea (48%), nausea (22%), and vomiting (15%).IFOX is an active regimen in patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma, demonstrating higher response rates than those reported with FOLFOX-4 alone in a similar patient population.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2005.08.359

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231371700034

    View details for PubMedID 16110021

  • A phase I trial of irinotecan (CPT-11) with amifostine in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUGS Wakelee, H., Fisher, G. A. 2005; 23 (3): 241-242

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10637-005-6732-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228876800006

    View details for PubMedID 15868380

  • Phase II study of thalidomide in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma CANCER Lin, A. Y., Brophy, N., Fisher, G. A., So, S., Biggs, C., Yock, T. I., Levitt, L. 2005; 103 (1): 119-125


    The hypervascular nature of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is well characterized. Recent data have suggested that thalidomide possesses antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory activity. Therefore, the authors initiated a study to assess the efficacy and toxicity of thalidomide in patients with advanced HCC as primary and secondary endpoints, respectively.Inclusion criteria were unresectable HCC with bidimentionally measurable disease, age > or = 18 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status < or = 2, and adequate organ function. Thalidomide was administered at a starting dose of 200 mg per day in a 100-mg-per-week dose escalation regimen, up to the maximum tolerated dose or to 800 mg per day. Toxicity was monitored according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria.Twenty-six of 27 patients were eligible and assessable for toxicity and response. A median daily dose of 300 mg was achieved. One patient experienced near-complete recovery of alpha-fetoprotein levels and a partial radiographic response on computed tomography. Two patients had stable disease during the 16-week study period. The median duration of progression-free survival was 42 days. The overall median survival was 123 days. Fatigue and somnolence were the most common side effects, occurring in 81% and 62% of patients, respectively. No Grade 4 hematologic toxicity was observed. Three patients experienced Grade 4 hepatic toxicity (namely, hyperbilirubinemia).With gradual dose escalation, thalidomide was tolerated in most patients with advanced HCC. However, treatment with thalidomide alone was associated with only a modest response in the treatment of HCC.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.20732

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226237000015

    View details for PubMedID 15565573

  • Phase I study of stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Koong, A. C., Le, Q. T., Ho, A., Fong, B., Fisher, G., Cho, C., Ford, J., Poen, J., Gibbs, I. C., Mehta, V. K., Kee, S., Trueblood, W., Yang, G., Bastidas, J. A. 2004; 58 (4): 1017-1021


    To determine the feasibility and toxicity of delivering stereotactic radiosurgery to patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status < or=2 and locally advanced pancreatic cancer were enrolled on this Phase I dose escalation study. Patients received a single fraction of radiosurgery consisting of either 15 Gy, 20 Gy, or 25 Gy to the primary tumor. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Response to treatment was determined by serial high-resolution computed tomography scanning.Fifteen patients were treated at 3 dose levels (3 patients received 15 Gy, 5 patients received 20 Gy, and 7 patients received 25 Gy). At these doses, no Grade 3 or higher acute gastrointestinal toxicity was observed. This trial was stopped before any dose-limiting toxicity was reached, because the clinical objective of local control was achieved in all 6 evaluable patients treated at 25 Gy.It is feasible to deliver stereotactic radiosurgery to patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. The recommended dose to achieve local control without significant acute gastrointestinal toxicity is 25 Gy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2003.11.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220084200001

    View details for PubMedID 15001240

  • A phase II trial of aprinocarsen, an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of protein kinase C alpha, administered as a 21-day infusion to patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma CANCER Advani, R., Peethambaram, P., Lum, B. L., Fisher, G. A., Hartmann, L., Long, H. J., Halsey, J., Holmlund, J. T., Dorr, A., Sikic, B. I. 2004; 100 (2): 321-326


    It has been postulated that protein kinase C alpha (PKC-alpha) plays a pivotal role in signal transduction in tumor cancer cells. Aprinocarsen, a 20-base antisense oligonucleotide, has shown ability to inhibit PKC-alpha protein expression and inhibit tumor growth in human xenograft models. In a previous Phase I trial, the authors demonstrated the safety and some evidence of activity in ovarian carcinoma of aprinocarsen administered as a 21-day, continuous, intravenous infusion.In this Phase II trial, 36 patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma were treated with aprinocarsen at a dose of 2 mg/kg per day delivered as a 21-day, continuous, intravenous infusion. The primary objective was to determine the antitumor response, and the secondary objectives were to evaluate toxicity and to evaluate effects on quality of life (QOL).Between September 1997 and December 1999, 36 patients (median age, 58 years) were enrolled in this trial. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: a platinum-sensitive group (n = 12 patients) and a platinum-resistant group (n = 24 patients). All 36 patients were evaluable for toxicity, and 27 patients were fully assessable for antitumor response after 2 cycles of therapy. All patients had received prior treatments. No objective responses were noted in the platinum-sensitive group. In the platinum-resistant group, 1 patient had some evidence of antitumor activity indicated by a decrease in serum CA 125 and stable disease on imaging studies for 8 months. No changes were noted in overall patient ratings for any of the five QOL domains.When it was administered as a single agent, aprinocarsen did not have significant clinical activity in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. Further study may be warranted in combination with platinum-based regimens.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.11909

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188610500016

    View details for PubMedID 14716767

  • A phase II study of gefitinib in combination with FOLFOX-4 (IFOX) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Cho, C. D., Fisher, G. A., Halsey, J., Jambalos, C. N., Schwartz, E. J., Rouse, R. V., Advani, R. H., Wakelee, H. A., Lum, B. L., Sikic, B. I. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2003: 6103S-6103S
  • Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of BMS-188797, a new taxane analog, administered on a weekly schedule in patients with advanced malignancies CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Advani, R., Fisher, G. A., Lum, B. L., Jambalos, C., Cho, C. D., Cohen, M., Gollerkeri, A., Sikic, B. I. 2003; 9 (14): 5187-5194


    The purpose of this study was to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and preliminary activity of BMS-188797 administered weekly.Patients with advanced malignancies were treated with escalating doses of BMS-188797 on a weekly schedule as a 1-h i.v. infusion. Plasma sampling was performed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of BMS-188797.Eighteen patients with advanced malignancies were enrolled at three dose levels ranging from 35 to 65 mg/m(2). The number of patients evaluated at each dose level was as follows: 35 mg/m(2) (n = 3); 50 mg/m(2) (n = 9); and 65 mg/m(2) (n = 6). At 65 mg/m(2), three of six patients had a DLT (one had grade 4 neutropenia lasting >7 days, and two had grade 3 diarrhea). Expansion of the 50-mg/m(2) dose cohort to nine patients established this dose as the MTD, with one patient experiencing a DLT (grade 4 neutropenia with fever). Two partial responses were observed (lung cancer, 7+ months; ovarian cancer, 6+ months durations), as well as two minor responses (esophageal cancer, 5 months; ovarian cancer, 5 months). Both patients with partial responses had been clinically resistant to paclitaxel. Plasma pharmacokinetic mean values of maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC(0-48)) increased in a dose-dependent manner within the range of doses used in this study, and in three of four patients, the DLTs correlated with AUC.The MTD and the recommended Phase II dose of weekly BMS-188797 is 50 mg/m(2). The drug demonstrates antitumor activity in taxane-refractory solid tumors and is now being evaluated in combination with carboplatin.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186558400017

    View details for PubMedID 14613998

  • Phase II trial of preoperative 3D conformal radiotherapy, protracted venous infusion 5-fluorouracil, and weekly CPT-11, followed by surgery for ultrasound-staged T3 rectal cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Mehta, V. K., Cho, C., Ford, J. M., Jambalos, C., Poen, J., Koong, A., Lin, A., Bastidas, J. A., Young, H., Dunphy, E. P., Fisher, G. 2003; 55 (1): 132-137


    CPT-11 sensitizes tumor cells to radiation and in combination therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) results in enhanced cytotoxicity to metastatic colorectal cancer. We report the results from a Phase II trial of preoperative radiotherapy (RT), CPT-11, and 5-FU for patients with ultrasound-staged T3 rectal cancer.Between April 1999 and August 2001, 32 patients (21 men, 11 women; median age 52 years, range 40-74) with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the rectum were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent endorectal ultrasonography for staging (uT3N0 = 19; uT3N1 = 13; uT2N1 = 1). RT was prescribed to the draining lymph nodes (45 Gy in 1.8-Gy daily fractions) and tumor (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy daily fractions). Patients also received concurrent CPT-11 (50 mg/m(2), Days 1, 8, 15, and 22) and 5-FU (200 mg/m(2) daily, 7 d/wk, Days 1-33). Surgical resection was performed 6-10 weeks after completing chemoradiotherapy.Acute toxicity was frequently observed, and 18 patients (56%) required either a chemotherapy dose reduction or RT interruption of >3 days. One patient withdrew because of diarrhea and abdominal cramping (Grade III) after 10 days of treatment. Although no Grade IV toxicity was observed, Grade III diarrhea (n = 9, 28%), mucositis (n = 7, 21%), rectal sores (n = 7, 21%), abdominal cramping (n = 3, 9%) were noted. Of the 32 patients who underwent surgery, 12 had a complete pathologic response. Of the 32 patients, the disease of 23 (71%) was downstaged. The average length of hospitalization was between 5 and 12 days, with 1 patient staying 33 days. All patients were followed for disease-free survival.Although associated with frequent acute toxicity, the regimen is associated with significant tumor "downstaging." Additional patients and longer follow-up are necessary to define the role of this regimen fully.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181070600018

    View details for PubMedID 12504045

  • Altered peptide ligand vaccination with Flt3 ligand expanded dendritic cells for tumor immunotherapy PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Fong, L., Hou, Y. F., Rivas, A., Benike, C., Yuen, A., Fisher, G. A., DAVIS, M. M., Engleman, E. G. 2001; 98 (15): 8809-8814


    Most tumor-associated antigens represent self-proteins and as a result are poorly immunogenic due to immune tolerance. Here we show that tolerance to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is overexpressed by the majority of lethal malignancies, can be reversed by immunization with a CEA-derived peptide. This peptide was altered to make it a more potent T cell antigen and loaded onto dendritic cells (DCs) for delivery as a cellular vaccine. Although DCs are rare in the blood, we found that treatment of advanced cancer patients with Flt3 ligand, a hematopoietic growth factor, expanded DCs 20-fold in vivo. Immunization with these antigen-loaded DCs induced CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes that recognized tumor cells expressing endogenous CEA. Staining with peptide-MHC tetramers demonstrated the expansion of CD8 T cells that recognize both the native and altered epitopes and possess an effector cytotoxic T lymphocyte phenotype (CD45RA(+)CD27(-)CCR7(-)). After vaccination, two of 12 patients experienced dramatic tumor regression, one patient had a mixed response, and two had stable disease. Clinical response correlated with the expansion of CD8 tetramer(+) T cells, confirming the role of CD8 T cells in this treatment strategy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169967000107

    View details for PubMedID 11427731

  • A phase I trial of doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and valspodar (PSC 833), a modulator of multidrug resistance Advani, R., Fisher, G. A., Lum, B. L., Hausdorff, J., Halsey, J., Litchman, M., Sikic, B. I. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2001: 1221-1229


    P-glycoprotein is an efflux pump for many drugs including doxorubicin and paclitaxel. This study evaluated the coadministration of these drugs with the P-glycoprotein inhibitor valspodar (PSC 833) with the aim of determining: (a) maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) of doxorubicin followed by paclitaxel (DP); (b) the MTD of DP combined with PSC 833 (DPV), without and with filgrastim (G-CSF); and (c) the pharmacokinetic interactions of PSC 833 with doxorubicin and paclitaxel.For the first cycle, patients received doxorubicin as a 15-min infusion followed by paclitaxel as a 1-h infusion. For the second cycle, patients received reduced doses of DP with PSC 833 at 5 mg/kg p.o., four times a day for 12 doses.Thirty-three patients with various refractory malignancies were enrolled and assessable. The MTD of DP without PSC 833 was 35 mg/m(2) doxorubicin and 150 mg/m(2) paclitaxel. The MTD of DPV without G-CSF was 12.5 mg/m(2) doxorubicin and 70 mg/m(2) paclitaxel. The dose-limiting toxicity for both DP and DPV was neutropenia without thrombocytopenia. With G-CSF, the MTD for DPV was 20 mg/m(2) doxorubicin and 90 mg/m(2) paclitaxel. No grade 4 nonhematological toxicities were observed. Five partial and two minor tumor remissions were observed. Paired pharmacokinetics with and without PSC 833 revealed substantial drug interactions with both doxorubicin and paclitaxel.PSC 833 can be administered safely with doxorubicin and paclitaxel. The pharmacokinetic profiles of these drugs are significantly affected by PSC 833, requiring approximately 60% dose reductions for equivalent degrees of myelosuppression.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168768500018

    View details for PubMedID 11350887

  • Protracted venous infusion 5-fluorouracil with concomitant radiotherapy compared with bolus 5-fluorouracil for unresectable pancreatic cancer AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY-CANCER CLINICAL TRIALS Mehta, V. K., Poen, J. C., Ford, J. M., Oberhelman, H. A., Vierra, M. A., Bastidas, A. J., Fisher, G. A. 2001; 24 (2): 155-159


    Radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) administered by protracted venous infusion (PVI) replaced our prior institutional protocol of RT with bolus administration of 5-FU as standard therapy for unresectable pancreatic cancer in 1994. In this article, we compare the treatment intensity, toxicity, and outcome for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer treated on these sequential protocols. Fifty-four patients, 27 on each protocol, with biopsy-confirmed pancreatic cancer received chemoradiotherapy. The radiotherapy field included the gross tumor volume and regional lymph nodes to a dose of 45 Gy, followed by "boost" to the gross tumor volume to 54 Gy to 60 Gy. From 1987 to 1994, patients received concurrent 5-FU administered by bolus injection, at a dose of 500 mg/m2 on days 1 to 3 and days 29 to 31 of RT. After December 1994, 5-FU was administered by PVI (200-250 mg/m2) beginning on day 1 and continuing until the completion of RT. The chemotherapy treatment intensity was increased in the group receiving 5-FU by PVI, as evidenced by an increased average weekly and cumulative dose of 5-FU (p < 0.01). The radiotherapy treatment intensity was equivalent between the two groups. The incidence of objectively quantified toxicity was not statistically different between treatment groups. Overall survival remained poor in both treatment groups. With a median follow-up of 18 months (range: 3-30 months) for surviving patients, the 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year survivals for the PVI 5-FU-treated group versus the bolus 5-FU-treated group were 56% versus 52%, 34% versus 18%, and 22% versus 13%, respectively (p = 0.9). Radiotherapy with concomitant 5-FU by PVI results in a greater weekly and total dose of chemotherapy. The method of 5-FU administration (bolus versus PVI) did not change the RT treatment intensity, experienced toxicity, or overall survival.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168186300012

    View details for PubMedID 11319291

  • Center experience in liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhosis Lai, K. M., MILLAN, M., Razavi, M., Keeffe, E. B., Prapong, W., Fisher, G. A., Esquivel, C. O., So, S. K. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2001: 1490-1491

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167629900694

    View details for PubMedID 11267387

  • Preoperative chemoradiation for marginally resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas Mehta, V. K., Fisher, G., Ford, J. A., Poen, J. C., Vierra, M. A., Oberbelman, H., Niederhuber, J., Bastidas, J. A. SPRINGER. 2001: 27-35


    Only 10% to 20% of patients with pancreatic cancer are considered candidates for curative resection at the time of diagnosis. We postulated that preoperative chemoradiation therapy might promote tumor regression, eradicate nodal metastases, and allow for definitive surgical resection in marginally resectable patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a preoperative chemoradiation therapy regimen on tumor response, resectability, and local control among patients with marginally resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and to report potential treatment-related toxicity. Patients with marginally resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (defined as portal vein, superior mesenteric vein, or artery involvement) were eligible for this protocol. Patients received 50.4 to 56 Gy in 1.8 to 2.0 Gy/day fractions with concurrent protracted venous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (250 mg/m2/day). Reevaluation for surgical resection occurred 4 to 6 weeks after therapy. Fifteen patients (9 men and 6 women) completed preoperative chemoradiation without interruption. One patient required a reduction in the dosage of 5-fluorouracil because of stomatitis. Acute toxicity from chemoradiation consisted of grade 1 or 2 nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis, palmar and plantar erythrodysesthesia, and hematologic suppression. CA 19-9 levels declined in all nine of the patients with elevated pretreatment levels. Nine of the 15 patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy, and all had uninvolved surgical margins. Two of these patients had a complete pathologic response, and two had microscopic involvement of a single lymph node. With a median follow-up of 30 months, the median survival for resected patients was 30 months, whereas in the unresected group median survival was 8 months. Six of the nine patients who underwent resection remain alive and disease free with follow-up of 12, 30, 30, 34, 39, and 72 months, respectively. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy is well tolerated. It may downstage tumors, sterilize regional lymph nodes, and improve resectability in patients with marginally resectable pancreatic cancer. Greater patient accrual and longer follow-up are needed to more accurately assess its future role in therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167919800010

    View details for PubMedID 11309645

  • Radiotherapy, concomitant protracted-venous-infusion 5-fluorouracil, and surgery for ultrasound-staged T3 or T4 rectal cancer Mehta, V. K., Poen, J., Ford, J., Edelstein, P. S., Vierra, M., Bastidas, A. J., Young, H., Fisher, G. SPRINGER. 2001: 52-58


    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the response and toxicity of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for ultrasound-staged T3 or T4 rectal cancer.Since 1995, 30 patients (18 males; median age, 56 (range, 25-83) years) have received preoperative chemoradiotherapy for ultrasound-staged T3 or T4 rectal cancer. All patients underwent an endorectal ultrasound, CT scan, and review in our multidisciplinary Gastrointestinal Tumor Board before treatment. All patients had pathology-demonstrated invasive adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Eleven patients were Stage T3N0, 14 were T3N1, and five were T4N1. Patients received radiotherapy to the primary tumor and draining lymph nodes (45 Gy) followed by a tumor boost (50.4-54 Gy). Protracted-venous-infusion 5-fluorouracil (225 mg/m2 per day, seven days per week) was administered throughout treatment. Surgical resection was performed six to ten weeks after completing chemoradiotherapy. Using endorectal ultrasound measurements, the primary tumor was a median of 4 (range, 0-12) cm from the anal verge, encompassed 50 (range, 20-90) percent of the rectal circumference, and was 6 (range, 3-12) cm in diameter.No Grade 4 toxicity was observed during chemoradiotherapy. Three patients experienced Grade 3 toxicity (diarrhea), and four patients required a treatment interruption of greater than three days. All patients completed at least 90 percent of the prescribed radiotherapy dose. All patients underwent surgical resection. Ninety-four percent had clear surgical margins. All pathologic specimens had significant evidence of necrosis, hyalinization, and fibrosis. Thirty-three percent of the specimens had a complete pathologic response (defined as no evidence of viable tumor cells). Of the 19 patients with ultrasound-staged N1 disease, only five had pathologic evidence of nodal involvement after chemoradiotherapy. Of the 25 patients with ultrasound-staged T3 disease, pathologic staging revealed eight with T0, two with T1, five with T2, and ten with T3 disease. Of the five patients with ultrasound-staged T4 disease, pathologic staging revealed two with T0, one with T2, and two with T3 disease. No patient developed progressive disease while on treatment. Two patients have experienced local failure at 6 and 20 months, and one patient failed in the liver at seven months. Twenty-seven patients remain free of disease with a median follow-up of 20 (range, 3-53) months.Our experience suggests that preoperative chemoradiotherapy is well tolerated, down-stages tumors, and sterilizes regional lymph nodes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166587400015

    View details for PubMedID 11805563

  • Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for "unfavorable" carcinoma of the ampulla of vater - Preliminary report ARCHIVES OF SURGERY Mehta, V. K., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Poen, J. C., Vierra, M. A., Oberhelman, H. A., Bastidas, A. J. 2001; 136 (1): 65-69


    Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy decreases the risk of local recurrence in patients with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater and high-risk features. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for this population can be administered safely and without much morbidity.Controlled, prospective, single-arm study.Tertiary care referral hospital.From June 1995 to March 1999, 12 patients (7 men and 5 women; median age, 66 years; age range, 38-78 years) with "unfavorable" ampullary carcinoma were treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. All patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy, and all pathologic findings were confirmed at Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, Calif. Unfavorable features were defined as involved lymph nodes (n = 10), involved surgical margins (n = 1), poorly differentiated histological features (n = 3), tumor size greater than 2 cm (n = 6), or the presence of neurovascular invasion (n = 4).Four to 6 weeks after undergoing pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy with regional lymphadenectomy, patients began adjuvant chemoradiotherapy consisting of concurrent radiotherapy (45 Gy) and fluorouracil by protracted venous infusion (225-250 mg/m(2) per day, 7 days per week) for 5 weeks.Local recurrence, distant recurrence, overall survival rate, and treatment-related toxic effects.All patients completed the prescribed treatment course. Toxic effects were assessed twice a week during treatment and graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Scale. One patient required a treatment interruption of 1 week for grade III nausea/vomiting. No grade IV or V toxic effects were observed. At median follow-up of 24 months (range, 13-50 months), 8 of 12 patients were alive and disease free. One patient was alive but had disease recurrence. Three patients died of this disease (liver metastases). Actuarial overall survival at 2 years was 89%, and median survival was 34 months. One surviving patient developed a local recurrence and a lung lesion. Actuarial overall survival and median survival were better than in a parallel cohort with resected high-risk pancreatic cancer (n = 26) treated with the same adjuvant chemoradiotherapy regimen (median survival, 34 vs 14 months; P<.004).Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater is well tolerated and might improve control of this disease in patients with unfavorable features.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166307500014

    View details for PubMedID 11146780

  • Adjuvant radiotherapy and concomitant 5-fluorouracil by protracted venous infusion for resected pancreatic cancer INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Mehta, V. K., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Oberhelman, H. A., Vierra, M. A., Bastidas, A. J., Poen, J. C. 2000; 48 (5): 1483-1487


    To assess the toxicity and clinical benefit from adjuvant chemoradiotherapy consisting of protracted venous infusion 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and concomitant radiotherapy in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.Between 1994 and 1999, 52 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The tumor bed and regional nodes received a dose of 45 Gy in fractions of 1.8 Gy followed by boost to the tumor bed if the surgical margins were involved (total dose, 54 Gy). The patients also received concomitant 5-FU by protracted venous infusion (200-250 mg/m(2)/day, 7 days/week) during the entire radiotherapy course.Fifty-two patients (30 men, 22 women) were enrolled and treated on this protocol. The median age was 63 years (range, 38-78 years), and the median Karnofsky Performance Status was 80 (range, 70-100). Thirty-five percent had involved surgical margins and 59% had involved lymph nodes. All patients completed therapy, and there were no Grade IV/V toxicities observed. With median follow-up of 24 months (range, 3-52 months) for surviving patients, the median survival is 32 months, and 2-year and 3-year survivals are 62%, and 39%, respectively.Radiotherapy with concomitant 5-FU by protracted venous infusion as adjuvant treatment for resected pancreatic cancer is well tolerated. This approach allows for greater dose intensity with reduced toxicity. The median survival of this cohort of patients compares favorably with our earlier experience and other published series.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165604600030

    View details for PubMedID 11121652

  • Pancreatic tumors show high levels of hypoxia Koong, A. C., Mehta, V. K., Le, Q. T., Fisher, G. A., Terris, D. J., Brown, J. M., Bastidas, A. J., Vierra, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2000: 919-922


    Because of the dismal outcomes of conventional therapies for pancreatic carcinomas, we postulated that hypoxia may exist within these tumors.Seven sequential patients with adenocarcinomas of the pancreas consented to intraoperative measurements of tumor oxygenation using the Eppendorf (Hamburg, Germany) polargraphic electrode.All 7 tumors demonstrated significant tumor hypoxia. In contrast, adjacent normal pancreas showed normal oxygenation.Tumor hypoxia exists within pancreatic cancers.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165238800002

    View details for PubMedID 11072146

  • Effect of high-dose cyclosporine on etoposide pharmacodynamics in a trial to reverse P-glycoprotein (MDR1 gene) mediated drug resistance CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AND PHARMACOLOGY Lum, B. L., Kaubisch, S., Fisher, G. A., Brown, B. W., Sikic, B. I. 2000; 45 (4): 305-311


    The consequences of using cyclosporine (CsA) therapy to modulate P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance include increased myelosuppression, hyperbilirubinemia, and altered disposition of the cytotoxin. The purpose of this study was to analyze further the relationship between the degree of leukopenia, and etoposide pharmacokinetic factors.Each patient initially received intravenously-administered etoposide alone (150-200 mg/m2/d x 3). Later it was given in combination with CsA administered at escalating loading doses (range 2-7 mg/kg) as a 2 hour intravenous (IV) infusion followed by a 3 day continuous infusion, at doses ranging from 5 to 21 mg/ kg/day. Serial plasma etoposide concentration-time samples were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The area under the curve (AUC) of unbound etoposide was calculated from the total plasma etoposide AUC using a previous published equation [22] where % unbound etoposide = (1.4 x total bilirubin) - (6.8 x serum albumin) + 34.4. The percent decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count and the total or unbound etoposide AUC relationship was fitted to a sigmoid Emax model adapted for paired observations, where: % Decrease in WBC count =E(max) x PDRV(H+Z x delta)/(PDRV50 + Z x beta) + PDRVH + Z x delta In this equation, Z was the variable describing the two treatment groups (0 = no CsA and 1 = CsA). The fitted parameters were PDRV50, the pharmacodynamic response variable (PDRV) producing 50% of the maximal response; parameter beta, which describes the effect of the treatment group on the PDRV50; parameter H (Hill constant), which defines the slope of the response curve and parameter delta, which describes the effect of the treatment group on parameter H.CsA at a median concentration of 1,938 microg/ml resulted in a median increase in the total plasma etoposide AUC by 103% and the calculated unbound plasma etoposide AUC by 104%. This paralleled a 12% greater median percent decrease in WBC count during etoposide + CsA treatment (72% vs. 84%, P = 0.03). The percent decrease in WBC count and total or unbound etoposide AUC relationship was fitted to the sigmoid Emax model. The model using the unbound etoposide AUC described the data adequately (r = 0.790) and was precise, with a mean absolute error of 6.4% (95% confidence interval: -4.9, 7.8). The fitted parameter-estimates suggested that at equivalent unbound etoposide AUC values above 10 microg x h/ml, the sigmoid Emax model predicted a 5% greater WBC count suppression when CsA was added to the treatment regimen.These findings suggest that a small degree of the enhanced myelosuppression observed with CsA combined with etoposide might be attributable to inhibition of P-glycoprotein in bone marrow precursor cells. However, the majority of the effect observed appears to be due to pharmacokinetic interactions, which result in increases in unbound etoposide.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086159200007

    View details for PubMedID 10755319

  • Phase I study of an antisense oligonucleotide to protein kinase C-alpha (ISIS 3521/CGP 64128A) in patients with cancer CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Yuen, A. R., Halsey, J., Fisher, G. A., Holmlund, J. T., Geary, R. S., Kwoh, T. J., Dorr, A., Sikic, B. I. 1999; 5 (11): 3357-3363


    Protein kinase C (PKC) is an attractive target in cancer therapy. It is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, and nonspecific inhibitors of PKC have demonstrated antitumor activity. Antisense oligonucleotides targeted against PKC-alpha, which have high specificity, can inhibit mRNA and protein expression as well as the growth of tumors in vitro and in vivo. This Phase I study sought to characterize the safety profile and to determine the maximum tolerated dose of antisense to PKC-alpha when administered by continuous infusion in patients. Patients with incurable malignancies received ISIS 3521, a 20-length phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide specific for PKC-alpha. Treatment was delivered over a period of 21 days by continuous i.v. infusion followed by a 7-day rest period. Doses were increased from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/kg/day. Patients continued on the study until evidence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity was detected. Between August 1996 and September 1997, 21 patients were treated in five patient cohorts. The maximum tolerated dose was 2.0 mg/kg/day. The dose-limiting toxicities were thrombocytopenia and fatigue at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg/day. Pharmacokinetic measurements showed rapid plasma clearance and dose-dependent steady-state concentrations of ISIS 3521. Evidence of tumor response lasting up to 11 months was observed in three of four patients with ovarian cancer. The recommended dose of ISIS 3521 for Phase II studies is 2.0 mg/kg/day when given over a period of 21 days. Side effects are modest and consist of thrombocytopenia and fatigue. Evidence of antitumor activity provides the rationale for Phase II studies in ovarian cancer and other malignancies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083853200005

    View details for PubMedID 10589745

  • Chemo-radiotherapy for localized pancreatic cancer: Increased dose intensity and reduced acute toxicity with concomitant radiotherapy and protracted venous infusion 5-fluorouracil INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Poen, J. C., Collins, H. L., Niederhuber, J. E., Oberhelman, H. A., Vierra, M. A., Bastidas, A. J., Young, H. S., Slosberg, E. A., Jeffrey, B. R., Longacre, T. A., Fisher, G. A., Goffinet, D. R. 1998; 40 (1): 93-99


    Although concomitant radiation therapy (RT) and bolus 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) have been shown to improve survival in locally confined pancreatic cancer, most patients will eventually succumb to their disease. Since 1994, we have attempted to improve efficacy by administering 5-FU as a protracted venous infusion (PVI). This study compares treatment intensity and acute toxicity of consecutive protocols of concurrent RT and 5-FU by bolus injection or PVI.Since 1986, 74 patients with resected or locally advanced pancreatic cancer were treated with continuous course RT and concurrent 5-FU by bolus injection (n = 44) or PVI throughout the course of RT (n = 30). Dose intensity was assessed for both 5-FU and radiotherapy. Toxicity endpoints which could be reliably and objectively quantified (e.g., neutropenia, weight loss, treatment interruption) were evaluated.Cumulative 5-FU dose (mean = 7.2 vs. 2.5 gm/m2, p < 0.001) and weekly 5-FU dose (mean = 1.3 vs. 0.5 gm/m2/wk, p < 0.001) were significantly higher for patients receiving PVI 5-FU. Following pancreaticoduodenectomy, 95% of PVI patients maintained a RT dose intensity of > or = 900 cGy/wk, compared with 63% of those receiving bolus 5-FU (p = 0.02). No difference was seen for patients with locally advanced disease (72% vs. 76%, p = n.s.). Grade II-III neutropenia was less common for patients treated with PVI (13% vs. 34%, p = 0.05). Grade II-III thrombocytopenia was uncommon (< or = 3%) in both treatment groups. Mean percent weight loss (3.8% vs. 4.1%, p = n.s.) and weight loss > or = 5% of pre-treatment weight (21% vs. 31%, p = n.s.) were similar for PVI and bolus treatment groups, respectively. Treatment interruptions for hematologic, gastrointestinal or other acute toxicities were less common for patients receiving PVI 5-FU (10% vs. 25%, p = 0.11).Concurrent RT and 5-FU by PVI was well tolerated and permitted greater chemotherapy and radiotherapy dose intensity with reduced hematologic toxicity and fewer treatment interruptions compared with RT and bolus 5-FU. Longer follow-up will be needed to assess late effects and the impact on overall survival.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071164200015

    View details for PubMedID 9422563

  • Modulation and prevention of multidrug resistance by inhibitors of P-glycoprotein CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AND PHARMACOLOGY Sikic, B. I., Fisher, G. A., Lum, B. L., Halsey, J., BEKETICORESKOVIC, L., Chen, G. 1997; 40: S13-S19


    Intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) in many human cancers may be due to expression of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which is encoded by the mdr1 gene. There is substantial evidence that Pgp is expressed both as an acquired mechanism (e.g., in leukemias, lymphomas, myeloma, and breast and ovarian carcinomas) and constitutively (e.g., in colorectal and renal cancers) and that its expression is of prognostic significance in many types of cancer. Clinical trials of MDR modulation are complicated by the presence of multiple-drug-resistance mechanisms in human cancers, the pharmacokinetic interactions that result from the inhibition of Pgp in normal tissues, and, until recently, the lack of potent and specific inhibitors of Pgp. A large number of clinical trials of reversal of MDR have been undertaken with drugs that are relatively weak inhibitors and produce limiting toxicities at doses below those necessary to inhibit Pgp significantly. The advent of newer drugs such as the cyclosporin PSC 833 (PSC) provides clinicians with more potent and specific inhibitors for MDR modulation trials. Understanding how modulators of Pgp such as PSC 833 affect the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of cytotoxic agents is fundamental for the design of therapeutic trials of MDR modulation. Our studies of combinations of high-dose cyclosporin (CsA) or PSC 833 with etoposide, doxorubicin, or paclitaxel have produced data regarding the role of Pgp in the clinical pharmacology of these agents. Major pharmacokinetic interactions result from the coadministration of CsA or PSC 833 with MDR-related anticancer agents (e.g., doxorubicin, daunorubicin, etoposide, paclitaxel, and vinblastine). These include increases in the plasma area under the curve and half-life and decreases in the clearance of these cytotoxic drugs, consistent with Pgp modulation at the biliary lumen and renal tubule, blocking excretion of drugs into the bile and urine. The biological and medical implications of our studies include the following. First, Pgp is a major organic cation transporter in tissues responsible for the excretion of xenobiotics (both drugs and toxins) by the biliary tract and proximal tubule of the kidney. Our clinical data are supported by recent studies in mdr-gene-knockout mice. Second, modulation of Pgp in tumors is likely to be accompanied by altered Pgp function in normal tissues, with pharmacokinetic interactions manifesting as inhibition of the disposition of MDR-related cytotoxins (which are transport substrates for Pgp). Third, these pharmacokinetic interactions of Pgp modulation are predictable if one defines the pharmacology of the modulating agent and the combination. The interactions lead to increased toxicities such as myelosuppression unless doses are modified to compensate for the altered disposition of MDR-related cytotoxins. Fourth, in serial studies where patients are their own controls and clinical resistance is established, remissions are observed when CsA or PSC 833 is added to therapy, even when doses of the cytotoxin are reduced by as much as 3-fold. This reversal of clinical drug resistance occurs particularly when the tumor cells express the mdr1 gene. Thus, tumor regression can be obtained without apparent increases in normal tissue toxicities. In parallel with these trials, we have recently demonstrated in the laboratory that PSC 833 decreases the mutation rate for resistance to doxorubicin and suppresses activation of mdr1 and the appearance of MDR mutants. These findings suggest that MDR modulation may delay the emergence of clinical drug resistance and support the concept of prevention of drug resistance in the earlier stages of disease and the utilization of time to progression as an important endpoint in clinical trials. Pivotal phase III trials to test these concepts with PSC 833 as an MDR modulator are under way or planned for patients with acute myeloid leukemias, multiple myeloma, and ovarian carcinoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XR32900004

    View details for PubMedID 9272128

  • Pharmacological considerations in the modulation of multidrug resistance EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER Fisher, G. A., Lum, B. L., Hausdorff, J., Sikic, B. I. 1996; 32A (6): 1082-1088

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UT29600020

    View details for PubMedID 8763350

  • Drug resistance in clinical oncology and hematology. Introduction. Hematology/oncology clinics of North America Fisher, G. A., Sikic, B. I. 1995; 9 (2): xi-xii

    View details for PubMedID 7642462



    Improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying chemotherapeutic failure has led to new strategies to circumvent drug resistance. Expression of the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is likely to be a significant mechanism contributing to the clinical resistance of some cancers to chemotherapy. Phase I trials of currently available MDR modulators have yielded important pharmacologic principles pertaining to normal tissue P-gp function and its influence on the disposition of MDR-related anticancer drugs. Currently available P-glycoprotein inhibitors lack the potency to completely reverse the MDR phenotype at clinically achievable concentrations. Despite this, encouraging clinical results have been obtained in the hematolymphoid malignancies. As these more potent modulators become available, careful characterization of pharmacologic interactions with MDR-related cytotoxins will be critical to the rational design of Phase II and III studies that will ultimately test the efficacy of MDR modulation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QT66400007

    View details for PubMedID 7642468

  • The reversal of multidrug resistance. Cancer treatment and research Fisher, G. A., Lum, B. L., Sikic, B. I. 1995; 78: 45-70

    View details for PubMedID 8595147



    Radiobiological measurements have been made under various conditions of muliport pion irradiation using the Stanford Medical Pion Generator (SMPG). Chinese hamster cells (HA-1) were suspended in a tissue-equivalent 25% gelatin/medium solution. Hypoxic and aerobic HA-1 cells were irradiated simultaneously in a cylindrical water tank at either 4 or 16 degrees C. Irradiation at the focus of 60 converging pion beams, at a peak dose rate of 6 rads/min, gave relative biological effectiveness (RBEs) of 2.8, 1.8 and 1.4 at 50, 20 and 5% survival, respectively, and an oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of 1.7. Plateau irradiation with crossing pion beams, at a peak dose-rate of 3 rads/min, resulted in survival values very close to those obtained with similar doses of 85 kV X-rays. Preliminary studies with large irradiation volumes in broadened pion stopping regions indicate RBEs significantly > 1 for survival > 50%. Supporting microdosimetric data with the SMPG are consistent with the radiobiological results.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NP47600008

    View details for PubMedID 7930802



    To study the effects of cyclosporine (CsA), a modulator of multidrug resistance (MDR), on the pharmacokinetics and toxicities of doxorubicin.Nineteen patients with incurable malignancies entered this phase I trial. Initially patients received doxorubicin alone (60 or 75 mg/m2) as a 48-hour continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion. Patients whose tumors did not respond received CsA as a 2-hour loading dose of 6 mg/kg and a 48-hour continuous infusion of 18 mg/kg/d with doxorubicin. Target CsA levels were 3,000 to 4,800 ng/mL (2.5 to 4.0 mumol/L). Doxorubicin doses were reduced to 40% of the prior dose without CsA, and then escalated until myelosuppression equivalent to that resulting from doxorubicin alone was observed. Doxorubicin pharmacokinetics were analyzed with and without CsA.Thirteen patients received both doxorubicin alone and the combination of doxorubicin and CsA. Mean CsA levels were more than 2,000 ng/mL for all cycles and more than 3,000 ng/mL for 68% of cycles. Dose escalation of doxorubicin with CsA was stopped at 60% of the doxorubicin alone dose, as four of five patients at this dose level had WBC nadirs equivalent to those seen with doxorubicin alone. Nonhematologic toxicities were mild. Reversible hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 68% of doxorubicin/CsA courses. The addition of CsA to doxorubicin increased grade 1 and 2 nausea (87% v 47%) and vomiting (50% v 10%) compared with doxorubicin alone. There was no significant nephrotoxicity. Paired pharmacokinetics were studied in 12 patients. The addition of CsA increased the dose-adjusted area under the curve (AUC) of doxorubicin by 55%, and of its metabolite doxorubicinol by 350%.CsA inhibits the clearance of both doxorubicin and doxorubicinol. Equivalent myelosuppression was observed when the dose of doxorubicin with CsA was 60% of the dose of doxorubicin without CsA. Understanding these pharmacokinetic interactions is essential for the design and interpretation of clinical trials of MDR modulation, and should be studied with more potent MDR modulators.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NG39500028

    View details for PubMedID 8151326

  • Clinical reversal of multidrug resistance. Cancer treatment and research Sikic, B. I., Fisher, G. A., Lum, B. L., BROPHY, N. A., Yahanda, A. M., ADLER, K. M., Halsey, J. 1994; 73: 149-165

    View details for PubMedID 7710904



    A growing body of evidence indicates that expression of the mdr1 gene, which encodes the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, contributes to chemotherapeutic resistance of human cancers. Expression of this protein in normal tissues such as the biliary tract, intestines, and renal tubules suggests a role in the excretion of toxins. Modulation of P-glycoprotein function in normal tissues may lead to decreased excretion of drugs and enhanced toxicities. A clinical trial of etoposide with escalating doses of cyclosporine (CsA) as a modulator of multidrug resistance was performed. CsA was delivered as a 2-hour loading dose followed by a 60-hour intravenous infusion, together with etoposide administered as a short infusion daily for 3 days. Patients received one or more courses of etoposide alone before the combined therapy to establish their clinical resistance to etoposide and to study etoposide pharmacokinetics without and then with CsA. Plasma and urinary etoposide was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma CsA by a nonspecific immunoassay. Conclusions from the initial phase I trial with the use of CsA as a modulator of etoposide are: (1) Serum CsA steady-state levels of up to 4800 ng/ml (4 microM) could be achieved with acceptable toxicity. (2) Toxicities caused by the combined treatment included increased nausea and vomiting, increased myelosuppression, and hyperbilirubinemia, consistent with modulation of P-glycoprotein function in the blood-brain barrier, hematopoietic stem cell, and biliary tract. Renal toxicity was uncommon, but severe in two patients with steady-state plasma CsA levels above 6000 ng/ml. (3) CsA administration had a marked effect on the pharmacokinetics of etoposide, with a doubling of the area under the concentration-time curve as a result of both decreased renal and nonrenal clearance, necessitating a 50% dose reduction in patients with normal renal function and hepatic function. (4) The recommended dose of CsA is a 6-7 mg/kg loading dose administered as a 2-hour intravenous infusion followed by a continuous infusion of 18-21 mg/kg/day for 60 hours with adjustments in the infusion rate to maintain steady-state serum levels of 3000-4800 ng/ml (2.5-4.0 M). We are performing additional phase I trials combining CsA with single-agent doxorubicin and taxol, and the CsA analog PSC-833 with various multidrug-resistant-related cytotoxins.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993ML14300016

    View details for PubMedID 7902206

  • THE MODULATION OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANCE - CLINICAL-STUDIES AT STANFORD Fisher, G. A., BROPHY, N. A., Yahanda, A. M., Adler, K. A., Lum, B. L., Bartlett, N. L., Halsey, J., Sikic, B. I. ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBL B V. 1993: 255-266
  • PHASE-I TRIAL OF ETOPOSIDE WITH CYCLOSPORINE AS A MODULATOR OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Yahanda, A. M., ADLER, K. M., Fisher, G. A., BROPHY, N. A., Halsey, J., Hardy, R. I., Gosland, M. P., Lum, B. L., Sikic, B. I. 1992; 10 (10): 1624-1634


    To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of cyclosporine (CsA) infusion administered with etoposide for 3 days in patients with cancer.Of the 72 registered patients, 26 were treated initially with CsA and etoposide. Forty-six received etoposide alone until disease progression, and 31 of these proceeded to CsA and etoposide. CsA was administered as a 2-hour loading dose (LD) and as a 3-day continuous infusion (CI); doses were escalated from 2 to 8 mg/kg LD and 5 to 24 mg/kg/d CI.Fifty-seven patients were treated with 113 cycles of CsA with etoposide. Steady-state serum CsA levels (nonspecific immunoassay) more than 2,000 ng/mL were achieved in 91% of the cycles at CsA doses > or = 5 mg/kg LD and > or = 15 mg/kg/d CI. The major dose-related toxicity of CsA was reversible hyperbilirubinemia, which occurred in 78% of the courses with CsA levels > 2,000 ng/mL. Myelosuppression and nausea were more severe with CsA and etoposide. Other CsA toxicities included hypomagnesemia, 60%; hypertension, 29%; and headache, 21%. Nephrotoxicity was mild in 12% and severe in 2% of the cycles. Tumor regressions occurred in four patients after the addition of CsA (one non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, one Hodgkin's disease, and two ovarian carcinomas). Biopsy procedures for tumors from three of the four patients who responded were performed, and the results were positive for mdr1 expression.Serum CsA levels of up to 4 mumol/L (4,800 ng/mL) are achievable during a short-term administration with acceptable toxicities when administered in combination with etoposide. The CsA dose that is recommended in adults is a LD of 5 to 6 mg/kg, followed by a CI of 15 to 18 mg/kg/d for 60 hours. CsA blood levels should be monitored and the doses should be adjusted to achieve CsA levels of 2.5 to 4 mumol/L (3,000 to 4,800 ng/mL). Reversible hyperbilirubinemia may be a useful marker of inhibition by CsA of P-glycoprotein function. When used with high-dose CsA, etoposide doses should be reduced by approximately 50% to compensate for the pharmacokinetic effects of CsA on etoposide (Lum et al, J Clin Oncol, 10:1635-1642, 1992).

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JQ71900018

    View details for PubMedID 1403040



    The hypothesis that DNA damage is the trigger for thermotolerance in mammalian cells was tested in Chinese hamster ovary cells by looking for evidence of thermotolerance after ionizing radiation or ultraviolet light exposure. As previous studies have demonstrated that relatively non-toxic radiation exposures do not induce thermotolerance in mammalian cells (Li et al. 1976), higher doses, comparable to those used in yeast to induce thermotolerance (Mitchel and Morrison 1984), were tested in this study. Doses of this magnitude are lethal to mammalian cells, thereby precluding the use of clonogenic survival as an endpoint. We therefore used three alternative assays which are indicators of the subsequent development of thermotolerance. These were; (a) heat-induced inhibition of total protein synthesis, (b) heat-induced uptake of dansyl lysine, and (c) synthesis of heat shock proteins. Only total protein synthesis revealed evidence of a small degree of thermotolerance which occurred immediately after ionizing radiation exposure. By 4 h postirradiation the tolerance, as measured by this assay, was no longer evident. No evidence of thermotolerance was seen following UV exposure. In addition, when a large radiation dose was given either immediately before or after a heat treatment used to induce thermotolerance, there was no alteration in the level of heat-induced tolerance, despite the extensive number of DNA stand breaks caused by the radiation. Our data therefore suggest that, in mammalian cells, the type of DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation is not the trigger for the induction of thermotolerance.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P584100013

    View details for PubMedID 2900284



    Heat shock induces a dose-dependent increase in the fraction of Chinese hamster ovary cells that stain the fluorescent membrane probe N-epsilon-dansyl-L-lysine (DL). Dansyl lysine has previously been shown to select for cholesterol-free membrane domains in phospholipid liposomes. We found that the fraction of cells excluding DL could be closely correlated to cell survival as assayed by 37 degrees C incubation following heat treatment. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting indicated that essentially all of the DL-staining cells were nonviable. Freeze fracture electron microscopy of sorted cells showed that all the cells that stained with DL also had highly suggested intramembranous particle (IMP) aggregation while DL-excluding cells did not. Furthermore, IMP aggregation was shown to occur immediately after heat shock and to precede DL staining. Treatment with other membrane-active agents such as ethanol, amphotericin B, filipin, procaine, and lidocaine (i) induced DL staining that was closely correlated to survival, (ii) induced dramatic cytotoxic sensitization when combined with heat, and (iii) induced aggregated IMPs at relevant cytotoxic concentrations. Several nonmembrane-active agents were examined; none induced DL staining, dramatic cytotoxic sensitization, or IMP aggregation. These results raise the possibility that heat shock inactivates mammalian cells primarily via nonspecific aggregation and denaturation of membrane proteins resulting in a lateral phase separation of membrane components, including the generation of phospholipid domains.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987L131300011

    View details for PubMedID 3120236


    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NA43900014

    View details for PubMedID 7063618


    View details for Web of Science ID A1982PT13800013

    View details for PubMedID 7178419


    View details for Web of Science ID A1982PT13800012

    View details for PubMedID 7178418