Mindfulness Practice, Rumination and Clinical Outcome in Mindfulness-Based Treatment
COGNITIVE THERAPY AND RESEARCH
2014; 38 (1): 1-9
Treatment-Specific Changes in Decentering Following Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Versus Antidepressant Medication or Placebo for Prevention of Depressive Relapse
JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
2012; 80 (3): 365-372
Effects of suppression and appraisals on thought frequency and distress
BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
2009; 47 (12): 1024-1031
To examine whether metacognitive psychological skills, acquired in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), are also present in patients receiving medication treatments for prevention of depressive relapse and whether these skills mediate MBCT's effectiveness.This study, embedded within a randomized efficacy trial of MBCT, was the first to examine changes in mindfulness and decentering during 6-8 months of antidepressant treatment and then during an 18-month maintenance phase in which patients discontinued medication and received MBCT, continued on antidepressants, or were switched to a placebo. In total, 84 patients (mean age = 44 years, 58% female) were randomized to 1 of these 3 prevention conditions. In addition to symptom variables, changes in mindfulness, rumination, and decentering were assessed during the phases of the study.Pharmacological treatment of acute depression was associated with reductions in scores for rumination and increased wider experiences. During the maintenance phase, only patients receiving MBCT showed significant increases in the ability to monitor and observe thoughts and feelings as measured by the Wider Experiences (p < .01) and Decentering (p < .01) subscales of the Experiences Questionnaire and by the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. In addition, changes in Wider Experiences (p < .05) and Curiosity (p < .01) predicted lower Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores at 6-month follow-up.An increased capacity for decentering and curiosity may be fostered during MBCT and may underlie its effectiveness. With practice, patients can learn to counter habitual avoidance tendencies and to regulate dysphoric affect in ways that support recovery.
View details for DOI 10.1037/a0027483
View details for Web of Science ID 000304508000005
View details for PubMedID 22409641
Appraisals of obsessional thoughts in normal samples
BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
2008; 46 (1): 71-83
Cognitive theories of obsessions highlight appraisals of personal significance and thought suppression in the development and maintenance of intrusive thoughts. The current study examined the role of personal significance within the context of a thought suppression paradigm. The primary aim was to examine whether suppression would have differential effects for target thoughts appraised as personally meaningful versus relatively unimportant. A blasphemous thought served as the target thought, and highly religious and nonreligious participants were recruited. Participants completed a two-interval thought suppression task; during interval 1 they were randomly assigned to suppress or not suppress the target thought and during interval 2, all participants were given "do not suppress" instructions. Suppression resulted in sustained frequency of thoughts in contrast to the decline in thought frequency observed for non-suppression. Differential effects of suppression were found across the two groups. Moreover, suppression was associated with increased negative mood and anxiety. Results suggest that suppression of personally meaningful thoughts is a counterproductive strategy.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2009.07.023
View details for Web of Science ID 000272057800005
View details for PubMedID 19765684
Recognition of facial expressions in obsessive-compulsive disorder
JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS
2008; 22 (1): 56-66
Cognitive theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that appraisals about the significance of thoughts are critical in the development and persistence of obsessions. Rachman [(1997). A cognitive theory of obsessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 793-802.] proposes that appraisals of unwanted thoughts distinguish clinical obsessions from normal intrusive thoughts; thoughts appraised as important and personally significant are expected to be upsetting and recur. Appraisals are also expected to be related to symptoms of OCD. To explore the features of normal appraisals of obsession-like thoughts, nonclinical participants in two studies rated the personal significance of intrusive thoughts portrayed in vignettes containing prototypical themes associated with primary obsessions: aggressive, sexual, and blasphemous thoughts. Unwanted intrusive thoughts that were described as occurring more frequently were appraised as more personally significant, but participants appraised these socially unacceptable thoughts similarly whether they imagined having personally experienced them or a friend confiding about having experienced them. Appraisals in both studies were related to subclinical OC symptoms and OC beliefs.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2007.10.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000253276200006
View details for PubMedID 18093572
Telephone-administered cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Cognitive behaviour therapy
2003; 32 (1): 13-25
Sprengelmeyer et al. [Sprengelmeyer, R., Young, A. W., Pundt, I., Sprengelmeyer, A., Calder, A. J., Berrios, G., et al. (1997). Disgust implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 264, 1767-1773] found that patients with OCD showed severely impaired recognition of facial expressions of disgust. This result has potential to provide a unique window into the psychopathology of OCD, but several published attempts to replicate this finding have failed. The current study compared OCD patients to normal controls and panic disorder patients on ability to recognize facial expressions of negative emotions. Overall, the OCD patients were impaired in their ability to recognize disgust expressions, but only 33% of patients showed this deficit. These deficits were related to OCD symptom severity and general functioning, factors that may account for the inconsistent findings observed in different laboratories.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.01.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000252819700005
View details for PubMedID 17320346
Efficacy of telephone-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: case studies.
Cognitive behaviour therapy
2003; 32 (2): 75-81
Exposure with response prevention and cognitive behavior therapy are widely recognized as effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Unfortunately, many people with obsessive-compulsive disorder--particularly those living in rural areas--do not have access to therapists providing these treatments. Accordingly, we investigated the efficacy of telephone-administered cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Two open trials are reported, for a total of 33 people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (without major depression). The first trial consisted of 12 weeks on a waiting list followed by 12 weeks of treatment (delayed treatment). The second trial consisted of 12 weeks of immediate treatment. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms did not change during the waiting period. Symptoms declined from pre- to post-treatment, with gains maintained at 12-week follow-up. For the pooled sample our pre-to-post-treatment effect size was as large or larger than those obtained in other studies of reduced contact treatment, and similar to those of face-to-face exposure with response prevention. Our proportion of treatment dropouts tended to be lower than those of other reduced contact interventions. The results suggest that telephone-administered cognitive behavior therapy is effective and well-tolerated, at least for people with obsessive-compulsive disorder without major depression. It remains to be seen whether this treatment is safe and effective when comorbid major depression is present.
View details for PubMedID 16291531
Cognitive behaviour therapy is effective for obsessive-compulsive disorder and for obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders such as trichotillomania. Unfortunately, many people with these disorders, especially those living in rural areas, have limited access to treatment. Telephone-administered cognitive behaviour therapy may help address this problem. In a recent study of telephone treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder, we found that such treatment was often effective (42% in remission at post-treatment, and 47% in remission at 12-week follow-up). This article presents 2 case reports of the same treatment, applied to obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (trichotillomania and compulsive skin picking). Treatment was associated with symptom reduction for both participants, although one subsequently relapsed. Possible reasons for relapse are discussed. The findings encourage further studies to identify the characteristics of people most likely to benefit from telephone treatment for spectrum disorders.
View details for PubMedID 16291538