Bio

Bio


Dr. Lipson is an investigator and faculty member in the Stanford University School of Medicine Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Division. A graduate of Harvard College in 1995, she received her MD degree from UCSF School of Medicine, prior to completing a preliminary medicine internship year at St. Mary's Medical Center in San Francisco. She went on to complete a diagnostic radiology residency program at UCSF and was ABR board-certified in June 2009. She came to Stanford for a 1 year fellowship program in Breast Imaging in July 2009 before joining the MCL faculty in August 2010.

Her clinical work includes screening and diagnostic mammography, diagnostic breast ultrasound, screening and diagnostic breast MRI, and minimally-invasive breast biopsy and wire localization guided by x-ray, ultrasound, and MRI.

Her research interests include mammographic density and breast cancer risk assessment; early breast cancer detection and extent of disease evaluation using contrast enhanced mammography and MRI; novel blood and imaging biomarkers of breast cancer burden and neoadjuvant treatment response; and image-guided wireless localization techniques for breast surgery.

Clinical Focus


  • Cancer > Breast Cancer
  • Diagnostic Radiology
  • Breast Imaging
  • Medical Informatics

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Junior Faculty of the Year Award, Stanford University School of Medicine Department of Radiology (2011-2012)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, American College of Radiology (2005 - Present)
  • Member, Radiological Society of North America (2005 - Present)
  • Member, Society of Breast Imaging (2009 - Present)
  • Member, American Society of Clinical Oncology (2014 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Medical Education:University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine (2003) CA
  • Internship:St Marys Medical Center (2005) CA
  • Fellowship:Stanford University - Fellowship (2010) CA
  • Residency:Univ of California San Francisco (2009) CA
  • Board Certification: Diagnostic Radiology, American Board of Radiology (2009)

Community and International Work


  • California Breast Density Information Group (CBDIG)

    Topic

    Radiologist, referring physician, and patient education on breast density and breast cancer risk

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Stanford, UCSF, UCLA, UC Davis, UC Irvine, UCSD, CPMC, Alta Bates-Summit

    Location

    California

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Dr. Lipson's prior research activities focused on radiation dose with CT and the associated risk of cancer. As an NIH-funded T32 Research Fellow under the mentorship of Dr. Rebecca Smith-Bindman, Dr. Lipson conducted a study of four Bay Area hospitals in which she reviewed 1,200 CT examinations and CT radiation dose reports; estimated the effective dose from each examination; and calculated the associated risk of cancer attributable to that effective dose. Her study culminated in an article entitled "Radiation Dose Associated with Common Computed Tomography Examinations and the Associated Lifetime Attributable Risk of Cancer" (Arch Intern Med. 2009 Dec 14;169(22):2078-86), which is one of the early articles that raised national attention regarding the issue of medical radiation and the need for clinical practice guidelines to track and reduce dose.

Dr. Lipson's current research interests include breast density and breast cancer risk assessment; informatics applications in breast imaging; early breast cancer detection and extent of disease evaluation using contrast enhanced mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, and high resolution breast MRI; novel blood and imaging biomarkers of breast cancer burden and neoadjuvant treatment response; and image-guided wireless localization techniques for breast surgery.

Clinical Trials


  • Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography(CEDM) vs Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI(CE-MRI) in Breast Cancer Recruiting

    The primary objective is to determine how accurately one can estimate the size of the index tumor on preoperative imaging in patients with known breast cancer, using pathology as a reference standard. The primary endpoint, which will be measured on CEDM,and CE-MRI, is the maximum diameter (mm) of the index tumor.

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  • Genetic & Pathological Studies of BRCA1/BRCA2: Associated Tumors & Blood Samples Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to try to understand the biology of development of breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, peritoneal or endometrial cancer from persons at high genetic risk for these diseases. The influence of environmental factors on cancer development in individuals and families will be studied. The efficacy of treatments for these diseases will be evaluated.

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Teaching

2016-17 Courses


Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

All Publications


  • Breast Cancer Risk and Mammographic Density Assessed with Semiautomated and Fully Automated Methods and BI-RADS. Radiology Jeffers, A. M., Sieh, W., Lipson, J. A., Rothstein, J. H., McGuire, V., Whittemore, A. S., Rubin, D. a. 2017; 282 (2): 348–55

    Abstract

    Purpose To compare three metrics of breast density on full-field digital mammographic (FFDM) images as predictors of future breast cancer risk. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved study included 125 women with invasive breast cancer and 274 age- and race-matched control subjects who underwent screening FFDM during 2004-2013 and provided informed consent. The percentage of density and dense area were assessed semiautomatically with software (Cumulus 4.0; University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada), and volumetric percentage of density and dense volume were assessed automatically with software (Volpara; Volpara Solutions, Wellington, New Zealand). Clinical Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classifications of breast density were extracted from mammography reports. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression stratified according to age and race and adjusted for body mass index, parity, and menopausal status, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was computed. Results The adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for each standard deviation increment of the percentage of density, dense area, volumetric percentage of density, and dense volume were 1.61 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.19), 1.49 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.92), 1.54 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.10), and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.80), respectively. Odds ratios for women with extremely dense breasts compared with those with scattered areas of fibroglandular density were 2.06 (95% CI: 0.85, 4.97) and 2.05 (95% CI: 0.90, 4.64) for BI-RADS and Volpara density classifications, respectively. Clinical BI-RADS was more accurate (AUC, 0.68; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.74) than Volpara (AUC, 0.64; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.70) and continuous measures of percentage of density (AUC, 0.66; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.72), dense area (AUC, 0.66; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.72), volumetric percentage of density (AUC, 0.64; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.70), and density volume (AUC, 0.65; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71), although the AUC differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Mammographic density on FFDM images was positively associated with breast cancer risk by using the computer assisted methods and BI-RADS. BI-RADS classification was as accurate as computer-assisted methods for discrimination of patients from control subjects. (©) RSNA, 2016.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2016152062

    View details for PubMedID 27598536

  • Impact of Breast Density Legislation on Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Supplemental Screening: A Survey of 110 Radiology Facilities. breast journal Nayak, L., Miyake, K. K., Leung, J. W., Price, E. R., Liu, Y. I., Joe, B. N., Sickles, E. A., Thomas, W. R., Lipson, J. A., Daniel, B. L., Hargreaves, J., Brenner, R. J., Bassett, L. W., Ojeda-Fournier, H., Lindfors, K. K., Feig, S. A., Ikeda, D. M. 2016; 22 (5): 493-500

    Abstract

    Breast density notification laws, passed in 19 states as of October 2014, mandate that patients be informed of their breast density. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of this legislation on radiology practices, including performance of breast cancer risk assessment and supplemental screening studies. A 20-question anonymous web-based survey was emailed to radiologists in the Society of Breast Imaging between August 2013 and March 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Around 121 radiologists from 110 facilities in 34 USA states and 1 Canadian site responded. About 50% (55/110) of facilities had breast density legislation, 36% of facilities (39/109) performed breast cancer risk assessment (one facility did not respond). Risk assessment was performed as a new task in response to density legislation in 40% (6/15) of facilities in states with notification laws. However, there was no significant difference in performing risk assessment between facilities in states with a law and those without (p < 0.831). In anticipation of breast density legislation, 33% (16/48), 6% (3/48), and 6% (3/48) of facilities in states with laws implemented handheld whole breast ultrasound (WBUS), automated WBUS, and tomosynthesis, respectively. The ratio of facilities offering handheld WBUS was significantly higher in states with a law than in states without (p < 0.001). In response to breast density legislation, more than 33% of facilities are offering supplemental screening with WBUS and tomosynthesis, and many are performing formal risk assessment for determining patient management.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tbj.12624

    View details for PubMedID 27296462

  • CT-Guided Wire Localization for Involved Axillary Lymph Nodes After Neo-adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Initially Node-Positive Breast Cancer BREAST JOURNAL Long Trinh, L., Miyake, K. K., Dirbas, F. M., Kothary, N., Horst, K. C., Lipson, J. A., Carpenter, C., Thompson, A. C., Ikeda, D. M. 2016; 22 (4): 390-396

    Abstract

    Resection of biopsy-proven involved axillary lymph nodes (iALNs) is important to reduce the false-negative rates of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with initially node-positive breast cancer. Preoperative wire localization for iALNs marked with clips placed during biopsy is a technique that may help the removal of iALNs after NAC. However, ultrasound (US)-guided localization is often difficult because the clips cannot always be reliably visible on US. Computed tomography (CT)-guided wire localization can be used; however, to date there have been no reports on CT-guided wire localization for iALNs. The aim of this study was to describe a series of patients who received CT-guided wire localization for iALN removal after NAC and to evaluate the feasibility of this technique. We retrospectively analyzed five women with initially node-positive breast cancer (age, 41-52 years) who were scheduled for SLN biopsy after NAC and received preoperative CT-guided wire localization for iALNs. CT visualized all the clips that were not identified on post-NAC US. The wire tip was deployed beyond or at the target, with the shortest distance between the wire and the index clip ranging from 0 to 2.5 mm. The total procedure time was 21-38 minutes with good patient tolerance and no complications. In four of five cases, CT wire localization aided in identification and resection of iALNs that were not identified with lymphatic mapping. Residual nodal disease was confirmed in two cases: both had residual disease in wire-localized lymph nodes in addition to SLNs. Although further studies with more cases are required, our results suggest that CT-guided wire localization for iALNs is a feasible technique that facilitates identification and removal of the iALNs as part of SLN biopsy after NAC in situations where US localization is unsuccessful.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tbj.12597

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379824600004

    View details for PubMedID 27061012

  • Case-control study of mammographic density and breast cancer risk using processed digital mammograms BREAST CANCER RESEARCH Habel, L. A., Lipson, J. A., Achacoso, N., Rothstein, J. H., Yaffe, M. J., Liang, R. Y., Acton, L., McGuire, V., Whittemore, A. S., Rubin, D. L., Sieh, W. 2016; 18

    Abstract

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) has largely replaced film-screen mammography in the US. Breast density assessed from film mammograms is strongly associated with breast cancer risk, but data are limited for processed FFDM images used for clinical care.We conducted a case-control study nested among non-Hispanic white female participants of the Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health of Kaiser Permanente Northern California who were aged 40 to 74 years and had screening mammograms acquired on Hologic FFDM machines. Cases (n = 297) were women with a first invasive breast cancer diagnosed after a screening FFDM. For each case, up to five controls (n = 1149) were selected, matched on age and year of FFDM and image batch number, and who were still under follow-up and without a history of breast cancer at the age of diagnosis of the matched case. Percent density (PD) and dense area (DA) were assessed by a radiological technologist using Cumulus. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for breast cancer associated with PD and DA, modeled continuously in standard deviation (SD) increments and categorically in quintiles, after adjusting for body mass index, parity, first-degree family history of breast cancer, breast area, and menopausal hormone use.Median intra-reader reproducibility was high with a Pearson's r of 0.956 (range 0.902 to 0.983) for replicate PD measurements across 23 image batches. The overall mean was 20.02 (SD, 14.61) for PD and 27.63 cm(2) (18.22 cm(2)) for DA. The adjusted ORs for breast cancer associated with each SD increment were 1.70 (95 % confidence interval, 1.41-2.04) for PD, and 1.54 (1.34-1.77) for DA. The adjusted ORs for each quintile were: 1.00 (ref.), 1.49 (0.91-2.45), 2.57 (1.54-4.30), 3.22 (1.91-5.43), 4.88 (2.78-8.55) for PD, and 1.00 (ref.), 1.43 (0.85-2.40), 2.53 (1.53-4.19), 2.85 (1.73-4.69), 3.48 (2.14-5.65) for DA.PD and DA measured using Cumulus on processed FFDM images are positively associated with breast cancer risk, with similar magnitudes of association as previously reported for film-screen mammograms. Processed digital mammograms acquired for routine clinical care in a general practice setting are suitable for breast density and cancer research.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13058-016-0715-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377273200001

    View details for PubMedID 27209070

  • The Milky Way Sign: A New Diagnostic Finding of Ductal Carcinoma in situ on Digital Breast Tomosynthesis BREAST JOURNAL Xu, Y., Miyake, K. K., Liu, Y. I., Downey, J. R., Lipson, J. A., Allison, K. H., Ikeda, D. M. 2016; 22 (3): 349-351

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tbj.12583

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379817800016

    View details for PubMedID 26932582

  • Phase II Study of Gemcitabine, Carboplatin, and Iniparib As Neoadjuvant Therapy for Triple-Negative and BRCA1/2 Mutation-Associated Breast Cancer With Assessment of a Tumor-Based Measure of Genomic Instability: PrECOG 0105. Journal of clinical oncology Telli, M. L., Jensen, K. C., Vinayak, S., Kurian, A. W., Lipson, J. A., Flaherty, P. J., Timms, K., Abkevich, V., Schackmann, E. A., Wapnir, I. L., Carlson, R. W., Chang, P., Sparano, J. A., Head, B., Goldstein, L. J., Haley, B., Dakhil, S. R., Reid, J. E., Hartman, A., Manola, J., Ford, J. M. 2015; 33 (17): 1895-1901

    Abstract

    This study was designed to assess efficacy, safety, and predictors of response to iniparib in combination with gemcitabine and carboplatin in early-stage triple-negative and BRCA1/2 mutation-associated breast cancer.This single-arm phase II study enrolled patients with stage I to IIIA (T ≥ 1 cm) estrogen receptor-negative (≤ 5%), progesterone receptor-negative (≤ 5%), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative or BRCA1/2 mutation-associated breast cancer. Neoadjuvant gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) intravenously [IV] on days 1 and 8), carboplatin (area under curve of 2 IV on days 1 and 8), and iniparib (5.6 mg/kg IV on days 1, 4, 8, and 11) were administered every 21 days for four cycles, until the protocol was amended to six cycles. The primary end point was pathologic complete response (no invasive carcinoma in breast or axilla). All patients underwent comprehensive BRCA1/2 genotyping, and homologous recombination deficiency was assessed by loss of heterozygosity (HRD-LOH) in pretreatment core breast biopsies.Among 80 patients, median age was 48 years; 19 patients (24%) had germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations; clinical stage was I (13%), IIA (36%), IIB (36%), and IIIA (15%). Overall pathologic complete response rate in the intent-to-treat population (n = 80) was 36% (90% CI, 27 to 46). Mean HRD-LOH scores were higher in responders compared with nonresponders (P = .02) and remained significant when BRCA1/2 germline mutations carriers were excluded (P = .021).Preoperative combination of gemcitabine, carboplatin, and iniparib is active in the treatment of early-stage triple-negative and BRCA1/2 mutation-associated breast cancer. The HRD-LOH assay was able to identify patients with sporadic triple-negative breast cancer lacking a BRCA1/2 mutation, but with an elevated HRD-LOH score, who achieved a favorable pathologic response. Confirmatory controlled trials are warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2014.57.0085

    View details for PubMedID 25847929

  • Automatic abstraction of imaging observations with their characteristics from mammography reports JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL INFORMATICS ASSOCIATION Bozkurt, S., Lipson, J. A., Senol, U., Rubin, D. L. 2015; 22 (E1): E81-U246

    Abstract

    Radiology reports are usually narrative, unstructured text, a format which hinders the ability to input report contents into decision support systems. In addition, reports often describe multiple lesions, and it is challenging to automatically extract information on each lesion and its relationships to characteristics, anatomic locations, and other information that describes it. The goal of our work is to develop natural language processing (NLP) methods to recognize each lesion in free-text mammography reports and to extract its corresponding relationships, producing a complete information frame for each lesion.We built an NLP information extraction pipeline in the General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) NLP toolkit. Sequential processing modules are executed, producing an output information frame required for a mammography decision support system. Each lesion described in the report is identified by linking it with its anatomic location in the breast. In order to evaluate our system, we selected 300 mammography reports from a hospital report database.The gold standard contained 797 lesions, and our system detected 815 lesions (780 true positives, 35 false positives, and 17 false negatives). The precision of detecting all the imaging observations with their modifiers was 94.9, recall was 90.9, and the F measure was 92.8.Our NLP system extracts each imaging observation and its characteristics from mammography reports. Although our application focuses on the domain of mammography, we believe our approach can generalize to other domains and may narrow the gap between unstructured clinical report text and structured information extraction needed for data mining and decision support.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/amiajnl-2014-003009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000356719000012

    View details for PubMedID 25352567

  • Patient Awareness of Breast Density and Interest in Supplemental Screening Tests: Comparison of an Academic Facility and a County Hospital JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF RADIOLOGY Trinh, L., Ikeda, D. M., Miyake, K. K., Trinh, J., Lee, K. K., Dave, H., Hanafusa, K., Lipson, J. 2015; 12 (3): 249-255

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to measure women's knowledge of breast density and their attitudes toward supplemental screening tests in the setting of the California Breast Density Notification Law at an academic facility and a county hospital, serving women with higher and lower socioeconomic status, respectively.Institutional review board exemptions were obtained. A survey was administered during screening mammography at two facilities, assessing women's awareness of and interest in knowing their breast density and interest in and willingness to pay for supplemental whole breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CEMG). The results were compared by using Fisher exact tests between groups.A total of 105 of 130 and 132 of 153 women responded to the survey at the academic and county facilities, respectively. Among respondents at the academic and county facilities, 23% and 5% were aware of their breast density, and 94% and 79% wanted to know their density. A majority were interested in supplemental ultrasonography and CEMG at both sites; however, fewer women had a willingness to pay for the supplemental tests at the county hospital compared with those at the academic facility (22% and 70%, respectively, for ultrasound, P < .0001; 20% and 65%, respectively, for CEMG, P < .0001).Both groups of women were interested in knowing their breast density and in supplemental screening tests. However, women at the county hospital were less willing to incur out-of-pocket expenses, suggesting a potential for a disparity in health care access for women of lower socioeconomic status after the enactment of breast density notification legislation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacr.2014.10.027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351021500010

    View details for PubMedID 25743922

  • Rim Sign in Breast Lesions on Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Diagnostic Accuracy and Clinical Usefulness JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Kang, B. J., Lipson, J. A., Planey, K. R., Zackrisson, S., Ikeda, D. M., Kao, J., Pal, S., Moran, C. J., Daniel, B. L. 2015; 41 (3): 616-623

    Abstract

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical usefulness of the rim sign in breast lesions observed in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI).The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 98 pathologically confirmed lesions (62 malignant and 36 benign) in 84 patients were included. Five breast radiologists were asked to independently review the breast MRI results, to grade the degree of high peripheral signal, the "rim sign," in the DWI, and to confirm the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmean ) values. We analyzed the diagnostic accuracy and compared the consensus (when ≥4 of 5 independent reviewers agreed) results of the rim sign with the ADCmean values. Additionally, we evaluated the correlation between the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI morphologic appearance and DWI rim sign.According to the consensus results, the rim sign in DWI was observed on 59.7% of malignant lesions and 19.4% of benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) value for the rim sign in DWI were 59.7%, 80.6%, and 0.701, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC value for the ADCmean value (criteria ≤1.46 × 10(-3) mm(2) /sec) were 82.3%, 63.9%, and 0.731, respectively. Based on consensus, no correlation was observed between the DCE-MRI and DWI rim signs.In DWI, a high-signal rim is a valuable morphological feature for improving specificity in DWI.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.24617

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349967700006

    View details for PubMedID 24585455

  • Initial Results with Preoperative Tattooing of Biopsied Axillary Lymph Nodes and Correlation to Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Choy, N., Lipson, J., Porter, C., Ozawa, M., Kieryn, A., Pal, S., Kao, J., Trinh, L., Wheeler, A., Ikeda, D., Jensen, K., Allison, K., Wapnir, I. 2015; 22 (2): 377-382

    Abstract

    Pretreatment evaluation of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) and marking of biopsied nodes in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer is becoming routine practice. We sought to test tattooing of biopsied ALNs with a sterile black carbon suspension (Spot™). The intraoperative success of identifying tattooed ALNs and their concordance to sentinel nodes was determined.Women with suspicious ALNs and newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent palpation and/or ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy, followed by injection of 0.1 to 0.5 ml of Spot™ ink into the cortex of ALNs and adjacent soft tissue. Group I underwent surgery first, and group II underwent neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery. Identification of black pigment and concordance between sentinel and tattooed nodes was evaluated.Twenty-eight patients were tattooed, 16 in group I and 12 in group II. Seventeen cases had evidence of atypia or metastases, 8 (50 %) in group I and 9 (75 %) in group II. Average number of days from tattooing to surgery was 22.9 (group I) and 130 (group II). Black tattoo ink was visualized intraoperatively in all cases, except one case with microscopic black pigment only. Fourteen group I and 10 group II patients had black pigment on histological examination of ALNs. Sentinel nodes corresponded to tattooed nodes in all except one group I patient with a tattooed non-sentinel node.Tattooed nodes are visible intraoperatively, even months later. This approach obviates the need for additional localization procedures during axillary staging.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-014-4034-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000347817900007

    View details for PubMedID 25164040

  • Variable spatiotemporal resolution three-dimensional Dixon sequence for rapid dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging Saranathan, M., Rettmann, D. W., Hargreaves, B. A., Lipson, J. A., Daniel, B. L. 2014; 40 (6): 1392-1399

    Abstract

    To investigate a new variable spatiotemporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI method termed DIfferential Subsampling with Cartesian Ordering (DISCO), for imaging of breast cancer.DISCO combines variable density, pseudorandom k-space segmentation and two-point Dixon fat-water separation for high spatiotemporal resolution breast DCE MRI. During the contrast wash-in phase, view sharing is used to achieve high temporal resolution. Forty patients referred for breast MRI were imaged, 26 using the proposed DISCO sequence and 14 using a conventional low-spatial-resolution dynamic sequence (VIBRANT-FLEX) on a 3 Tesla scanner. DISCO dynamic images from 14 patients were compared with VIBRANT-FLEX images from 14 other patients. The image quality assessed by radiologist image ranking in a blinded manner, and the temporal characteristics of the two sequences were compared.A spatial resolution of 1.1 × 1.1 × 1.2 mm(3) (160 slices, 28 cm field of view) was achieved with axial bilateral coverage in 120 s. Dynamic images with ∼ 9 s effective temporal resolution were generated during the 2-min contrast wash-in phase. The image quality of DISCO dynamic images ranked significantly higher than low spatial resolution VIBRANT-FLEX images (19.5 versus 9.5, Mann-Whitney U-test P = 0.00914), with no significant differences in the maximum slope of aortic enhancement.DISCO is a promising variable-spatiotemporal-resolution imaging sequence for capturing the dynamics of rapidly enhancing tumors as well as structural features postcontrast. A near 1-mm isotropic spatial resolution was achieved with postcontrast static phase images in 120 s and dynamic phase images acquired in 9 s per phase.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.24490

    View details for PubMedID 24227703

  • 3D T2-Weighted Spin Echo Imaging in the Breast JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Moran, C. J., Hargreaves, B. A., Saranathan, M., Lipson, J. A., Kao, J., Ikeda, D. M., Daniel, B. L. 2014; 39 (2): 332-338

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of 2D versus 3D T2-weighted spin echo imaging in the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2D and 3D T2-weighted images were acquired in 25 patients as part of a clinically indicated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam. Lesion-to-fibroglandular tissue signal ratio was measured in 16 identified lesions. Clarity of lesion morphology was assessed through a blinded review by three radiologists. Instances demonstrating the potential diagnostic contribution of 3D versus 2D T2-weighted imaging in the breast were noted through unblinded review by a fourth radiologist. RESULTS: The lesion-to-fibroglandular tissue signal ratio was well correlated between 2D and 3D T2-weighted images (R(2)  = 0.93). Clarity of lesion morphology was significantly better with 3D T2-weighted imaging for all observers based on a McNemar test (P ≤ 0.02, P ≤ 0.01, P ≤ 0.03). Instances indicating the potential diagnostic contribution of 3D T2-weighted imaging included improved depiction of signal intensity and improved alignment between DCE and T2-weighted findings. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, 3D T2-weighted imaging provided comparable contrast and improved depiction of lesion morphology in the breast in comparison to 2D T2-weighted imaging. Based on these results further investigation to determine the diagnostic impact of 3D T2-weighted imaging in breast MRI is warranted.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013;00:000-000. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.24151

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329753400011

    View details for PubMedID 23596017

  • The California Breast Density Information Group: A Collaborative Response to the Issues of Breast Density, Breast Cancer Risk, and Breast Density Notification Legislation RADIOLOGY Price, E. R., Hargreaves, J., Lipson, J. A., Sickles, E. A., Brenner, R. J., Lindfors, K. K., Joe, B. N., Leung, J. W., Feig, S. A., Bassett, L. W., Ojeda-Fournier, H., Daniel, B. L., Kurian, A. W., Love, E., Ryan, L., Walgenbach, D. D., Ikeda, D. M. 2013; 269 (3): 887-892

    Abstract

    In anticipation of breast density notification legislation in the state of California, which would require notification of women with heterogeneously and extremely dense breast tissue, a working group of breast imagers and breast cancer risk specialists was formed to provide a common response framework. The California Breast Density Information Group identified key elements and implications of the law, researching scientific evidence needed to develop a robust response. In particular, issues of risk associated with dense breast tissue, masking of cancers by dense tissue on mammograms, and the efficacy, benefits, and harms of supplementary screening tests were studied and consensus reached. National guidelines and peer-reviewed published literature were used to recommend that women with dense breast tissue at screening mammography follow supplemental screening guidelines based on breast cancer risk assessment. The goal of developing educational materials for referring clinicians and patients was reached with the construction of an easily accessible Web site that contains information about breast density, breast cancer risk assessment, and supplementary imaging. This multi-institutional, multidisciplinary approach may be useful for organizations to frame responses as similar legislation is passed across the United States. © RSNA, 2013 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.13131217

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327761100030

    View details for PubMedID 24023072

  • Why Are Patients Noncompliant With Follow-Up Recommendations After MRI-Guided Core Needle Biopsy of Suspicious Breast Lesions? AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Thompson, M. O., Lipson, J., Daniel, B., Harrigal, C., Mullarkey, P., Pal, S., Thompson, A. C., Ikeda, D. 2013; 201 (6): 1391-1400

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to investigate patient and breast MRI characteristics associated with noncompliance with recommended follow-up after MRI-guided core needle biopsy of suspicious breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective review was performed of 576 breast lesions biopsied under MRI guidance between 2007 and 2010. Patient follow-up was obtained from the medical record and from contact with referring physicians. RESULTS. Of 415 women who underwent 576 MRI-guided core needle biopsies for suspicious breast lesions, 123 (29.6%) patients representing 154 of 576 (26.7%) lesions were noncompliant with recommended excision or 6-month MRI follow-up. Referring physicians provided information for 63% (97/154) of lesions in noncompliant patients, of which 49.5% (48/97) were followed by mammography instead of excision or MRI. Noncompliance with MRI follow-up was significantly associated with referral for biopsy by outside hospital physicians (odds ratio [OR], 2.40; p = 0.0001) and with referral for screening MRI (1.46; p = 0.093) and biopsy of a focus or foci lesion (1.63; p = 0.088). Among 178 lesions in patients compliant with follow-up MRI after MRI-guided core needle biopsy, 7.9% (14/178) had abnormal follow-up MRI results, half of which (3.9%, 7/178) were found on repeat biopsy to be high-risk or malignant. CONCLUSION. Institutions performing MRI-guided core biopsies should be aware that patients referred from outside institutions are more likely to be noncompliant with recommended follow-up. Strategies to improve follow-up should include educating patients on the difference between mammography and MRI follow-up.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.12.10282

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327501500054

    View details for PubMedID 24261382

  • A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words: Needs Assessment for Multimedia Radiology Reports in a Large Tertiary Care Medical Center ACADEMIC RADIOLOGY Nayak, L., Beaulieu, C. F., Rubin, D. L., Lipson, J. A. 2013; 20 (12): 1577-1583

    Abstract

    Radiology reports are the major, and often only, means of communication between radiologists and their referring clinicians. The purposes of this study are to identify referring physicians' preferences about radiology reports and to quantify their perceived value of multimedia reports (with embedded images) compared with narrative text reports.We contacted 1800 attending physicians from a range of specialties at large tertiary care medical center via e-mail and a hospital newsletter linking to a 24-question electronic survey between July and November 2012. One hundred sixty physicians responded, yielding a response rate of 8.9%. Survey results were analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC).Of the 160 referring physicians respondents, 142 (89%) indicated a general interest in reports with embedded images and completed the remainder of the survey questions. Of 142 respondents, 103 (73%) agreed or strongly agreed that reports with embedded images could improve the quality of interactions with radiologists; 129 respondents (91%) agreed or strongly agreed that having access to significant images enhances understanding of a text-based report; 110 respondents (77%) agreed or strongly agreed that multimedia reports would significantly improve referring physician satisfaction; and 85 respondents (60%) felt strongly or very strongly that multimedia reports would significantly improve patient care and outcomes.Creating accessible, readable, and automatic multimedia reports should be a high priority to enhance the practice and satisfaction of referring physicians, improve patient care, and emphasize the critical role radiology plays in current medical care.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acra.2013.09.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327414900013

    View details for PubMedID 24200485

  • Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI-based biomarkers of therapeutic response in triple-negative breast cancer JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL INFORMATICS ASSOCIATION Golden, D. I., Lipson, J. A., Telli, M. L., Ford, J. M., Rubin, D. L. 2013; 20 (6): 1059-1066

    Abstract

    To predict the response of breast cancer patients to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using features derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI.60 patients with triple-negative early-stage breast cancer receiving NAC were evaluated. Features assessed included clinical data, patterns of tumor response to treatment determined by DCE-MRI, MRI breast imaging-reporting and data system descriptors, and quantitative lesion kinetic texture derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). All features except for patterns of response were derived before chemotherapy; GLCM features were determined before and after chemotherapy. Treatment response was defined by the presence of residual invasive tumor and/or positive lymph nodes after chemotherapy. Statistical modeling was performed using Lasso logistic regression.Pre-chemotherapy imaging features predicted all measures of response except for residual tumor. Feature sets varied in effectiveness at predicting different definitions of treatment response, but in general, pre-chemotherapy imaging features were able to predict pathological complete response with area under the curve (AUC)=0.68, residual lymph node metastases with AUC=0.84 and residual tumor with lymph node metastases with AUC=0.83. Imaging features assessed after chemotherapy yielded significantly improved model performance over those assessed before chemotherapy for predicting residual tumor, but no other outcomes.DCE-MRI features can be used to predict whether triple-negative breast cancer patients will respond to NAC. Models such as the ones presented could help to identify patients not likely to respond to treatment and to direct them towards alternative therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/amiajnl-2012-001460

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325557600009

    View details for PubMedID 23785100

  • A clinical trial of lovastatin for modification of biomarkers associated with breast cancer risk BREAST CANCER RESEARCH AND TREATMENT Vinayak, S., Schwartz, E. J., Jensen, K., Lipson, J., Alli, E., McPherson, L., Fernandez, A. M., Sharma, V. B., Staton, A., Mills, M. A., Schackmann, E. A., Telli, M. L., Kardashian, A., Ford, J. M., Kurian, A. W. 2013; 142 (2): 389-398

    Abstract

    Pre-clinical and epidemiologic studies provide rationale for evaluating lipophilic statins for breast cancer prevention. We conducted a single-arm, biomarker modulation trial of lovastatin among women with increased risk of breast cancer. Eligibility criteria included a deleterious germline mutation in BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, or TP53; lifetime breast cancer risk of ≥20 % as estimated by the Claus model; or personal history of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer. Participants received 40 mg of lovastatin orally twice daily for 6 months. We evaluated the following biomarkers before and after lovastatin use: breast duct cytology (primary endpoint), serum lipids, C-reactive protein, insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF binding protein-3, lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase genotype, and mammographic density. Thirty women were enrolled, and 26 (86.7 %) completed the study. For the primary endpoint of changes in breast duct cytology sampled by random periareolar fine needle aspiration, most participants [57.7 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 38.9-74.5 %] showed no change after lovastatin; 19.2 % (CI 8.1-38.3 %) had a favorable change in cytology, 7.7 % (95 % CI 1.0-25.3 %) had an unfavorable change, and 15.4 % (95 % CI 5.5-34.2 %) had equivocal results due to acellular specimens, usually after lovastatin. No significant changes were observed in secondary biomarker endpoints. The study was generally well-tolerated: 4 (13.3 %) participants did not complete the study, and one (3.8 %) required a dose reduction. This trial was technically feasible, but demonstrated no significant biomarker modulation; contributing factors may include insufficient sample size, drug dose and/or duration. The results are inconclusive and do not exclude a favorable effect on breast cancer risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10549-013-2739-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327079800013

    View details for PubMedID 24166281

  • Image quality and diagnostic performance of silicone-specific breast MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging Kim, S. H., Lipson, J. A., Moran, C. J., Shimakawa, A., Kuo, J., Ikeda, D. M., Daniel, B. L. 2013; 31 (9): 1472-1478

    Abstract

    To compare the image quality of three techniques and diagnostic performance in detecting implant rupture.The study included 161 implants for the evaluation of image quality, composed of water-saturated short TI inversion recovery (herein called "water-sat STIR"), three-point Dixon techniques (herein called "Dixon"), and short TI inversion recovery fast spin-echo with iterative decomposition of silicone and water using least-squares approximation (herein called "STIR IDEAL") and included 41 implants for the evaluation of diagnostic performance in detecting rupture, composed of water-sat STIR and STIR IDEAL. Six image quality categories were evaluated and three classifications were used: normal implant, possible rupture, and definite rupture.Statistically significant differences were noted for the image quality categories (p<0.001). STIR IDEAL was superior or equal to water-sat STIR in all image quality categories except artifact effects and superior to Dixon in all categories. Water-sat STIR performed the poorest for water suppression uniformity. The sensitivity and specificity in detecting implant rupture of STIR-IDEAL were 81.8 % and 77.8 % and the difference between two techniques was not statistically significant.STIR-IDEAL is a useful silicone-specific imaging technique demonstrating more robust water suppression and equivalent diagnostic accuracy for detecting implant rupture, than water-sat STIR, at the cost of longer scan time and an increase in minor motion artifacts.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mri.2013.05.011

    View details for PubMedID 23895871

  • Updates and revisions to the BI-RADS magnetic resonance imaging lexicon. Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America Edwards, S. D., Lipson, J. A., Ikeda, D. M., Lee, J. M. 2013; 21 (3): 483-493

    Abstract

    This article summarizes the updates and revisions to the second edition of the BI-RADS MRI lexicon. A new feature in the lexicon is background parenchymal enhancement and its descriptors. Another major focus is on revised terminology for masses and non-mass enhancement. A section on breast implants and associated lexicon terms has also been added. Because diagnostic breast imaging increasingly includes multimodality evaluation, the new edition of the lexicon also contains revised recommendations for combined reporting with mammography and ultrasound if these modalities are included as comparison, and clarification on the use of final assessment categories in MR imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mric.2013.02.005

    View details for PubMedID 23928239

  • Qualitative and quantitative image-based biomarkers of therapeutic response in triple-negative breast cancer. AMIA Summits on Translational Science proceedings AMIA Summit on Translational Science Golden, D. I., Lipson, J. A., Telli, M. L., Ford, J. M., Rubin, D. L. 2013; 2013: 62-?

    Abstract

    Experimental targeted treatments for neoadjuvant chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer are currently underway, and a current challenge is predicting which patients will respond to these therapies. In this study, we use data from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) images to predict whether patients with triple negative breast cancer will respond to an experimental neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen. Using pre-therapy image-based features that are both qualitative (e.g., morphological BI-RADS categories) and quantitative (e.g., lesion texture), we built a model that was able to predict whether patients will have residual invasive cancer with lymph nodes metastases following therapy (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.83, sensitivity=0.73, specificity=0.83). This model's performance is at a level that is potentially clinically valuable for predicting which patients may or may not benefit from similar treatments in the future.

    View details for PubMedID 24303300

  • Breast MRI without gadolinium: utility of 3D DESS, a new 3D diffusion weighted gradient-echo sequence. European journal of radiology Daniel, B. L., Granlund, K. L., Moran, C. J., Alley, M. T., Lipson, J., Ikeda, D. M., Kao, J., Hargreaves, B. A. 2012; 81: S24-6

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0720-048X(12)70010-4

    View details for PubMedID 23083590

  • Automatic classification of mammography reports by BI-RADS breast tissue composition class JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL INFORMATICS ASSOCIATION Percha, B., Nassif, H., Lipson, J., Burnside, E., Rubin, D. 2012; 19 (5): 913-916

    Abstract

    Because breast tissue composition partially predicts breast cancer risk, classification of mammography reports by breast tissue composition is important from both a scientific and clinical perspective. A method is presented for using the unstructured text of mammography reports to classify them into BI-RADS breast tissue composition categories. An algorithm that uses regular expressions to automatically determine BI-RADS breast tissue composition classes for unstructured mammography reports was developed. The algorithm assigns each report to a single BI-RADS composition class: 'fatty', 'fibroglandular', 'heterogeneously dense', 'dense', or 'unspecified'. We evaluated its performance on mammography reports from two different institutions. The method achieves >99% classification accuracy on a test set of reports from the Marshfield Clinic (Wisconsin) and Stanford University. Since large-scale studies of breast cancer rely heavily on breast tissue composition information, this method could facilitate this research by helping mine large datasets to correlate breast composition with other covariates.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/amiajnl-2011-000607

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307934600032

    View details for PubMedID 22291166

  • Breast cancer risk factors differ between Asian and white women with BRCA1/2 mutations FAMILIAL CANCER de Bruin, M. A., Kwong, A., Goldstein, B. A., Lipson, J. A., Ikeda, D. M., McPherson, L., Sharma, B., Kardashian, A., Schackmann, E., Kingham, K. E., Mills, M. A., West, D. W., Ford, J. M., Kurian, A. W. 2012; 11 (3): 429-439

    Abstract

    The prevalence and penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations may differ between Asians and whites. We investigated BRCA1/2 mutations and cancer risk factors in a clinic-based sample. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were enrolled from cancer genetics clinics in Hong Kong and California according to standardized entry criteria. We compared BRCA mutation position, cancer history, hormonal and reproductive exposures. We analyzed DNA samples for single-nucleotide polymorphisms reported to modify breast cancer risk. We performed logistic regression to identify independent predictors of breast cancer. Fifty Asian women and forty-nine white American women were enrolled. BRCA1 mutations were more common among whites (67 vs. 42 %, p = 0.02), and BRCA2 mutations among Asians (58 vs. 37 %, p = 0.04). More Asians had breast cancer (76 vs. 53 %, p = 0.03); more whites had relatives with breast cancer (86 vs. 50 %, p = 0.0003). More whites than Asians had breastfed (71 vs. 42 %, p = 0.005), had high BMI (median 24.3 vs. 21.2, p = 0.04), consumed alcohol (2 drinks/week vs. 0, p < 0.001), and had oophorectomy (61 vs. 34 %, p = 0.01). Asians had a higher frequency of risk-associated alleles in MAP3K1 (88 vs. 59 %, p = 0.005) and TOX3/TNRC9 (88 vs. 55 %, p = 0.0002). On logistic regression, MAP3K1 was associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2, but not BRCA1 mutation carriers; breast density was associated with increased risk among Asians but not whites. We found significant differences in breast cancer risk factors between Asian and white BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Further investigation of racial differences in BRCA1/2 mutation epidemiology could inform targeted cancer risk-reduction strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10689-012-9531-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311025000016

    View details for PubMedID 22638769

  • Utilizing a PACS-integrated Ultrasound-guided Breast Biopsy Simulation Exercise to Reinforce the ACR Practice Guideline for Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Breast Interventional Procedures During Radiology Residency ACADEMIC RADIOLOGY Meng, K., Lipson, J. A. 2011; 18 (10): 1324-1328

    Abstract

    A picture archiving and communication system (PACS)-integrated ultrasound-guided (USG) breast intervention simulation exercise was designed for radiology residency education. The purpose of this study was to describe the initial experience and determine if resident understanding of the American College of Radiology (ACR) practice guideline for the performance of USG percutaneous breast interventional procedures and procedural confidence is improved with the implementation of this simulation exercise.Radiology residents (n = 11) volunteered to perform percutaneous USG cyst aspiration, 14-gauge automated core biopsy, and 10-gauge vacuum core biopsy on turkey breast phantoms, with an emphasis on capturing ultrasound images demonstrating appropriate documentation of the procedure and image annotation according to the ACR practice guideline for USG percutaneous interventions. The images were transmitted to the PACS for subsequent attending radiologist review. Survey responses regarding procedural confidence and knowledge of the ACR practice guideline were compared between residents with and without the simulator experience.Residents with simulation exercise experience showed statistically significant increases in confidence performing USG core biopsies, operating biopsy devices and ultrasound equipment, and knowledge of appropriate needle positioning and image annotation and documentation according to the ACR practice guideline. The increased confidence seen in performing USG cyst aspiration barely missed statistical significance (P = .056), likely because of residents' baseline familiarity with the procedure.A PACS-integrated USG breast intervention simulation exercise increases residents' procedural confidence and understanding of the ACR practice guideline for the performance of USG percutaneous breast interventional procedures.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acra.2011.06.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295344500017

    View details for PubMedID 21893299

  • Freehand MRI-Guided Preoperative Needle Localization of Breast Lesions After MRI-Guided Vacuum-Assisted Core Needle Biopsy Without Marker Placement JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING van de Ven, S. M., Lin, M. C., Daniel, B. L., Sareen, P., Lipson, J. A., Pal, S., Dirbas, F. M., Ikeda, D. M. 2010; 32 (1): 101-109

    Abstract

    To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided preoperative needle localization (PNL) of breast lesions previously sampled by MRI-guided vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy (VACNB) without marker placement.We reviewed 15 women with 16 breast lesions undergoing MRI-guided VACNB without marker placement who subsequently underwent MRI-guided PNL, both on an open 0.5T magnet using freehand techniques. Mammograms and specimen radiographs were rated for lesion visibility; MRI images were rated for lesion visibility and hematoma formation. Imaging findings were correlated with pathology.The average prebiopsy lesion size was 16 mm (range 4-50 mm) with 13/16 lesions located in mammographically dense breasts. Eight hematomas formed during VACNB (average size 13 mm, range 8-19 mm). PNL was performed for VACNB pathologies of cancer (5), high-risk lesions (5), or benign but discordant findings (6) at 2-78 days following VACNB. PNL targeted the lesion (2), hematoma (4), or surrounding breast architecture (10). Wire placement was successful in all 16 lesions. Final pathology showed six cancers, five high-risk lesions, and five benign findings.MRI-guided PNL is successful in removing lesions that have previously undergone VACNB without marker placement by targeting the residual lesion, hematoma, or surrounding breast architecture, even in mammographically dense breasts.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22148

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279439600013

    View details for PubMedID 20575077

  • Radiation Dose Associated With Common Computed Tomography Examinations and the Associated Lifetime Attributable Risk of Cancer ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Smith-Bindman, R., Lipson, J., Marcus, R., Kim, K., Mahesh, M., Gould, R., de Gonzalez, A. B., Miglioretti, D. L. 2009; 169 (22): 2078-2086

    Abstract

    Use of computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic evaluation has increased dramatically over the past 2 decades. Even though CT is associated with substantially higher radiation exposure than conventional radiography, typical doses are not known. We sought to estimate the radiation dose associated with common CT studies in clinical practice and quantify the potential cancer risk associated with these examinations.We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study describing radiation dose associated with the 11 most common types of diagnostic CT studies performed on 1119 consecutive adult patients at 4 San Francisco Bay Area institutions in California between January 1 and May 30, 2008. We estimated lifetime attributable risks of cancer by study type from these measured doses.Radiation doses varied significantly between the different types of CT studies. The overall median effective doses ranged from 2 millisieverts (mSv) for a routine head CT scan to 31 mSv for a multiphase abdomen and pelvis CT scan. Within each type of CT study, effective dose varied significantly within and across institutions, with a mean 13-fold variation between the highest and lowest dose for each study type. The estimated number of CT scans that will lead to the development of a cancer varied widely depending on the specific type of CT examination and the patient's age and sex. An estimated 1 in 270 women who underwent CT coronary angiography at age 40 years will develop cancer from that CT scan (1 in 600 men), compared with an estimated 1 in 8100 women who had a routine head CT scan at the same age (1 in 11 080 men). For 20-year-old patients, the risks were approximately doubled, and for 60-year-old patients, they were approximately 50% lower.Radiation doses from commonly performed diagnostic CT examinations are higher and more variable than generally quoted, highlighting the need for greater standardization across institutions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272625800006

    View details for PubMedID 20008690

  • Subtle renal duplication as an unrecognized cause of childhood incontinence: diagnosis by magnetic resonance urography. Journal of pediatric urology Lipson, J. A., Coakley, F. V., Baskin, L. S., Yeh, B. M. 2008; 4 (5): 398-400

    Abstract

    Urinary incontinence in young girls who have been toilet trained may be due to an ectopic ureter inserting below the urinary sphincter. This diagnosis is frequently delayed, is psychologically distressing, and may be missed at physical examination. Findings at ultrasound evaluation may be subtle and imaging with computed tomography or intravenous urography exposes young patients to ionizing radiation. We report two cases of girls with urinary incontinence where magnetic resonance (MR) urography revealed subtle renal duplication which implied the presence of an ectopic duplicated ureter with infrasphincteric insertion. These cases stress the importance of examining the kidneys, rather than the perineum, at MR, ultrasound and intravenous urogram evaluation, and show the value of MR urography as a safe alternative to computed tomography and intravenous urography for making this diagnosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpurol.2008.01.213

    View details for PubMedID 18790427

  • CT and MRI of hepatic contour abnormalities AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Lipson, J. A., Qayyum, A., Avrin, D. E., Westphalen, A., Yeh, B. M., Coakley, F. V. 2005; 184 (1): 75-81

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226507900016

    View details for PubMedID 15615954