Honors & Awards

  • Travel Grant, Stanford MIPS and CMC Joint Symposium (2014)
  • Travel Grant, World Molecular Imaging Conference (2014)
  • Travel Grant, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium / Medical Imaging Conference (2013)
  • Training Grant (TG2-01152), California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) (2009-2010)
  • Fellowship, California Institute of Telecommunication and Information Technology (CalIT^2) (2004-2005)
  • Fellow, California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) (2009)
  • Fellow, California Institute of Telecommunication and Information Technology (CalIT^2) (2004)
  • Dean’s Honor’s List, Hawaii Pacific University (2000)
  • Student honor: Epsilon Delta Pi Honor Society, Hawaii Pacific University (1999)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Member, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium / Medical Imaging Conference (2006 - Present)
  • Member, IEEE Women in Engineering (2010 - Present)
  • Member, American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM) (2012 - Present)
  • Member, International Society of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Medicine (ISMRM) (2009 - 2011)

Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of California Irvine (2010)
  • Master of Science, University of California Irvine (2006)
  • Master of Science, Hawaii Pacific University (2001)
  • Bachelor of Science, Hawaii Pacific University, Computer Science (2000)

Stanford Advisors


  • Orhan Nalcioglu, Werner Roeck, Keum Sil Lee.. "United States Patent USPTO Application #20120172709 Keyhole SPECT Image Reconstruction, US Patent office", University of California

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Dr. Lee is interested in developing algorithms for image reconstruction and optimization in medical imaging. Her special interests are in developing motion detection method during PET acquisition, motion correction for cardiac PET imaging, MR-Based PET attenuation correction, PSF modeling, and Monte-Carlo simulation.


  • MR-Based Cardiac PET Motion Correction, Stanford University


    Stanford, California, US


    • Craig Levin, Professor of Radiology (Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford/Nuclear Medicine) and, by courtesy, of Physics, of Electrical Engineering and of Bioengineering, Stanford University

Lab Affiliations


All Publications

  • Single-Cell Tracking with PET using a Novel Trajectory Reconstruction Algorithm Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on Lee, K., Kim, T., Pratx, G. 2015; 34 (4): 10

    View details for DOI 10.1109/TMI.2014.2373351

  • GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging for boron neutron capture therapy Medical Physics Yoon, D., Jung, J., Hong, K., Lee, K., Suh, T. 2015: 165

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4903265

  • High Resolution Positron Emission Tomography Listmode Motion Correction using 3D Motion Data IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Lee, K., Hristov, D. 2013: 1-3
  • MR-based keyhole SPECT for small animal imaging PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY Lee, K. S., Roeck, W. W., Gullberg, G. T., Nalcioglu, O. 2011; 56 (3): 685-702


    The rationale for multi-modality imaging is to integrate the strengths of different imaging technologies while reducing the shortcomings of an individual modality. The work presented here proposes a limited-field-of-view (LFOV) SPECT reconstruction technique that can be implemented on a multi-modality MR/SPECT system that can be used to obtain simultaneous MRI and SPECT images for small animal imaging. The reason for using a combined MR/SPECT system in this work is to eliminate any possible misregistration between the two sets of images when MR images are used as a priori information for SPECT. In nuclear imaging the target area is usually smaller than the entire object; thus, focusing the detector on the LFOV results in various advantages including the use of a smaller nuclear detector (less cost), smaller reconstruction region (faster reconstruction) and higher spatial resolution when used in conjunction with pinhole collimators with magnification. The MR/SPECT system can be used to choose a region of interest (ROI) for SPECT. A priori information obtained by the full field-of-view (FOV) MRI combined with the preliminary SPECT image can be used to reduce the dimensions of the SPECT reconstruction by limiting the computation to the smaller FOV while reducing artifacts resulting from the truncated data. Since the technique is based on SPECT imaging within the LFOV it will be called the keyhole SPECT (K-SPECT) method. At first MRI images of the entire object using a larger FOV are obtained to determine the location of the ROI covering the target organ. Once the ROI is determined, the animal is moved inside the radiofrequency (rf) coil to bring the target area inside the LFOV and then simultaneous MRI and SPECT are performed. The spatial resolution of the SPECT image is improved by employing a pinhole collimator with magnification >1 by having carefully calculated acceptance angles for each pinhole to avoid multiplexing. In our design all the pinholes are focused to the center of the LFOV. K-SPECT reconstruction is accomplished by generating an adaptive weighting matrix using a priori information obtained by simultaneously acquired MR images and the radioactivity distribution obtained from the ROI region of the SPECT image that is reconstructed without any a priori input. Preliminary results using simulations with numerical phantoms show that the image resolution of the SPECT image within the LFOV is improved while minimizing artifacts arising from parts of the object outside the LFOV due to the chosen magnification and the new reconstruction technique. The root-mean-square-error (RMSE) in the out-of-field artifacts was reduced by 60% for spherical phantoms using the K-SPECT reconstruction technique and by 48.5-52.6% for the heart in the case with the MOBY phantom. The K-SPECT reconstruction technique significantly improved the spatial resolution and quantification while reducing artifacts from the contributions outside the LFOV as well as reducing the dimension of the reconstruction matrix.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0031-9155/56/3/010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286223100010

    View details for PubMedID 21220840

  • Fast Motion Correction using the Characteristics of Motion in Rigid Body IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Lee, K., Potkin, S., Keator, D., Burbar, Z., Hong, I. 2008: 5297-5299

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