Pediatric plastic bronchitis: case report and retrospective comparative analysis of epidemiology and pathology.
Case reports in pulmonology
2013; 2013: 649365-?
Profiling risk factors for chronic uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a new model for EHR-based research.
Pediatric rheumatology online journal
2013; 11 (1): 45-?
Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a pathologic condition in which airway casts develop in the tracheobronchial tree causing airway obstruction. There is no standard treatment strategy for this uncommon condition. We report an index patient treated using an emerging multimodal strategy of directly instilled and inhaled tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) as well as 13 other cases of PB at our institution between 2000 and 2012. The majority of cases (n = 8) occurred in patients with congenital heart disease. Clinical presentations, treatments used, histopathology of the casts, and patient outcomes are reviewed. Further discussion is focused on the epidemiology of plastic bronchitis and a systematic approach to the histologic classification of casts. Comorbid conditions identified in this study included congenital heart disease (8), pneumonia (3), and asthma (2). Our institutional prevalence rate was 6.8 per 100,000 patients, and our case fatality rate was 7%.
View details for DOI 10.1155/2013/649365
View details for PubMedID 23662235
European ancestry decreases the risk of early onset, severe lupus nephritis in a single center, multiethnic pediatric lupus inception cohort
2012; 21 (4): 421-429
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in children. Chronic uveitis is a common and serious comorbid condition of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, with insidious presentation and potential to cause blindness. Knowledge of clinical associations will improve risk stratification. Based on clinical observation, we hypothesized that allergic conditions are associated with chronic uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients.This study is a retrospective cohort study using Stanford's clinical data warehouse containing data from Lucile Packard Children's Hospital from 2000-2011 to analyze patient characteristics associated with chronic uveitis in a large juvenile idiopathic arthritis cohort. Clinical notes in patients under 16 years of age were processed via a validated text analytics pipeline. Bivariate-associated variables were used in a multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and race. Previously reported associations were evaluated to validate our methods. The main outcome measure was presence of terms indicating allergy or allergy medications use overrepresented in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients with chronic uveitis. Residual text features were then used in unsupervised hierarchical clustering to compare clinical text similarity between patients with and without uveitis.Previously reported associations with uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients (earlier age at arthritis diagnosis, oligoarticular-onset disease, antinuclear antibody status, history of psoriasis) were reproduced in our study. Use of allergy medications and terms describing allergic conditions were independently associated with chronic uveitis. The association with allergy drugs when adjusted for known associations remained significant (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.22-5.4).This study shows the potential of using a validated text analytics pipeline on clinical data warehouses to examine practice-based evidence for evaluating hypotheses formed during patient care. Our study reproduces four known associations with uveitis development in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients, and reports a new association between allergic conditions and chronic uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients.
View details for DOI 10.1186/1546-0096-11-45
View details for PubMedID 24299016
Evidence-Based Medicine in the EMR Era
NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
2011; 365 (19): 1758-1759
Acute hepatitis in three patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis taking interleukin-1 receptor antagonist
To determine whether pediatric SLE patients without European ancestry are at higher risk for development of severe lupus nephritis (ISN/RPS class III, IV or V).Ninety-eight of 101 patients with pediatric SLE (age <18 years at diagnosis) were enrolled. Race/ethnicity of four grandparents, socioeconomic status (SES) and language proficiency were collected. The primary outcome was time to development of severe lupus nephritis.Based on patient report of four grandparent ancestry, 29% had at least one grandparent of European ancestry (14% had all four grandparents of European ancestry). Patients without European ancestry were 46% Hispanic, 47% Asian, and 3% African American. In the entire 98 patient cohort, 12% had ?3 different ancestries. Patients without European ancestry had significantly lower SES levels and English proficiency. There was no significant difference between patients with or without European ancestry in duration of SLE, age of onset, and lag time between symptoms and diagnosis. Patients with at least one grandparent of European ancestry had a decreased risk of developing severe lupus nephritis, which remained significant after controlling for age, gender, SES and English proficiency (hazard ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.9).This study demonstrates that presence of at least one grandparent of European ancestry decreases the risk of severe lupus nephritis, a finding that is not explained by measurable socioeconomic differences and language barriers.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0961203312437805
View details for Web of Science ID 000301583400008
View details for PubMedID 22427363
High-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in children with primary refractory and relapsed Hodgkin's disease: Atopy predicts idiopathic diffuse lung injury syndromes
BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION
2001; 7 (1): 49-57
We investigated the etiology of acute hepatitis in three children with systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (sJIA) taking Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA).Laboratory and clinical data for three children with sJIA diagnosed at ages 13 months to 8 years who developed acute hepatitis during treatment with IL1RA were reviewed for evidence of sJIA flare, infection, macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), malignancy, and drug reaction.In all patients, hepatitis persisted despite cessation of known hepatotoxic drugs and in absence of known infectious triggers, until discontinuation of IL1RA. Liver biopsies had mixed inflammatory infiltrates with associated hepatocellular injury suggestive of an exogenous trigger. At the time of hepatitis, laboratory data and liver biopsies were not characteristic of MAS. In two patients, transaminitis resolved within one week of discontinuing IL1RA, the third improved dramatically in one month.Although sJIA symptoms improved significantly on IL1RA, it appeared that IL1RA contributed to the development of acute hepatitis. Hepatitis possibly occurred as a result of an altered immune response to a typical childhood infection while on IL1RA. Alternatively, hepatitis could have represented an atypical presentation of MAS in patients with sJIA taking IL1RA. Further investigation is warranted to determine how anti-IL1 therapies alter immune responsiveness to exogenous triggers in patients with immune dysfunction such as sJIA. Our patients suggest that close monitoring for hepatic and other toxicities is indicated when treating with IL1RA.
View details for DOI 10.1186/1546-0096-7-21
View details for Web of Science ID 000273814800001
View details for PubMedID 20028520
The use of high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for children and adolescents with primary refractory and relapsed Hodgkin's disease is increasing. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to: (1) evaluate the outcome of HDT and AHCT in pediatric patients with Hodgkin's disease, and (2) identify factors that predispose patients to the development of transplantation-related complications. We describe the experiences of 34 pediatric patients from a single institution with primary refractory or relapsed Hodgkin's disease. HDT regimens consisted of cyclophosphamide and etoposide combined with either carmustine, chloroethylcyclohexylnitrosurea, or fractionated total body irradiation. Kaplan-Meier survival predicts that 67% (95% confidence interval [CI] 47%-87%) of patients will be alive and disease-free at 5 years. Nine patients had disease recurrence, of whom 5 relapsed after 1 year (1.5-6.3 years). Five patients succumbed to treatment-related toxicities, of whom 4 died of pulmonary failure. Fifteen patients (44%) developed post-AHCT idiopathic diffuse lung injury syndrome: acute alveolitis (n = 2); diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (n = 2); acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 2); delayed interstitial pneumonitis (n = 8); and bronchiolitis obliterans (n = 1). The following factors did not predict for the development of a diffuse lung injury syndrome in univariate analysis: prior treatment with bleomycin, pre-HDT pulmonary function tests, and prior thoracic irradiation. Of the patients in our cohort, 44% had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or asthma). Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that a preexisting history of atopy was highly predictive of idiopathic pulmonary complications (P = .0001, odds ratio = 21, CI 3.6-125). Our experience shows that HDT followed by AHCT results in durable remissions in two thirds of pediatric patients with refractory and relapsed Hodgkin's disease, and a history of atopy is associated with post-AHCT pulmonary complications.
View details for Web of Science ID 000166841300008
View details for PubMedID 11215699