Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
  • neonatal respiratory failure
  • persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn
  • congenital diaphragmatic hernia
  • respiratory distress syndrome, newborn
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • neonatal clinical trials
  • aEEG for outcome prediction in neonatal HIE
  • therapeutic hypothermia for HIE during neonatal transport

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Mentor, Faculty Fellows Program, Stanford University School of Medicine (2012 - Present)
  • DSMC member, Tolsurf trial, NHLBI (2010 - 2011)
  • Editor, Neonatology section, Pediatric Research (2011 - Present)
  • Associate Chair, Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics (2009 - 2012)
  • Member, Spectrum Child Health Executive Committee (2010 - Present)
  • Member, Research Advisory Committee, Dept of Pediatrics (2008 - 2012)
  • Member, Council of Mentors, Spectrum (2008 - Present)
  • Member, Stable of Mentors, Pilot Pediatric Mentoring Program, Dept of Pediatrics (2007 - Present)
  • Vice Chair, Appointments and Promotions, Stanford Univ School of Medicine (2006 - 2008)
  • Member, Blood and Transfusion Committee (1992 - 2000)
  • Member, Administrative Panel on Human Subjects in Medical Research (1992 - 1995)
  • Member, General Clinical Research Advisory Committee (1997 - 2000)
  • Member, Steering Committee, Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) (1997 - 2000)
  • Chair, Education and Training Committee, Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) (1997 - 2000)
  • Co-Chair, Blood and Transfusion Committee (2000 - 2005)
  • Member, Quality and Service Committee, LPCH (2002 - 2005)
  • Chair, Communication Committee, Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) (2002 - 2008)
  • Member, Steering Committee, Extracorporeal Life Support Orgainization (ELSO) (2002 - 2008)
  • Pediatric representative, Faculty Senate (2004 - 2007)
  • Member, Appointments and Promotions Committee (2006 - 2008)
  • Editorial Board, American Journal of Perinatology (2006 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Guest Researcher, National Research Service Award, Lab of Cellular Metabolism, NHLBI, NIH (1985-1987)
  • Member, Society for Pediatric Research (1995)
  • Alternate Principal investigator, Stanford University, NICHD Neonatal Research Network (2001-2005)
  • Recognition of Service Excellence (ROSE) Award, Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford (2002)
  • Member, Cardiology Working Group, Newborn Drug Initiative, Center for Drug Development, NICHD (2003)
  • Member, Pediatric Academic Society (2006-)
  • Principal Investigator, Stanford University, Steering Committee, NICHD Neonatal Research Network (2006-)
  • Rosemarie Hess Endowed Chair, Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine (June 2012)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification: Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics (1993)
  • Medical Education:George Washington University (1981) DC
  • Fellowship:Children's Hospital National Medical Center (1990) DC
  • Residency:Children's Hospital National Medical Center (1985) DC
  • Fellowship:National Institutes of Health (1987) MD
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1987)
  • Internship:Children's Hospital National Medical Center (1984) DC
  • non-degree, Children's Hosp Natl Med Ctr, Neonatal Fellowship (1990)
  • non-degree, Children's Hosp Natl Med Ctr, Pediatric Residency (1984)
  • M.D., George Washington University, Medicine (1981)
  • A.B., Mount Holyoke College, Chemistry (1977)

Community and International Work


  • Community Technical Assistance Program, Cotulla, Texas

    Partnering Organization(s)

    National Health Service Corps

    Populations Served

    Underserved

    Location

    US

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Research Assistant, Dept of Coordination, Geneva, Switzerland

    Partnering Organization(s)

    World Health Organization

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Amigos de las Americas, Manabi and Bolivar, Ecuador

    Topic

    vaccination and nutritional survey

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Ministery of Health, Quito, Ecuador

    Populations Served

    Children

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


My research interests include persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, hypoxic respiratory failure, inhaled nitric oxide therapy, ECMO, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, neonatal clinical trials, and the use of aEEG and NIRS to detect brain injury.

Clinical Trials


  • Inositol to Reduce Retinopathy of Prematurity Recruiting

    This is a Phase 3, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study designed to determine the effectiveness of myo-Inositol 5% Injection to increase the incidence of survival without severe Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) through acute/final ROP determination up to 55 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) in premature infants <28 0/7 weeks' gestation.

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  • Hydrocortisone for Term Hypotension Recruiting

    This trial will evaluate the effects of a 7-day course of hydrocortisone therapy on short-term morbidity, cardiovascular function, long-term neurodevelopment, and mortality in critically ill, term and late preterm infants diagnosed with cardiovascular insufficiency as defined by a need for inotrope therapy in the first 72 hours of age.

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  • Late Hypothermia for Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Recruiting

    This study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial to evaluate whether induced whole-body hypothermia initiated between 6-24 hours of age and continued for 96 hours in infants ≥ 36 weeks gestational age with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy will reduce the incidence of death or disability at 18-24 months of age. The study will enroll 168 infants with signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at 16 NICHD Neonatal Research Network sites, and randomly assign them to either receive hypothermia or participate in a non-cooled control group.

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  • Preemie Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy Not Recruiting

    This study is a randomized, controlled trial to assess safety and effectiveness of whole body hypothermia for 72 hours in preterm infants 33-35 weeks gestational age (GA) who present at <6 hours postnatal age with moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy (NE). The study will enroll infants with signs of NE at 18 NICHD Neonatal Research Network sites, and randomly assign them to either receive hypothermia or participate in a non-cooled control group.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Krisa P. Van Meurs, MD, 650-723-5711.

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  • Generic Database of Very Low Birth Weight Infants Recruiting

    The Generic Database (GDB) is a registry of very low birth weight infants born alive in NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) centers. The GDB collects observational baseline data on both mothers and infants, and the therapies used and outcomes of the infants. The information collected is not specific to a disease or treatment (i.e., it is "generic"). Data are analyzed to find associations and trends between baseline information, treatments, and infant outcome, and to develop future NRN trials.

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  • Hydrocortisone for BPD Recruiting

    The Hydrocortisone and Extubation study will test the safety and efficacy of a 10 day course of hydrocortisone for infants who are less than 30 weeks estimated gestational age and who are intubated at 14-28 days of life. Infants will be randomized to receive hydrocortisone or placebo. This study will determine if hydrocortisone improves infants'survival without moderate or severe BPD and will be associated with improvement in survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental impairment at 22 - 26 months corrected age.

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  • Early-Onset Sepsis Surveillance Study Not Recruiting

    In this observational study, the NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) is conducting surveillance of all infants born at NRN centers to identify all newborns who are diagnosed with early-onset sepsis (EOS) and/or meningitis. The study will: establish current hospital-based rates of EOS among term and preterm infants in the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis; monitor the organisms associated with EOS and meningitis; compare asymptomatic and symptomatic infants by gestational age and pathogen; and monitor sepsis-associated mortality rates by pathogen group.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Krisa Van Meurs, (650) 723-5711 .

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  • Transfusion of Prematures Trial Recruiting

    The objective of the TOP trial is to determine whether higher hemoglobin thresholds for transfusing ELBW infants resulting in higher hemoglobin levels lead to improvement in the primary outcome of survival and rates of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 22-26 months of age, using standardized assessments by Bayley.

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  • Donor Milk vs. Formula in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) Infants Recruiting

    The Milk Trial seeks to determine the effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 22-26 months of donor human milk as compared to preterm infant formula as the in-hospital diet for infants whose mothers choose not to provide breast milk or are able to provide only a minimal amount. Infants will be randomized to receive donor breast milk or formula during their hospital stay. Infant's will be followed until they reach 22-26 months of age.

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  • Neonatal Erythropoietin And Therapeutic Hypothermia Outcomes in Newborn Brain Injury (NEATO) Not Recruiting

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), a condition of reduced blood and oxygen flow to a baby's brain near the time of birth, may cause death or neurologic disability. Cooling therapy (hypothermia) provides some protection, but about half of affected infants still have a poor outcome. This clinical trial will determine if the drug erythropoietin, given with hypothermia, is safe to use as a treatment that may further reduce the risk of neurologic deficits after HIE.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Krisa Van Meurs, MD, (650) 723 - 5711.

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  • Antibiotic Safety (SCAMP) Recruiting

    The main purpose of this study is evaluate whether it is safe or not to use various combination of antibiotics (ampicillin, metronidazole, clindamycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin) in treating infants with complicated intra-abdominal infections

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  • Incubator Weaning of Moderately Preterm Infants Not Recruiting

    The objective of this proposal is to evaluate whether weaning from an incubator to a crib at lower versus higher weight, 1600g or 1800g will result in shorter length of hospital stay among moderately preterm infants. The hypothesis of this study is that length of hospital stay (from birth to discharge) will be decreased among moderate preterm infants weaned from an incubator to an open crib at a lower versus higher weight, 1600g vs. 1800g.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • Optimizing (Longer, Deeper) Cooling for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy(HIE) Not Recruiting

    The Optimizing Cooling trial will compare four whole-body cooling treatments for infants born at 36 weeks gestational age or later with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: (1) cooling for 72 hours to 33.5°C; (2) cooling for 120 hours to 33.5°C; (3) cooling for 72 hours to 32.0°C; and (4) cooling for 120 hours to 32.0°C. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether whole-body cooling initiated at less than 6 hours of age and continued for 120 hours and/or a depth at 32.0°C in will reduce death and disability at 18-22 months corrected age.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact M Bethany Ball, (650) 725 - 8342.

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  • Surfactant Positive Airway Pressure and Pulse Oximetry Trial Not Recruiting

    This study compared the use of continuous positive airway pressure initiated at birth with the early administration of surfactant administered through a tube in the windpipe within 1 hour of birth for premature infants born at 24 to 27 weeks gestation. In addition, these infants within 2 hours of birth, had a special pulse oximeter placed to continuously monitor their oxygen saturation in two different target ranges (85-89% or 91-95%). This study helped determine whether or not these two management strategies affect chronic lung disease and survival of premature infants.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • Follow-up Visit of High Risk Infants Recruiting

    The NICHD Neonatal Research Network's Follow-Up study is a multi-center cohort in which surviving extremely low birth-weight infants born in participating network centers receive neurodevelopmental, neurosensory and functional assessments at 22-26 months corrected age (Infants born prior to July 1, 2012 were seen at 18-22 months corrected age). Data regarding pregnancy and neonatal outcome are collected prospectively. The goal is to identify potential maternal and neonatal risk factors that may affect infant neurodevelopment.

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  • Laparotomy vs. Drainage for Infants With Necrotizing Enterocolitis Recruiting

    This trial will compare the effectiveness of two surgical procedures -laparotomy versus drainage - commonly used to treat necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or isolated intestinal perforations (IP) in extremely low birth weight infants (≤1,000 g). Infants diagnosed with NEC or IP requiring surgical intervention, will be recruited. Subjects will be randomized to receive either a laparotomy or peritoneal drainage. Primary outcome is impairment-free survival at 18-22 months corrected age.

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  • Inhaled Nitric Oxide (INO) for the Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) in Preterm Infants Recruiting

    This phase 3, multi-center, double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial will attempt to demonstrate if preterm infants who require mechanical ventilation and/or positive pressure support at any point during days 5 to 14 after birth may benefit from treatment with iNO.

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Teaching

2014-15 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Causes and timing of death in extremely premature infants from 2000 through 2011. New England journal of medicine Patel, R. M., Kandefer, S., Walsh, M. C., Bell, E. F., Carlo, W. A., Laptook, A. R., Sánchez, P. J., Shankaran, S., Van Meurs, K. P., Ball, M. B., Hale, E. C., Newman, N. S., Das, A., Higgins, R. D., Stoll, B. J. 2015; 372 (4): 331-340

    Abstract

    Understanding the causes and timing of death in extremely premature infants may guide research efforts and inform the counseling of families.We analyzed prospectively collected data on 6075 deaths among 22,248 live births, with gestational ages of 22 0/7 to 28 6/7 weeks, among infants born in study hospitals within the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. We compared overall and cause-specific in-hospital mortality across three periods from 2000 through 2011, with adjustment for baseline differences.The number of deaths per 1000 live births was 275 (95% confidence interval [CI], 264 to 285) from 2000 through 2003 and 285 (95% CI, 275 to 295) from 2004 through 2007; the number decreased to 258 (95% CI, 248 to 268) in the 2008-2011 period (P=0.003 for the comparison across three periods). There were fewer pulmonary-related deaths attributed to the respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in 2008-2011 than in 2000-2003 and 2004-2007 (68 [95% CI, 63 to 74] vs. 83 [95% CI, 77 to 90] and 84 [95% CI, 78 to 90] per 1000 live births, respectively; P=0.002). Similarly, in 2008-2011, as compared with 2000-2003, there were decreases in deaths attributed to immaturity (P=0.05) and deaths complicated by infection (P=0.04) or central nervous system injury (P<0.001); however, there were increases in deaths attributed to necrotizing enterocolitis (30 [95% CI, 27 to 34] vs. 23 [95% CI, 20 to 27], P=0.03). Overall, 40.4% of deaths occurred within 12 hours after birth, and 17.3% occurred after 28 days.We found that from 2000 through 2011, overall mortality declined among extremely premature infants. Deaths related to pulmonary causes, immaturity, infection, and central nervous system injury decreased, while necrotizing enterocolitis-related deaths increased. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1403489

    View details for PubMedID 25607427

  • Neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely preterm infants. Pediatrics Hintz, S. R., Barnes, P. D., Bulas, D., Slovis, T. L., Finer, N. N., Wrage, L. A., Das, A., Tyson, J. E., Stevenson, D. K., Carlo, W. A., Walsh, M. C., Laptook, A. R., Yoder, B. A., Van Meurs, K. P., Faix, R. G., Rich, W., Newman, N. S., Cheng, H., Heyne, R. J., Vohr, B. R., Acarregui, M. J., Vaucher, Y. E., Pappas, A., Peralta-Carcelen, M., Wilson-Costello, D. E., Evans, P. W., Goldstein, R. F., Myers, G. J., Poindexter, B. B., McGowan, E. C., Adams-Chapman, I., Fuller, J., Higgins, R. D. 2015; 135 (1): e32-42

    Abstract

    Extremely preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Early cranial ultrasound (CUS) is usual practice, but near-term brain MRI has been reported to better predict outcomes. We prospectively evaluated MRI white matter abnormality (WMA) and cerebellar lesions, and serial CUS adverse findings as predictors of outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age.Early and late CUS, and brain MRI were read by masked central readers, in a large cohort (n = 480) of infants <28 weeks' gestation surviving to near term in the Neonatal Research Network. Outcomes included NDI or death after neuroimaging, and significant gross motor impairment or death, with NDI defined as cognitive composite score <70, significant gross motor impairment, and severe hearing or visual impairment. Multivariable models evaluated the relative predictive value of neuroimaging while controlling for other factors.Of 480 infants, 15 died and 20 were lost. Increasing severity of WMA and significant cerebellar lesions on MRI were associated with adverse outcomes. Cerebellar lesions were rarely identified by CUS. In full multivariable models, both late CUS and MRI, but not early CUS, remained independently associated with NDI or death (MRI cerebellar lesions: odds ratio, 3.0 [95% confidence interval: 1.3-6.8]; late CUS: odds ratio, 9.8 [95% confidence interval: 2.8-35]), and significant gross motor impairment or death. In models that did not include late CUS, MRI moderate-severe WMA was independently associated with adverse outcomes.Both late CUS and near-term MRI abnormalities were associated with outcomes, independent of early CUS and other factors, underscoring the relative prognostic value of near-term neuroimaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2014-0898

    View details for PubMedID 25554820

  • Antenatal magnesium sulfate exposure and acute cardiorespiratory events in preterm infants AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY De Jesus, L. C., Sood, B. G., Shankaran, S., Kendrick, D., Das, A., Bell, E. F., Stoll, B. J., Laptook, A. R., Walsh, M. C., Carlo, W. A., Sanchez, P. J., Van Meurs, K. P., Bara, R., Hale, E. C., Newman, N. S., Ball, M. B., Higgins, R. D. 2015; 212 (1)

    Abstract

    Antenatal magnesium (anteMg) is used for various obstetric indications including fetal neuroprotection. Infants exposed to anteMg may be at risk for respiratory depression and delivery room (DR) resuscitation. The study objective was to compare the risk of acute cardiorespiratory events among preterm infants who were and were not exposed to anteMg.This was a retrospective analysis of prospective data collected in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network's Generic Database from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012. The primary outcome was DR intubation or respiratory support at birth or on day 1 of life. Secondary outcomes were invasive mechanical ventilation, hypotension treatment, neonatal morbidities, and mortality. Logistic regression analysis evaluated the risk of primary outcome after adjustment for covariates.We evaluated 1544 infants <29 weeks' gestational age (1091 in anteMg group and 453 in nonexposed group). Mothers in the anteMg group were more likely to have higher education, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and antenatal corticosteroids, while their infants were younger in gestation and weighed less (P < .05). The primary outcome (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.65) was similar between groups. Hypotension treatment (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.97) and invasive mechanical ventilation (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.41-0.72) were significantly less in the anteMg group.Among preterm infants age <29 weeks' gestation, anteMg exposure was not associated with an increase in cardiorespiratory events in the early newborn period. The safety of anteMg as measured by the need for DR intubation or respiratory support on day 1 of life was comparable between groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.07.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346585700032

    View details for PubMedID 25046806

  • Effect of Depth and Duration of Cooling on Deaths in the NICU Among Neonates With Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy A Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Shankaran, S., Laptook, A. R., Pappas, A., McDonald, S. A., Das, A., Tyson, J. E., Poindexter, B. B., Schibler, K., Bell, E. F., Heyne, R. J., Pedroza, C., Bara, R., Van Meurs, K. P., Grisby, C., Huitema, C. M., Garg, M., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Shepherd, E. G., Chalak, L. F., Hamrick, S. E., Khan, A. M., Reynolds, A. M., Laughon, M. M., Truog, W. E., Dysart, K. C., Carlo, W. A., Walsh, M. C., Watterberg, K. L., Higgins, R. D. 2014; 312 (24): 2629-2639

    Abstract

    Hypothermia at 33.5°C for 72 hours for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy reduces death or disability to 44% to 55%; longer cooling and deeper cooling are neuroprotective in animal models.To determine if longer duration cooling (120 hours), deeper cooling (32.0°C), or both are superior to cooling at 33.5°C for 72 hours in neonates who are full-term with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.A randomized, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial performed in 18 US centers in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network between October 2010 and November 2013.Neonates were assigned to 4 hypothermia groups; 33.5°C for 72 hours, 32.0°C for 72 hours, 33.5°C for 120 hours, and 32.0°C for 120 hours.The primary outcome of death or disability at 18 to 22 months is ongoing. The independent data and safety monitoring committee paused the trial to evaluate safety (cardiac arrhythmia, persistent acidosis, major vessel thrombosis and bleeding, and death in the neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]) after the first 50 neonates were enrolled, then after every subsequent 25 neonates. The trial was closed for emerging safety profile and futility analysis after the eighth review with 364 neonates enrolled (of 726 planned). This report focuses on safety and NICU deaths by marginal comparisons of 72 hours' vs 120 hours' duration and 33.5°C depth vs 32.0°C depth (predefined secondary outcomes).The NICU death rates were 7 of 95 neonates (7%) for the 33.5°C for 72 hours group, 13 of 90 neonates (14%) for the 32.0°C for 72 hours group, 15 of 96 neonates (16%) for the 33.5°C for 120 hours group, and 14 of 83 neonates (17%) for the 32.0°C for 120 hours group. The adjusted risk ratio (RR) for NICU deaths for the 120 hours group vs 72 hours group was 1.37 (95% CI, 0.92-2.04) and for the 32.0°C group vs 33.5°C group was 1.24 (95% CI, 0.69-2.25). Safety outcomes were similar between the 120 hours group vs 72 hours group and the 32.0°C group vs 33.5°C group, except major bleeding occurred among 1% in the 120 hours group vs 3% in the 72 hours group (RR, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.07-0.91]). Futility analysis determined that the probability of detecting a statistically significant benefit for longer cooling, deeper cooling, or both for NICU death was less than 2%.Among neonates who were full-term with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, longer cooling, deeper cooling, or both compared with hypothermia at 33.5°C for 72 hours did not reduce NICU death. These results have implications for patient care and design of future trials.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01192776.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2014.16058

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346966100015

    View details for PubMedID 25536254

  • Incidence, Management, and Outcomes of Cardiovascular Insufficiency in Critically III Term and Late Preterm Newborn Infants AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Fernandez, E., Watterberg, K. L., Faix, R. G., Yoder, B. A., Walsh, M. C., Lacy, C. B., Osborne, K. A., Das, A., Kendrick, D. E., Stoll, B. J., Poindexter, B. B., Laptook, A. R., Kennedy, K. A., Schibler, K., Bell, E. F., Van Meurs, K. P., Frantz, I. D., Goldberg, R. N., Shankaran, S., Carlo, W. A., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Sanchez, P. J., Higgins, R. D. 2014; 31 (11): 947-955
  • Inhaled nitric oxide usage in preterm infants in the NICHD neonatal research network: inter-site variation and propensity evaluation JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Truog, W. E., Nelin, L. D., Das, A., Kendrick, D. E., Bell, E. F., Carlo, W. A., Higgins, R. D., Laptook, A. R., Sanchez, P. J., Shankaran, S., Stoll, B. J., Van Meurs, K. P., Walsh, M. C. 2014; 34 (11): 842-846
  • Prophylactic Indomethacin and Intestinal Perforation in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants PEDIATRICS Kelleher, J., Salas, A. A., Bhat, R., Ambalavanan, N., Saha, S., Stoll, B. J., Bell, E. F., Walsh, M. C., Laptook, A. R., Sanchez, P. J., Shankaran, S., VanMeurs, K. P., Hale, E. C., Newman, N. S., Ball, M. B., Das, A., Higgins, R. D., Peralta-Carcelen, M., Carlo, W. A. 2014; 134 (5): E1369-E1377
  • Surgery and neurodevelopmental outcome of very low-birth-weight infants. JAMA pediatrics Morriss, F. H., Saha, S., Bell, E. F., Colaizy, T. T., Stoll, B. J., Hintz, S. R., Shankaran, S., Vohr, B. R., Hamrick, S. E., Pappas, A., Jones, P. M., Carlo, W. A., Laptook, A. R., Van Meurs, K. P., Sánchez, P. J., Hale, E. C., Newman, N. S., Das, A., Higgins, R. D. 2014; 168 (8): 746-754

    Abstract

    Reduced death and neurodevelopmental impairment among infants is a goal of perinatal medicine.To assess the association between surgery during the initial hospitalization and death or neurodevelopmental impairment of very low-birth-weight infants.A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of patients enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Generic Database from 1998 through 2009 and evaluated at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Twenty-two academic neonatal intensive care units participated. Inclusion criteria were birth weight 401 to 1500 g, survival to 12 hours, and availability for follow-up. A total of 12 111 infants were included in analyses.Surgical procedures; surgery also was classified by expected anesthesia type as major (general anesthesia) or minor (nongeneral anesthesia).Multivariable logistic regression analyses planned a priori were performed for the primary outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment and for the secondary outcome of neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed as planned for the adjusted mean scores of the Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, for patients born before 2006.A total of 2186 infants underwent major surgery, 784 had minor surgery, and 9141 infants did not undergo surgery. The risk-adjusted odds ratio of death or neurodevelopmental impairment for all surgery patients compared with those who had no surgery was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.08-1.55). For patients who had major surgery compared with those who had no surgery, the risk-adjusted odds ratio of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.24-1.87). Patients classified as having minor surgery had no increased adjusted risk. Among survivors who had major surgery compared with those who had no surgery, the adjusted risk of neurodevelopmental impairment was greater and the adjusted mean Bayley scores were lower.Major surgery in very low-birth-weight infants is independently associated with a greater than 50% increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment and of neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. The role of general anesthesia is implicated but remains unproven.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.307

    View details for PubMedID 24934607

  • Hypothermia Therapy for Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in the State of California. journal of pediatrics Kracer, B., Hintz, S. R., Van Meurs, K. P., Lee, H. C. 2014; 165 (2): 267-273

    Abstract

    To characterize the implementation of hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in a population-based cohort.Using the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative and California Perinatal Transport System linked 2010-2012 datasets, we categorized infants ≥36 weeks' gestation with HIE as receiving hypothermia or normothermia. Sociodemographic and clinical factors were compared, and multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with hypothermia therapy.There were 238 reported encephalopathy cases in 2010, 280 in 2011, and 311 in 2012. Hypothermia therapy use in newborns with HIE increased from 59% to 73% across the study period, mainly occurring in newborns with mild or moderate encephalopathy. A total of 36 centers provided hypothermia and cared for 94% of infants, with the remaining 6% being cared for at one of 25 other centers. Of the centers providing hypothermia, 12 centers performed hypothermia therapy to more than 20 patients during the 3-year study period, and 24 centers cared for <20 patients receiving hypothermia. In-hospital mortality was 13%, which primarily was associated with the severity of encephalopathy.Our findings highlight an opportunity to explore practice-site variation and to develop quality improvement interventions to assure consistent evidence-based care of term infants with HIE and appropriate application of hypothermia therapy for eligible newborns.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.04.052

    View details for PubMedID 24929331

  • Developmental outcomes of very preterm infants with tracheostomies. journal of pediatrics DeMauro, S. B., D'Agostino, J. A., Bann, C., Bernbaum, J., Gerdes, M., Bell, E. F., Carlo, W. A., D'Angio, C. T., Das, A., Higgins, R., Hintz, S. R., Laptook, A. R., Natarajan, G., Nelin, L., Poindexter, B. B., Sanchez, P. J., Shankaran, S., Stoll, B. J., Truog, W., Van Meurs, K. P., Vohr, B., Walsh, M. C., Kirpalani, H. 2014; 164 (6): 1303-10 e2

    Abstract

    To evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm (<30 weeks) infants who underwent tracheostomy.Retrospective cohort study from 16 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network over 10 years (2001-2011). Infants who survived to at least 36 weeks (N = 8683), including 304 infants with tracheostomies, were studied. Primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI; a composite of ≥1 of developmental delay, neurologic impairment, profound hearing loss, severe visual impairment) at a corrected age of 18-22 months. Outcomes were compared using multiple logistic regression. We assessed the impact of timing by comparing outcomes of infants who underwent tracheostomy before and after 120 days of life.Tracheostomies were associated with all neonatal morbidities examined and with most adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Death or NDI occurred in 83% of infants with tracheostomies and 40% of those without (OR adjusted for center 7.0, 95% CI 5.2-9.5). After adjustment for potential confounders, odds of death or NDI remained higher (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.4-4.6), but odds of death alone were lower (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.7) among infants with tracheostomies. Death or NDI was lower in infants who received their tracheostomies before, rather than after, 120 days of life (aOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9).Tracheostomy in preterm infants is associated with adverse developmental outcomes and cannot mitigate the significant risk associated with many complications of prematurity. These data may inform counseling about tracheostomy in this vulnerable population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.12.014

    View details for PubMedID 24472229

  • Developmental Outcomes of Very Preterm Infants with Tracheostomies JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS DeMauro, S. B., D'Agostino, J. A., Bann, C., Bernbaum, J., Gerdes, M., Bell, E. F., Carlo, W. A., D'Angio, C. T., Das, A., Higgins, R., Hintz, S. R., Laptook, A. R., Natarajan, G., Nelin, L., Poindexter, B. B., Sanchez, P. J., Shankaran, S., Stoll, B. J., Truog, W., Van Meurs, K. P., Vohr, B., Walsh, M. C., Kirpalani, H. 2014; 164 (6): 1303-?
  • Predictors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death in premature infants with a patent ductus arteriosus PEDIATRIC RESEARCH Chock, V. Y., Punn, R., Oza, A., Benitz, W. E., Van Meurs, K. R., Whittemore, A. S., Behzadian, F., Silverman, N. H. 2014; 75 (4): 570-575

    Abstract

    Background:Preterm infants with a PDA are at risk for death or development of BPD. However, PDA treatment remains controversial. We investigated if PDA treatment and other clinical or echocardiographic (ECHO) factors were associated with the development of death or BPD.Methods:We retrospectively studied clinical and ECHO characteristics of preterm infants with birth weight <1500 g and ECHO diagnosis of a PDA. Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed to assess variables associated with the combined outcome of death or BPD.Results:Of 187 preterm infants with a PDA, 75% were treated with indomethacin or surgery and 25% were managed conservatively. Death or BPD occurred in 80 (43%). Logistic regression found lower gestational age (OR 0.5), earlier year of birth during the study period (OR 0.9), and larger ductal diameter (OR 4.3) were associated with the decision to treat the PDA, while gestational age was the only variable associated with death or BPD (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8).Conclusion:Only lower gestational age and not PDA treatment or ECHO score was associated with the adverse outcome of death or BPD. Further investigation of PDA management strategies and effects on adverse outcomes of prematurity is needed.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.253.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/pr.2013.253

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333139400014

  • Apolipoprotein E genotype and outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy PEDIATRIC RESEARCH Cotten, C. M., Goldstein, R. F., McDonald, S. A., Goldberg, R. N., Salhab, W. A., Carlo, W. A., Tyson, J. E., Finer, N. N., Walsh, M. C., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Laptook, A. R., Guillet, R., Schibler, K., Van Meurs, K. P., Poindexter, B. B., Stoll, B. J., O'Shea, T. M., Duara, S., Das, A., Higgins, R. D., Shankaran, S. 2014; 75 (3): 424-430

    Abstract

    Background:Adults with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene alleles e4 and e2 are at high risk of poor neurological outcome after brain injury. The e4 allele has been associated with cerebral palsy (CP), and the e2 allele has been associated with worse neurological outcome with congenital heart disease. This study was done to test the hypothesis that the APOE genotype is associated with outcome among neonates who survive after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).Methods:We conducted a cohort study of infants who survived HIE and had 18-22 mo standardized neurodevelopmental evaluations to assess associations between disability and the APOE genotypes e3/e3, e4/-, and e2/-.Results:A total of 139 survivors were genotyped. Of these, 86 (62%) were of the e3/e3, 41 (29%) were of the e4/-, and 14 (10%) were of the e2/- genotypes. One hundred and twenty-nine infants had genotype and follow-up data; 26% had moderate or severe disabilities. Disability prevalence was 30 and 19% among those with and without the e3/e3 genotype, 25 and 26% among those with and without the e2 allele, and 18 and 29% among those with and without the e4 allele, respectively. None of the differences were statistically significant. CP prevalence was also similar among genotype groups.Conclusion:Disability was not associated with the APOE genotype in this cohort of HIE survivors.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/pr.2013.235

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332433500008

    View details for PubMedID 24322171

  • Impact of early surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide therapies on outcomes in term/late preterm neonates with moderate hypoxic respiratory failure JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Konduri, G. G., Sokol, G. M., Van Meurs, K. P., Singer, J., Ambalavanan, N., Lee, T., Solimano, A. 2013; 33 (12): 944-949

    Abstract

    Objective:We conducted a post-hoc analysis of early inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)-randomized controlled trial data to identify associations pertinent to the management of moderate hypoxic respiratory failure in term/late preterm infants.Study design:Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk factors for the progression of respiratory failure and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)/death.Result:Among the 299 enrolled infants, oxygenation index (OI) <20 at enrollment (odds ratio 0.52, confidence interval (CI) 0.27 to 0.97) and surfactant use before randomization (odds ratio 0.47, CI 0.24 to 0.91) were associated with decreased ECMO/death rates. Early surfactant use for respiratory distress syndrome, perinatal aspiration syndrome and pneumonia/sepsis was associated with lower risk of ECMO/death (P<0.001). Early iNO (OI 15 to 25) decreased the progression of respiratory failure to OI >30 (P=0.002) and to composite outcome of OI >30 or ECMO/death (P=0.02).Conclusion:This post-hoc analysis suggests that early use of surfactant and iNO in moderate respiratory failure is associated with improved outcomes.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 18 July 2013; doi:10.1038/jp.2013.83.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2013.83

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327689600009

    View details for PubMedID 23867958

  • Serum Tocopherol Levels in Very Preterm Infants After a Single Dose of Vitamin E at Birth PEDIATRICS Bell, E. F., Hansen, N. I., Brion, L. P., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Kennedy, K. A., Walsh, M. C., Shankaran, S., Acarregui, M. J., Johnson, K. J., Hale, E. C., Messina, L. A., Crawford, M. M., Laptook, A. R., Goldberg, R. N., Van Meurs, K. P., Carlo, W. A., Poindexter, B. B., Faix, R. G., Carlton, D. P., Watterberg, K. L., Ellsbury, D. L., Das, A., Higgins, R. D. 2013; 132 (6): E1626-E1633
  • Serum tocopherol levels in very preterm infants after a single dose of vitamin E at birth. Pediatrics Bell, E. F., Hansen, N. I., Brion, L. P., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Kennedy, K. A., Walsh, M. C., Shankaran, S., Acarregui, M. J., Johnson, K. J., Hale, E. C., Messina, L. A., Crawford, M. M., Laptook, A. R., Goldberg, R. N., Van Meurs, K. P., Carlo, W. A., Poindexter, B. B., Faix, R. G., Carlton, D. P., Watterberg, K. L., Ellsbury, D. L., Das, A., Higgins, R. D. 2013; 132 (6): e1626-33

    Abstract

    Our aim was to examine the impact of a single enteral dose of vitamin E on serum tocopherol levels. The study was undertaken to see whether a single dose of vitamin E soon after birth can rapidly increase the low α-tocopherol levels seen in very preterm infants. If so, this intervention could be tested as a means of reducing the risk of intracranial hemorrhage.Ninety-three infants <27 weeks' gestation and <1000 g were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of vitamin E or placebo by gastric tube within 4 hours of birth. The vitamin E group received 50 IU/kg of vitamin E as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate (Aquasol E). The placebo group received sterile water. Blood samples were taken for measurement of serum tocopherol levels by high-performance liquid chromatography before dosing and 24 hours and 7 days after dosing.Eighty-eight infants received the study drug and were included in the analyses. The α-tocopherol levels were similar between the groups at baseline but higher in the vitamin E group at 24 hours (median 0.63 mg/dL vs. 0.42 mg/dL, P = .003) and 7 days (2.21 mg/dL vs 1.86 mg/dL, P = .04). There were no differences between groups in γ-tocopherol levels. At 24 hours, 30% of vitamin E infants and 62% of placebo infants had α-tocopherol levels <0.5 mg/dL.A 50-IU/kg dose of vitamin E raised serum α-tocopherol levels, but to consistently achieve α-tocopherol levels >0.5 mg/dL, a higher dose or several doses of vitamin E may be needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2013-1684

    View details for PubMedID 24218460

  • Blood stream infection is associated with altered heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immune responses in very low birth weight infants JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Wynn, J. L., Li, L., Cotten, C. M., Phelps, D. L., Shankaran, S., Goldberg, R. N., Carlo, W. A., Van Meurs, K., Das, A., Vohr, B. R., Higgins, R. D., Stoll, B. J., D'Angio, C. T. 2013; 33 (8): 613-618

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE:Sepsis in older children and adults modifies immune system function. We compared serotype-specific antibody responses to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in very low birth weight infants (<1500 g,VLBWs) with and without blood stream infection (BSI) during their birth hospitalization.STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data for the Neonatal Research Network study of PCV7 responses among VLBWs. Infants received PCV7 at 2, 4 and 6 months after birth with blood drawn 4 to 6 weeks after third dose. Serotype antibodies were compared between infants with or without a history of BSI. Regression models were constructed with BW groups and other confounding factors identified in the primary study.RESULT:In all, 244 infants completed the vaccine series and had serum antibody available; 82 had BSI. After adjustment, BSI was not associated with reduced odds of serum antibody 0.35 μg ml(-1).CONCLUSION:BSI was not associated with reduced odds of World Health Organization-defined protective PCV7 responses in VLBWs.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 31 January 2013; doi:10.1038/jp.2013.5.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2013.5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322442700008

  • Ten-Year Review of Major Birth Defects in VLBW Infants PEDIATRICS Adams-Chapman, I., Hansen, N. I., Shankaran, S., Bell, E. F., Boghossian, N. S., Murray, J. C., Laptook, A. R., Walsh, M. C., Carlo, W. A., Sanchez, P. J., Van Meurs, K. P., Das, A., Hale, E. C., Newman, N. S., Ball, M. B., Higgins, R. D., Stoll, B. J. 2013; 132 (1): 49-61

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE:Birth defects (BDs) are an important cause of infant mortality and disproportionately occur among low birth weight infants. We determined the prevalence of BDs in a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants cared for at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NRN) centers over a 10-year period and examined the relationship between anomalies, neonatal outcomes, and surgical care.METHODS:Infant and maternal data were collected prospectively for infants weighing 401 to 1500 g at NRN sites between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2007. Poisson regression models were used to compare risk of outcomes for infants with versus without BDs while adjusting for gestational age and other characteristics.RESULTS:A BD was present in 1776 (4.8%) of the 37 262 infants in our VLBW cohort. Yearly prevalence of BDs increased from 4.0% of infants born in 1998 to 5.6% in 2007, P < .001. Mean gestational age overall was 28 weeks, and mean birth weight was 1007 g. Infants with BDs were more mature but more likely to be small for gestational age compared with infants without BDs. Chromosomal and cardiovascular anomalies were most frequent with each occurring in 20% of affected infants. Mortality was higher among infants with BDs (49% vs 18%; adjusted relative risk: 3.66 [95% confidence interval: 3.41-3.92]; P < .001) and varied by diagnosis. Among those surviving >3 days, more infants with BDs underwent major surgery (48% vs 13%, P < .001).CONCLUSIONS:Prevalence of BDs increased during the 10 years studied. BDs remain an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality among VLBW infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2012-3111

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322841900045

    View details for PubMedID 23733791

  • Use of Antihypotensive Therapies in Extremely Preterm Infants PEDIATRICS Batton, B., Li, L., Newman, N. S., Das, A., Watterberg, K. L., Yoder, B. A., Faix, R. G., Laughon, M. M., Stoll, B. J., Van Meurs, K. P., Carlo, W. A., Poindexter, B. B., Bell, E. F., Sanchez, P. J., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Goldberg, R. N., Laptook, A. R., Kennedy, K. A., Frantz, I. D., Shankaran, S., Schibler, K., Higgins, R. D., Walsh, M. C. 2013; 131 (6): E1865-E1873

    Abstract

    To investigate the relationships among blood pressure (BP) values, antihypotensive therapies, and in-hospital outcomes to identify a BP threshold below which antihypotensive therapies may be beneficial.Prospective observational study of infants 23(0/7) to 26(6/7) weeks' gestational age. Hourly BP values and antihypotensive therapy use in the first 24 hours were recorded. Low BP was investigated by using 15 definitions. Outcomes were examined by using regression analysis controlling for gestational age, the number of low BP values, and illness severity.Of 367 infants enrolled, 203 (55%) received at least 1 antihypotensive therapy. Treated infants were more likely to have low BP by any definition (P < .001), but for the 15 definitions of low BP investigated, therapy was not prescribed to 3% to 49% of infants with low BP and, paradoxically, was administered to 28% to 41% of infants without low BP. Treated infants were more likely than untreated infants to develop severe retinopathy of prematurity (15% vs 8%, P = .03) or severe intraventricular hemorrhage (22% vs 11%, P < .01) and less likely to survive (67% vs 78%, P = .02). However, with regression analysis, there were no significant differences between groups in survival or in-hospital morbidity rates.Factors other than BP contributed to the decision to use antihypotensive therapies. Infant outcomes were not improved with antihypotensive therapy for any of the 15 definitions of low BP investigated.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2012-2779

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322840200021

    View details for PubMedID 23650301

  • Early Sepsis Does Not Increase the Risk of Late Sepsis in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Wynn, J. L., Hansen, N. I., Das, A., Cotten, C. M., Goldberg, R. N., Sanchez, P. J., Bell, E. F., Van Meurs, K. P., Carlo, W. A., Laptook, A. R., Higgins, R. D., Benjamin, D. K., Stoll, B. J. 2013; 162 (5): 942-U92

    Abstract

    To examine whether preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have an increased risk of late-onset sepsis (LOS) following early-onset sepsis (EOS).Retrospective analysis of VLBW infants (401-1500 g) born September 1998 through December 2009 who survived >72 hours and were cared for within the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Sepsis was defined by growth of bacteria or fungi in a blood culture obtained ≤72 hours of birth (EOS) or >72 hours (LOS) and antimicrobial therapy for ≥5 days or death <5 days while receiving therapy. Regression models were used to assess risk of death or LOS by 120 days and LOS by 120 days among survivors to discharge or 120 days, adjusting for gestational age and other covariates.Of 34 396 infants studied, 504 (1.5%) had EOS. After adjustment, risk of death or LOS by 120 days did not differ overall for infants with EOS compared with those without EOS [risk ratio (RR): 0.99 (0.89-1.09)] but was reduced in infants born at <25 weeks gestation [RR: 0.87 (0.76-0.99), P = .048]. Among survivors, no difference in LOS risk was found overall for infants with versus without EOS [RR: 0.88 (0.75-1.02)], but LOS risk was reduced in infants with birth weight 401-750 g who had EOS [RR: 0.80 (0.64-0.99), P = .047].Risk of LOS after EOS was not increased in VLBW infants. Surprisingly, risk of LOS following EOS appeared to be reduced in the smallest, most premature infants, underscoring the need for age-specific analyses of immune function.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.11.027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317836300016

    View details for PubMedID 23295144

  • Therapeutic hypothermia during neonatal transport: data from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative (CPQCC) and California Perinatal Transport System (CPeTS) for 2010 JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Akula, V. P., Gould, J. B., DAVIS, A. S., Hackel, A., Oehlert, J., Van Meurs, K. P. 2013; 33 (3): 194-197

    Abstract

    To evaluate cooling practices and neonatal outcomes in the state of California during 2010 using the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative and California Perinatal Transport System databases.Database analysis to determine the perinatal and neonatal demographics and outcomes of neonates cooled in transport or after admission to a cooling center.Of the 223 infants receiving therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in California during 2010, 69% were cooled during transport. Despite the frequent use of cooling in transport, cooling center admission temperature was in the target range (33-34 °C) in only 62 (44%). Among cooled infants, gestational age was <35 weeks in 10 (4.5%). For outborn and transported infants, chronologic age at the time of cooling initiation was >6 h in 20 (11%). When initiated at the birth hospital, cooling was initiated at <6 h of age in 131 (92.9%).More than half of the infants cooled in transport do not achieve target temperature by the time of arrival at the cooling center. The use of cooling devices may improve temperature regulation on transport.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2012.144

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315664700006

    View details for PubMedID 23223159

  • Efficacy of phototherapy devices and outcomes among extremely low birth weight infants: multi-center observational study JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Morris, B. H., TYSON, J. E., Stevenson, D. K., Oh, W., Phelps, D. L., O'Shea, T. M., MCDAVID, G. E., Van Meurs, K. P., Vohr, B. R., Grisby, C., Yao, Q., Kandefer, S., Wallace, D., Higgins, R. D. 2013; 33 (2): 126-133

    Abstract

    Evaluate the efficacy of phototherapy (PT) devices and the outcomes of extremely premature infants treated with those devices.This substudy of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network PT trial included 1404 infants treated with a single type of PT device during the first 24±12 h of treatment. The absolute (primary outcome) and relative decrease in total serum bilirubin (TSB) and other measures were evaluated. For infants treated with one PT type during the 2-week intervention period (n=1223), adjusted outcomes at discharge and 18 to 22 months corrected age were determined.In the first 24 h, the adjusted absolute (mean (±s.d.)) and relative (%) decrease in TSB (mg dl(-1)) were: light-emitting diodes (LEDs) -2.2 (±3), -22%; Spotlights -1.7 (±2), -19%; Banks -1.3 (±3), -8%; Blankets -0.8 (±3), -1%; (P<0.0002). Some findings at 18 to 22 months differed between groups.LEDs achieved the greatest initial absolute reduction in TSB but were similar to Spots in the other performance measures. Long-term effects of PT devices in extremely premature infants deserve rigorous evaluation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2012.39

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314434200008

  • Brain injury following trial of hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD-FETAL AND NEONATAL EDITION Shankaran, S., Barnes, P. D., Hintz, S. R., Laptook, A. R., Zaterka-Baxter, K. M., McDonald, S. A., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Walsh, M. C., Tyson, J. E., Donovan, E. F., Goldberg, R. N., Bara, R., Das, A., Finer, N. N., Sanchez, P. J., Poindexter, B. B., Van Meurs, K. P., Carlo, W. A., Stoll, B. J., Duara, S., Guillet, R., Higgins, R. D. 2012; 97 (6): F398-F404

    Abstract

    The objective of our study was to examine the relationship between brain injury and outcome following neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.Neonatal MRI scans were evaluated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) randomised controlled trial of whole-body hypothermia and each infant was categorised based upon the pattern of brain injury on the MRI findings. Brain injury patterns were assessed as a marker of death or disability at 18-22 months of age.Scans were obtained on 136 of 208 trial participants (65%); 73 in the hypothermia and 63 in the control group. Normal scans were noted in 38 of 73 infants (52%) in the hypothermia group and 22 of 63 infants (35%) in the control group. Infants in the hypothermia group had fewer areas of infarction (12%) compared to infants in the control group (22%). Fifty-one of the 136 infants died or had moderate or severe disability at 18 months. The brain injury pattern correlated with outcome of death or disability and with disability among survivors. Each point increase in the severity of the pattern of brain injury was independently associated with a twofold increase in the odds of death or disability.Fewer areas of infarction and a trend towards more normal scans were noted in brain MRI following whole-body hypothermia. Presence of the NICHD pattern of brain injury is a marker of death or moderate or severe disability at 18-22 months following hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/archdischild-2011-301524

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311022800003

    View details for PubMedID 23080477

  • Does aggressive phototherapy increase mortality while decreasing profound impairment among the smallest and sickest newborns? JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Tyson, J. E., Pedroza, C., Langer, J., Green, C., Morris, B., Stevenson, D., Van Meurs, K. P., Oh, W., Phelps, D., O'Shea, M., MCDAVID, G. E., Grisby, C., Higgins, R. 2012; 32 (9): 677-684

    Abstract

    Aggressive phototherapy (AgPT) is widely used and assumed to be safe and effective for even the most immature infants. We assessed whether the benefits and hazards for the smallest and sickest infants differed from those for other extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW; ? 1000?g) infants in our Neonatal Research Network trial, the only large trial of AgPT.ELBW infants (n=1974) were randomized to AgPT or conservative phototherapy at age 12 to 36?h. The effect of AgPT on outcomes (death, impairment, profound impairment, death or impairment (primary outcome), and death or profound impairment) at 18 to 22 months of corrected age was related to BW stratum (501 to 750?g; 751 to 1000?g) and baseline severity of illness using multilevel regression equations. The probability of benefit and of harm was directly assessed with Bayesian analyses.Baseline illness severity was well characterized using mechanical ventilation and FiO(2) at 24?h age. Among mechanically ventilated infants ? 750?g BW (n=684), a reduction in impairment and in profound impairment was offset by higher mortality (P for interaction <0.05) with no significant effect on composite outcomes. Conservative Bayesian analyses of this subgroup identified a 99% (posterior) probability that AgPT increased mortality, a 97% probability that AgPT reduced impairment, and a 99% probability that AgPT reduced profound impairment.Findings from the only large trial of AgPT suggest that AgPT may increase mortality while reducing impairment and profound impairment among the smallest and sickest infants. New approaches to reduce their serum bilirubin need development and rigorous testing.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2012.64

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308278000006

    View details for PubMedID 22652561

  • Empiric Antifungal Therapy and Outcomes in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants with Invasive Candidiasis JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Greenberg, R. G., Benjamin, D. K., Gantz, M. G., Cotten, C. M., Stoll, B. J., Walsh, M. C., Sanchez, P. J., Shankaran, S., Das, A., Higgins, R. D., Miller, N. A., Auten, K. J., Walsh, T. J., Laptook, A. R., Carlo, W. A., Kennedy, K. A., Finer, N. N., Duara, S., Schibler, K., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Van Meurs, K. P., Frantz, I. D., Phelps, D. L., Poindexter, B. B., Bell, E. F., O'Shea, T. M., Watterberg, K. L., Goldberg, R. N., Smith, P. B. 2012; 161 (2): 264-?

    Abstract

    To assess the impact of empiric antifungal therapy for invasive candidiasis on subsequent outcomes in premature infants.This was a cohort study of infants with a birth weight ? 1000 g receiving care at Neonatal Research Network sites. All infants had at least one positive culture for Candida. Empiric antifungal therapy was defined as receipt of a systemic antifungal on the day of or the day before the first positive culture for Candida was drawn. We created Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models stratified on propensity score quartiles to determine the effect of empiric antifungal therapy on survival, time to clearance of infection, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, end-organ damage, and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI).A total of 136 infants developed invasive candidiasis. The incidence of death or NDI was lower in infants who received empiric antifungal therapy (19 of 38; 50%) compared with those who had not (55 of 86; 64%; OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.08-0.86). There was no significant difference between the groups for any single outcome or other combined outcomes.Empiric antifungal therapy was associated with increased survival without NDI. A prospective randomized trial of this strategy is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.01.053

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306693800020

    View details for PubMedID 22424952

  • Feasibility Study of Early Blood Pressure Management in Extremely Preterm Infants JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Batton, B. J., Li, L., Newman, N. S., Das, A., Watterberg, K. L., Yoder, B. A., Faix, R. G., Laughon, M. M., Van Meurs, K. P., Carlo, W. A., Higgins, R. D., Walsh, M. C. 2012; 161 (1): 65-?

    Abstract

    To assess the feasibility of a randomized placebo controlled trial (RCT) of blood pressure (BP) management for extremely preterm infants.This was a prospective pilot RCT of infants 23-0/7 to 26-6/7 weeks gestation who had protocol-defined low BP in the first 24 postnatal hours. Enrolled infants were administered a study infusion (dopamine or placebo) and a study syringe medication (hydrocortisone or placebo).Of the 366 infants screened, 119 (33%) had low BP, 58 (16%) met all entry criteria, and 10 (3%) were enrolled. A total of 161 infants (44%) were ineligible because they received early indomethacin. Only 17% of eligible infants were enrolled. Problems with consent included insufficient time, parent unavailability, and physician unwillingness to enroll critically ill infants. Two infants were withdrawn from the study because of the potential risk of intestinal perforation with simultaneous administration of hydrocortisone and indomethacin.This pilot RCT was not feasible because of low eligibility and consent rates. An RCT of BP management for extremely preterm infants may require a waiver of consent for research in emergency care. The frequent use of early indomethacin and the associated risk of intestinal perforation when used with hydrocortisone may limit future investigations to only inotropic medications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.01.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305753700016

    View details for PubMedID 22336574

  • Outcome Trajectories in Extremely Preterm Infants PEDIATRICS Ambalavanan, N., Carlo, W. A., Tyson, J. E., Langer, J. C., Walsh, M. C., Parikh, N. A., Das, A., Van Meurs, K. P., Shankaran, S., Stoll, B. J., Higgins, R. D. 2012; 130 (1): E115-E125

    Abstract

    Methods are required to predict prognosis with changes in clinical course. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely premature neonates can be predicted at birth/admission to the ICU by considering gender, antenatal steroids, multiple birth, birth weight, and gestational age. Predictions may be improved by using additional information available later during the clinical course. Our objective was to develop serial predictions of outcome by using prognostic factors available over the course of NICU hospitalization.Data on infants with birth weight ? 1.0 kg admitted to 18 large academic tertiary NICUs during 1998-2005 were used to develop multivariable regression models following stepwise variable selection. Models were developed by using all survivors at specific times during hospitalization (in delivery room [n = 8713], 7-day [n = 6996], 28-day [n = 6241], and 36-week postmenstrual age [n = 5118]) to predict death or death/neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months.Prediction of death or neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely premature infants is improved by using information available later during the clinical course. The importance of birth weight declines, whereas the importance of respiratory illness severity increases with advancing postnatal age. The c-statistic in validation models ranged from 0.74 to 0.80 with misclassification rates ranging from 0.28 to 0.30.Dynamic models of the changing probability of individual outcome can improve outcome predictions in preterm infants. Various current and future scenarios can be modeled by input of different clinical possibilities to develop individual "outcome trajectories" and evaluate impact of possible morbidities on outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2011-3693

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305905900016

    View details for PubMedID 22689874

  • Cerebral Autoregulation in Neonates with a Hemodynamically Significant Patent Ductus Arteriosus JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Chock, V. Y., Ramamoorthy, C., Van Meurs, K. P. 2012; 160 (6)

    Abstract

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are at risk for impaired cerebral autoregulation with pressure passive blood flow. Fluctuations in cerebral perfusion may occur in infants with a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA), especially during ductal closure. Our goal was to compare cerebral autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy in VLBW infants treated for an hsPDA.This prospective observational study enrolled 28 VLBW infants with an hsPDA diagnosed by echocardiography and 12 control VLBW infants without an hsPDA. Near-infrared spectroscopy cerebral monitoring was applied during conservative treatment, indomethacin treatment, or surgical ligation. A cerebral pressure passivity index (PPI) was calculated, and PPI differences were compared using a mixed-effects regression model. Cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging data were also assessed.Infants with surgically ligated hsPDAs were more likely to have had a greater PPI within 2 hours following ligation than were those treated with conservative management (P=.04) or indomethacin (P=.0007). These differences resolved by 6 hours after treatment.Cerebral autoregulation was better preserved after indomethacin treatment of an hsPDA compared with surgical ligation. Infants requiring surgical hsPDA ligation may be at increased risk for cerebral pressure passivity in the 6 hours following surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.11.054

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304377300012

    View details for PubMedID 22226574

  • Therapeutic Hypothermia during Neonatal Transport: Current Practices in California AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Akula, V. P., Davis, A. S., Gould, J. B., Van Meurs, K. 2012; 29 (5): 319-326

    Abstract

    Therapeutic hypothermia initiated at <6 hours of age reduces death and disability in newborns ? 36 weeks' gestation with moderate to severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Given the limited therapeutic window, cooling during transport becomes a necessity. Our goal was to describe the current practice of therapeutic hypothermia during transport used in the state of California. All level III neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) were contacted to identify those units providing therapeutic hypothermia. An electronic questionnaire was sent to obtain basic information. Responses were received from 28 (100%) NICUs performing therapeutic hypothermia; 26 NICUs were cooling newborns and two were in the process of program development. Eighteen (64%) centers had cooled a patient in transport, six had not yet cooled in transport, and two do not plan to cool in transport. All 18 centers use passive cooling, except for two that perform both passive and active cooling, and 17 of 18 centers recommend initiation of cooling at the referral hospital. Reported difficulties include overcooling, undercooling, and bradycardia. Cooling on transport is being performed by majority of NICUs providing therapeutic hypothermia. Clinical protocols and devices for cooling in transport are essential to ensure safety and efficacy.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0031-1295661

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302962200001

    View details for PubMedID 22143969

  • Brain injury following trial of hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Archives of disease in childhood Shankaran, S., Barnes, P. D., Hintz, S. R., Laptook, A. R., Zaterka-Baxter, K. M., McDonald, S. A., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Walsh, M. C., Tyson, J. E., Donovan, E. F., Goldberg, R. N., Bara, R., Das, A., Finer, N. N., Sanchez, P. J., Poindexter, B. B., Van Meurs, K. P., Carlo, W. A., Stoll, B. J., Duara, S., Guillet, R., Higgins, R. D. 2012

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to examine the relationship between brain injury and outcome following neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Neonatal MRI scans were evaluated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) randomised controlled trial of whole-body hypothermia and each infant was categorised based upon the pattern of brain injury on the MRI findings. Brain injury patterns were assessed as a marker of death or disability at 18-22 months of age. RESULTS: Scans were obtained on 136 of 208 trial participants (65%); 73 in the hypothermia and 63 in the control group. Normal scans were noted in 38 of 73 infants (52%) in the hypothermia group and 22 of 63 infants (35%) in the control group. Infants in the hypothermia group had fewer areas of infarction (12%) compared to infants in the control group (22%). Fifty-one of the 136 infants died or had moderate or severe disability at 18 months. The brain injury pattern correlated with outcome of death or disability and with disability among survivors. Each point increase in the severity of the pattern of brain injury was independently associated with a twofold increase in the odds of death or disability. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer areas of infarction and a trend towards more normal scans were noted in brain MRI following whole-body hypothermia. Presence of the NICHD pattern of brain injury is a marker of death or moderate or severe disability at 18-22 months following hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy.

    View details for PubMedID 22806232

  • The effects of aggressive vs. conservative phototherapy on the brainstem auditory evoked responses of extremely-low-birth-weight infants PEDIATRIC RESEARCH Lasky, R. E., Church, M. W., Orlando, M. S., Morris, B. H., Parikh, N. A., Tyson, J. E., McDavid, G. E., Oh, W., Stevenson, D. K., Van Meurs, K. P., Guillet, R., Phelps, D. L. 2012; 71 (1): 77-84

    Abstract

    This study was a two-center, stratified, parallel-group randomized trial comparing the effects of aggressive vs. conservative phototherapy on brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) latencies in infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW, ? 1,000 g).BAER latencies of 751-1,000 g birth-weight infants were shorter by 0.37 ms (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.02, 0.73) for wave V, 0.39 ms (0.08, 0.70) for wave III, and 0.33 ms (0.01, 0.65) for wave I after aggressive phototherapy at one center. Interwave intervals did not differ significantly. Similar nonsignificant trends were recorded for 501-750 g birth-weight infants. At the other participating center, no significant differences were recorded, cautioning against overgeneralizing these results.The effects of bilirubin on the auditory pathway in ELBW infants depend on a complex interaction of bilirubin exposure, newborn characteristics, and clinical management.Aggressive phototherapy was initiated sooner and continued at lower bilirubin levels than conservative phototherapy. A total of 174 ELBW infants were enrolled in the study; 111 infants were successfully tested at 35 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA); 57 died; and 6 were not successfully tested.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/pr.2011.17

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303453600012

    View details for PubMedID 22289854

  • Association of Antenatal Corticosteroids With Mortality and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Among Infants Born at 22 to 25 Weeks' Gestation JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Carlo, W. A., McDonald, S. A., Fanaroff, A. A., Vohr, B. R., Stoll, B. J., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Andrews, W. W., Wallace, D., Das, A., Bell, E. F., Walsh, M. C., Laptook, A. R., Shankaran, S., Poindexter, B. B., Hale, E. C., Newman, N. S., Davis, A. S., Schibler, K., Kennedy, K. A., Sanchez, P. J., Van Meurs, K. P., Goldberg, R. N., Watterberg, K. L., Faix, R. G., Frantz, I. D., Higgins, R. D. 2011; 306 (21): 2348-2358

    Abstract

    Current guidelines, initially published in 1995, recommend antenatal corticosteroids for mothers with preterm labor from 24 to 34 weeks' gestational age, but not before 24 weeks due to lack of data. However, many infants born before 24 weeks' gestation are provided intensive care.To determine if use of antenatal corticosteroids is associated with improvement in major outcomes for infants born at 22 and 23 weeks' gestation.Cohort study of data collected prospectively on inborn infants with a birth weight between 401 g and 1000 g (N = 10,541) born at 22 to 25 weeks' gestation between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 2009, at 23 academic perinatal centers in the United States. Certified examiners unaware of exposure to antenatal corticosteroids performed follow-up examinations on 4924 (86.5%) of the infants born between 1993 and 2008 who survived to 18 to 22 months. Logistic regression models generated adjusted odds ratios (AORs), controlling for maternal and neonatal variables.Mortality and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age.Death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months was significantly lower for infants who had been exposed to antenatal corticosteroids and were born at 23 weeks' gestation (83.4% with exposure to antenatal corticosteroids vs 90.5% without exposure; AOR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.42-0.80]), at 24 weeks' gestation (68.4% with exposure to antenatal corticosteroids vs 80.3% without exposure; AOR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.49-0.78]), and at 25 weeks' gestation (52.7% with exposure to antenatal corticosteroids vs 67.9% without exposure; AOR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.50-0.74]) but not in those infants born at 22 weeks' gestation (90.2% with exposure to antenatal corticosteroids vs 93.1% without exposure; AOR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.29-2.21]). If the mothers had received antenatal corticosteroids, the following events occurred significantly less in infants born at 23, 24, and 25 weeks' gestation: death by 18 to 22 months; hospital death; death, intraventricular hemorrhage, or periventricular leukomalacia; and death or necrotizing enterocolitis. For infants born at 22 weeks' gestation, the only outcome that occurred significantly less was death or necrotizing enterocolitis (73.5% with exposure to antenatal corticosteroids vs 84.5% without exposure; AOR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.30-0.97]).Among infants born at 23 to 25 weeks' gestation, antenatal exposure to corticosteroids compared with nonexposure was associated with a lower rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297680300020

    View details for PubMedID 22147379

  • Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Preterm Infants: An Individual-Patient Data Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials PEDIATRICS Askie, L. M., Ballard, R. A., Cutter, G. R., Dani, C., Elbourne, D., Field, D., Hascoet, J., Hibbs, A. M., Kinsella, J. P., Mercier, J., Rich, W., Schreiber, M. D., Wongsiridej, P. (., Subhedar, N. V., Van Meurs, K. P., Voysey, M., Barrington, K., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Finer, N. N. 2011; 128 (4): 729-739

    Abstract

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is an effective therapy for pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic respiratory failure in term infants. Fourteen randomized controlled trials (n = 3430 infants) have been conducted on preterm infants at risk for chronic lung disease (CLD). The study results seem contradictory.Individual-patient data meta-analysis included randomized controlled trials of preterm infants (<37 weeks' gestation). Outcomes were adjusted for trial differences and correlation between siblings.Data from 3298 infants in 12 trials (96%) were analyzed. There was no statistically significant effect of iNO on death or CLD (59% vs 61%: relative risk [RR]: 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-1.01]; P = .11) or severe neurologic events on imaging (25% vs 23%: RR: 1.12 [95% CI: 0.98-1.28]; P = .09). There were no statistically significant differences in iNO effect according to any of the patient-level characteristics tested. In trials that used a starting iNO dose of >5 vs ? 5 ppm there was evidence of improved outcome (interaction P = .02); however, these differences were not observed at other levels of exposure to iNO. This result was driven primarily by 1 trial, which also differed according to overall dose, duration, timing, and indication for treatment; a significant reduction in death or CLD (RR: 0.85 [95% CI: 0.74-0.98]) was found.Routine use of iNO for treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants cannot be recommended. The use of a higher starting dose might be associated with improved outcome, but because there were differences in the designs of these trials, it requires further examination.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2010-2725

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295406800050

    View details for PubMedID 21930540

  • Is phototherapy exposure associated with better or worse outcomes in 501-to 1000-g-birth-weight infants? ACTA PAEDIATRICA Hintz, S. R., Stevenson, D. K., Yao, Q., Wong, R. J., Das, A., Van Meurs, K. P., Morris, B. H., Tyson, J. E., Oh, W., Poole, W. K., Phelps, D. L., McDavid, G. E., Grisby, C., Higgins, R. D. 2011; 100 (7): 960-965

    Abstract

    ?To compare risk-adjusted outcomes at 18- to 22-month-corrected age for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants who never received phototherapy (NoPTx) to those who received any phototherapy (PTx) in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network randomized trial of Aggressive vs. Conservative Phototherapy.Outcomes at 18 to 22-month-corrected age included death, neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) and Bayley Scales Mental Developmental Index (MDI). Regression models evaluated the independent association of PTx with adverse outcomes controlling for centre and other potentially confounding variables.Of 1972 infants, 216 were NoPTx and 1756 were PTx. For the entire 501- to 1000-g-BW cohort, PTx was not independently associated with death or NDI (OR 0.85, 95% CI: 0.60-1.20), death or adverse neurodevelopmental endpoints. However, among infants 501-750 g BW, the rate of significant developmental impairment with MDI?

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02175.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291224200021

    View details for PubMedID 21272067

  • Prediction of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia by Postnatal Age in Extremely Premature Infants AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Laughon, M. M., Langer, J. C., Bose, C. L., Smith, P. B., Ambalavanan, N., Kennedy, K. A., Stoll, B. J., Buchter, S., Laptook, A. R., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Cotten, C. M., Wilson-Costello, D. E., Shankaran, S., Van Meurs, K. P., Davis, A. S., Gantz, M. G., Finer, N. N., Yoder, B. A., Faix, R. G., Carlo, W. A., Schibler, K. R., Newman, N. S., Rich, W., Das, A., Higgins, R. D., Walsh, M. C. 2011; 183 (12): 1715-1722

    Abstract

    Benefits of identifying risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature infants include providing prognostic information, identifying infants likely to benefit from preventive strategies, and stratifying infants for clinical trial enrollment.To identify risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and the competing outcome of death, by postnatal day; to identify which risk factors improve prediction; and to develop a Web-based estimator using readily available clinical information to predict risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death.We assessed infants of 23-30 weeks' gestation born in 17 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network and enrolled in the Neonatal Research Network Benchmarking Trial from 2000-2004.Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was defined as a categorical variable (none, mild, moderate, or severe). We developed and validated models for bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk at six postnatal ages using gestational age, birth weight, race and ethnicity, sex, respiratory support, and Fi(O(2)), and examined the models using a C statistic (area under the curve). A total of 3,636 infants were eligible for this study. Prediction improved with advancing postnatal age, increasing from a C statistic of 0.793 on Day 1 to a maximum of 0.854 on Day 28. On Postnatal Days 1 and 3, gestational age best improved outcome prediction; on Postnatal Days 7, 14, 21, and 28, type of respiratory support did so. A Web-based model providing predicted estimates for bronchopulmonary dysplasia by postnatal day is available at https://neonatal.rti.org.The probability of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature infants can be determined accurately using a limited amount of readily available clinical information.

    View details for DOI 10.1164/rccm.201101-0055OC

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292305600024

    View details for PubMedID 21471086

  • Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis: The Burden of Group B Streptococcal and E. coli Disease Continues PEDIATRICS Stoll, B. J., Hansen, N. I., Sanchez, P. J., Faix, R. G., Poindexter, B. B., Van Meurs, K. P., Bizzarro, M. J., Goldberg, R. N., Frantz, I. D., Hale, E. C., Shankaran, S., Kennedy, K., Carlo, W. A., Watterberg, K. L., Bell, E. F., Walsh, M. C., Schibler, K., Laptook, A. R., Shane, A. L., Schrag, S. J., Das, A., Higgins, R. D. 2011; 127 (5): 817-826

    Abstract

    Guidelines for prevention of group B streptococcal (GBS) infection have successfully reduced early onset (EO) GBS disease. Study results suggest that Escherichia coli is an important EO pathogen.To determine EO infection rates, pathogens, morbidity, and mortality in a national network of neonatal centers.Infants with EO infection were identified by prospective surveillance at Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Network centers. Infection was defined by positive culture results for blood and cerebrospinal fluid obtained from infants aged ?72 hours plus treatment with antibiotic therapy for ?5 days. Mother and infant characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were studied. Numbers of cases and total live births (LBs) were used to calculate incidence.Among 396 586 LBs (2006-2009), 389 infants developed EO infection (0.98 cases per 1000 LBs). Infection rates increased with decreasing birth weight. GBS (43%, 0.41 per 1000 LBs) and E coli (29%, 0.28 per 1000 LBs) were most frequently isolated. Most infants with GBS were term (73%); 81% with E coli were preterm. Mothers of 67% of infected term and 58% of infected preterm infants were screened for GBS, and results were positive for 25% of those mothers. Only 76% of mothers with GBS colonization received intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. Although 77% of infected infants required intensive care, 20% of term infants were treated in the normal newborn nursery. Sixteen percent of infected infants died, most commonly with E coli infection (33%).In the era of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis to reduce GBS, rates of EO infection have declined but reflect a continued burden of disease. GBS remains the most frequent pathogen in term infants, and E coli the most significant pathogen in preterm infants. Missed opportunities for GBS prevention continue. Prevention of E coli sepsis, especially among preterm infants, remains a challenge.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2010-2217

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290097800040

    View details for PubMedID 21518717

  • Cerebral Oxygenation during Different Treatment Strategies for a Patent Ductus Arteriosus NEONATOLOGY Chock, V. Y., Ramamoorthy, C., Van Meurs, K. P. 2011; 100 (3): 233-240

    Abstract

    Preterm infants with a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) are at risk for fluctuations in cerebral blood flow, but it is unclear how different hsPDA treatment strategies may affect cerebral oxygenation.To compare regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with a hsPDA treated with conservative management, indomethacin, or surgical ligation.This prospective observational study enrolled 33 VLBW infants with a hsPDA diagnosed by echocardiogram and 12 control VLBW infants without a hsPDA. Infants had NIRS cerebral monitoring applied prior to conservative treatment, indomethacin, or surgical ligation. Cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging data were also collected.Infants undergoing surgical ligation had a greater time period with >20% change in rSO(2) from baseline (30%) compared to those receiving indomethacin (7.4%, p = 0.001) or control infants without a hsPDA (2.6%, p = 0.0004). NIRS measures were not associated with abnormal neuroimaging in this small cohort.These findings suggest that infants requiring surgical ligation for a hsPDA are at high risk for significant changes in cerebral oxygenation, whereas those receiving either indomethacin or conservative management maintain relatively stable cerebral oxygenation levels. Additional research is necessary to determine if NIRS monitoring identifies infants with a hsPDA at highest risk for brain injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000325149

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295588200004

    View details for PubMedID 21701212

  • Seizures in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Are Associated with Adverse Outcome JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Davis, A. S., Hintz, S. R., Van Meurs, K. P., Li, L., Das, A., Stoll, B. J., Walsh, M. C., Pappas, A., Bell, E. F., Laptook, A. R., Higgins, R. D. 2010; 157 (5): 720-U47

    Abstract

    To examine risk factors for neonatal clinical seizures and to determine the independent association with death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants.A total of 6499 ELBW infants (401-1000 g) surviving to 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) were included in this retrospective study. Unadjusted comparisons were performed between infants with (n = 414) and without (n = 6085) clinical seizures during the initial hospitalization. Using multivariate logistic regression modeling, we examined the independent association of seizures with late death (after 36 weeks PMA) or NDI after controlling for multiple demographic, perinatal, and neonatal variables.Infants with clinical seizures had a greater proportion of neonatal morbidities associated with poor outcome, including severe intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, meningitis, and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (all P < .01). Survivors were more likely to have NDI or moderate-severe cerebral palsy at 18 to 22 months corrected age (both P < .01). After adjusting for multiple confounders, clinical seizures remained significantly associated with late death or NDI (odds ratio, 3.15; 95% CI, 2.37-4.19).ELBW infants with clinical seizures are at increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, independent of multiple confounding factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.04.065

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283045900008

    View details for PubMedID 20542294

  • Neonatal Candidiasis: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Judgment PEDIATRICS Benjamin, D. K., Stoll, B. J., Gantz, M. G., Walsh, M. C., Sanchez, P. J., Das, A., Shankaran, S., Higgins, R. D., Auten, K. J., Miller, N. A., Walsh, T. J., Laptook, A. R., Carlo, W. A., Kennedy, K. A., Finer, N. N., Duara, S., Schibler, K., Chapman, R. L., Van Meurs, K. P., Frantz, I. D., Phelps, D. L., Poindexter, B. B., Bell, E. F., O'Shea, T. M., Watterberg, K. L., Goldberg, R. N. 2010; 126 (4): E865-E873

    Abstract

    Invasive candidiasis is a leading cause of infection-related morbidity and mortality in extremely low birth weight (<1000-g) infants. We quantified risk factors that predict infection in premature infants at high risk and compared clinical judgment with a prediction model of invasive candidiasis.The study involved a prospective observational cohort of infants?1000 g birth weight at 19 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. At each sepsis evaluation, clinical information was recorded, cultures were obtained, and clinicians prospectively recorded their estimate of the probability of invasive candidiasis. Two models were generated with invasive candidiasis as their outcome: (1) potentially modifiable risk factors; and (2) a clinical model at time of blood culture to predict candidiasis.Invasive candidiasis occurred in 137 of 1515 (9.0%) infants and was documented by positive culture from ?1 of these sources: blood (n=96); cerebrospinal fluid (n=9); urine obtained by catheterization (n=52); or other sterile body fluid (n=10). Mortality rate was not different for infants who had positive blood culture compared with those with isolated positive urine culture. Incidence of candida varied from 2% to 28% at the 13 centers that enrolled?50 infants. Potentially modifiable risk factors included central catheter, broad-spectrum antibiotics (eg, third-generation cephalosporins), intravenous lipid emulsion, endotracheal tube, and antenatal antibiotics. The clinical prediction model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.79 and was superior to clinician judgment (0.70) in predicting subsequent invasive candidiasis.Previous antibiotics, presence of a central catheter or endotracheal tube, and center were strongly associated with invasive candidiasis. Modeling was more accurate in predicting invasive candidiasis than clinical judgment.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2009-3412

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282526100014

    View details for PubMedID 20876174

  • Neonatal Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants From the NICHD Neonatal Research Network PEDIATRICS Stoll, B. J., Hansen, N. I., Bell, E. F., Shankaran, S., Laptook, A. R., Walsh, M. C., Hale, E. C., Newman, N. S., Schibler, K., Carlo, W. A., Kennedy, K. A., Poindexter, B. B., Finer, N. N., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Duara, S., Sanchez, P. J., O'Shea, T. M., Goldberg, R. N., Van Meurs, K. P., Faix, R. G., Phelps, D. L., Frantz, I. D., Watterberg, K. L., Saha, S., Das, A., Higgins, R. D. 2010; 126 (3): 443-456

    Abstract

    This report presents data from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network on care of and morbidity and mortality rates for very low birth weight infants, according to gestational age (GA).Perinatal/neonatal data were collected for 9575 infants of extremely low GA (22-28 weeks) and very low birth weight (401-1500 g) who were born at network centers between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007.Rates of survival to discharge increased with increasing GA (6% at 22 weeks and 92% at 28 weeks); 1060 infants died at or=24 weeks survive, high rates of morbidity among survivors continue to be observed.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2009-2959

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281535700006

    View details for PubMedID 20732945

  • Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Immunogenicity in Very-Low-Birth-Weight, Premature Infants PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL D'Angio, C. T., Heyne, R. J., O'Shea, T. M., Schelonka, R. L., Shankaran, S., Duara, S., Goldberg, R. N., Stoll, B. J., Van Meurs, K. P., Vohr, B. R., Das, A., Li, L., Burton, R. L., Hastings, B., Phelps, D. L., Sanchez, P. J., Carlo, W. A., Stevenson, D. K., Higgins, R. D. 2010; 29 (7): 600-606

    Abstract

    The heptavalent pneumococcal CRM197 conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) has been incompletely studied in very-low-birth-weight (< or =1500 g) infants.To assess PCV-7 immunogenicity in very-low-birth-weight, premature infants. We hypothesized that the frequency of postvaccine antibody concentrations > or =0.15 microg/mL would vary directly with birth weight.This was a multicenter observational study. Infants 401 to 1500 g birth weight and <32 0/7 weeks gestation, stratified by birth weight, were enrolled from 9 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers. Infants received PCV-7 at 2, 4, and 6 months after birth and had blood drawn 4 to 6 weeks following the third dose. Antibodies against the 7 vaccine serotypes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Of 369 enrolled infants, 244 completed their primary vaccine series by 8 months and had serum obtained. Subjects were 27.8 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- standard deviation) weeks gestation and 1008 +/- 282 g birth weight. Twenty-six percent had bronchopulmonary dysplasia and 16% had received postnatal glucocorticoids. Infants 1001 to 1500 g birth weight were more likely than those 401 to 1000 g to achieve antibody concentrations > or =0.15 microg/mL against the least 2 immunogenic serotypes (6B: 96% vs. 85%, P = 0.003 and 23F: 97% vs. 88%, P = 0.009). In multiple logistic regression analysis, lower birth weight, postnatal glucocorticoid use, lower weight at blood draw, and Caucasian race were each independently associated with antibody concentrations <0.35 microg/mL against serotypes 6B and/or 23F.When compared with larger premature infants, infants weighing < or =1000 g at birth have similar antibody responses to most, but not all, PCV-7 vaccine serotypes.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181d264a6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279348900004

    View details for PubMedID 20234331

  • Target Ranges of Oxygen Saturation in Extremely Preterm Infants. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Carlo, W. A., Finer, N. N., Walsh, M. C., Rich, W., Gantz, M. G., Laptook, A. R., Yoder, B. A., Faix, R. G., Das, A., Poole, W. K., Schibler, K., Newman, N. S., Ambalavanan, N., Frantz, I. D., Piazza, A. J., Sanchez, P. J., Morris, B. H., Laroia, N., Phelps, D. L., Poindexter, B. B., Cotten, C. M., Van Meurs, K. P., Duara, S., Narendran, V., Sood, B. G., O'Shea, T. M., Bell, E. F., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Watterberg, K. L., Higgins, R. D., Jobe, A. H., Caplan, M. S., Oh, W., Hensman, A. M., Gingras, D., Barnett, S., LILLIE, S., Francis, K., Andrews, D., Angela, K., Fanaroff, A. A., SINER, B. S., Zadell, A., DiFiore, J., Donovan, E. F., Bridges, K., Alexander, B., Grisby, C., Mersmann, M. W., Mincey, H. L., Hessling, J., Goldberg, R. N., Auten, K. J., Fisher, K. A., Foy, K. A., Siaw, G., Stoll, B. J., Buchter, S., Carlton, D. P., HALE, E. C., Hutchinson, A. K., Archer, S. W., Lemons, J. A., HAMER, F., Herron, D. E., Miller, L. C., Wilson, L. D., Berberich, M. A., Blaisdell, C. J., Gail, D. B., Kiley, J. P., Cunningham, M., Hastings, B. K., Irene, A. R., Auman, J. O., Huitema, C. P., Pickett, J. W., Wallace, D., Zaterka-Baxter, K. M., Stevenson, D. K., Ball, M. B., Proud, M. S., Fiascone, J. M., Furey, A., MacKinnon, B. L., Nylen, E., Collins, M. V., Cosby, S. S., Phillips, V. A., Rasmussen, M. R., Wozniak, P. R., Arnell, K., Bridge, R., Demetrio, C., Widness, J. A., Klein, J. M., Johnson, K. J., Everett-Thomas, R., Ohls, R. K., Rohr, J., Lacy, C. B., Markowitz, G. D., Reubens, L. J., BURNELL, E., Rosenfeld, C. R., Salhab, W. A., Guzman, A., Hensley, G., Lepps, M. H., Miller, N. A., Allen, J., Grau, L., Martin, M., Solis, A., Vasil, D. M., Wilder, K., Kennedy, K. A., TYSON, J. E., HARRIS, B. F., Lis, A. E., Martin, S., MCDAVID, G. E., Tate, P. L., Wright, S. L., Burnett, J., Jensen, J. J., Osborne, K. A., Spencer, C., Weaver-Lewis, K., Peters, N. J., Shankaran, S., Bara, R., Billian, E., Johnson, M., Bhandari, V., Jacobs, H. C., Cervone, P., Gettner, P., Konstantino, M., Poulsen, J., Taft, J., Avery, G., Gleason, C. A., Allen, M. C., Bangdiwala, S. I., Blaisdell, C. J., Boyle, R. J., Clemons, T., D'Alton, M. E., Das, A., Gail, D. B., Hunt, C., Keszler, M., Poole, W. K., Redmond, C. K., Ross, M. G., Thomson, M. A., WEINER, S. J., Willinger, M., Markowitz, G. D., Hutchinson, A. K., Wallace, D. K., Freedman, S. F. 2010; 362 (21): 1959-1969

    Abstract

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of retinopathy is lower in preterm infants with exposure to reduced levels of oxygenation than in those exposed to higher levels of oxygenation. However, it is unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate to minimize retinopathy without increasing adverse outcomes.We performed a randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design to compare target ranges of oxygen saturation of 85 to 89% or 91 to 95% among 1316 infants who were born between 24 weeks 0 days and 27 weeks 6 days of gestation. The primary outcome was a composite of severe retinopathy of prematurity (defined as the presence of threshold retinopathy, the need for surgical ophthalmologic intervention, or the use of bevacizumab), death before discharge from the hospital, or both. All infants were also randomly assigned to continuous positive airway pressure or intubation and surfactant.The rates of severe retinopathy or death did not differ significantly between the lower-oxygen-saturation group and the higher-oxygen-saturation group (28.3% and 32.1%, respectively; relative risk with lower oxygen saturation, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.06; P=0.21). Death before discharge occurred more frequently in the lower-oxygen-saturation group (in 19.9% of infants vs. 16.2%; relative risk, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.60; P=0.04), whereas severe retinopathy among survivors occurred less often in this group (8.6% vs. 17.9%; relative risk, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.73; P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the rates of other adverse events.A lower target range of oxygenation (85 to 89%), as compared with a higher range (91 to 95%), did not significantly decrease the composite outcome of severe retinopathy or death, but it resulted in an increase in mortality and a substantial decrease in severe retinopathy among survivors. The increase in mortality is a major concern, since a lower target range of oxygen saturation is increasingly being advocated to prevent retinopathy of prematurity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00233324.)

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa0911781

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278054000004

    View details for PubMedID 20472937

  • Early CPAP versus Surfactant in Extremely Preterm Infants. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Finer, N. N., Carlo, W. A., Walsh, M. C., Rich, W., Gantz, M. G., Laptook, A. R., Yoder, B. A., Faix, R. G., Das, A., Poole, W. K., Donovan, E. F., Newman, N. S., Ambalavanan, N., Frantz, I. D., Buchter, S., Sanchez, P. J., Kennedy, K. A., Laroia, N., Poindexter, B. B., Cotten, C. M., Van Meurs, K. P., Duara, S., Narendran, V., Sood, B. G., O'Shea, T. M., Bell, E. F., Bhandari, V., Watterberg, K. L., Higgins, R. D. 2010; 362 (21): 1970-1979

    Abstract

    There are limited data to inform the choice between early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and early surfactant treatment as the initial support for extremely-low-birth-weight infants.We performed a randomized, multicenter trial, with a 2-by-2 factorial design, involving infants who were born between 24 weeks 0 days and 27 weeks 6 days of gestation. Infants were randomly assigned to intubation and surfactant treatment (within 1 hour after birth) or to CPAP treatment initiated in the delivery room, with subsequent use of a protocol-driven limited ventilation strategy. Infants were also randomly assigned to one of two target ranges of oxygen saturation. The primary outcome was death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia as defined by the requirement for supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks (with an attempt at withdrawal of supplemental oxygen in neonates who were receiving less than 30% oxygen).A total of 1316 infants were enrolled in the study. The rates of the primary outcome did not differ significantly between the CPAP group and the surfactant group (47.8% and 51.0%, respectively; relative risk with CPAP, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.05) after adjustment for gestational age, center, and familial clustering. The results were similar when bronchopulmonary dysplasia was defined according to the need for any supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks (rates of primary outcome, 48.7% and 54.1%, respectively; relative risk with CPAP, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.01). Infants who received CPAP treatment, as compared with infants who received surfactant treatment, less frequently required intubation or postnatal corticosteroids for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (P<0.001), required fewer days of mechanical ventilation (P=0.03), and were more likely to be alive and free from the need for mechanical ventilation by day 7 (P=0.01). The rates of other adverse neonatal outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups.The results of this study support consideration of CPAP as an alternative to intubation and surfactant in preterm infants. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00233324.)

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278054000005

    View details for PubMedID 20472939

  • Influence of clinical status on the association between plasma total and unbound bilirubin and death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely low birth weight infants ACTA PAEDIATRICA Oh, W., Stevenson, D. K., TYSON, J. E., Morris, B. H., Ahlfors, C. E., Bender, G. J., Wong, R. J., Perritt, R., Vohr, B. R., Van Meurs, K. P., Vreman, H. J., Das, A., Phelps, D. L., O'Shea, T. M., Higgins, R. D. 2010; 99 (5): 673-678

    Abstract

    To assess the influence of clinical status on the association between total plasma bilirubin and unbound bilirubin on death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-22 months corrected age in extremely low birth weight infants.Total plasma bilirubin and unbound bilirubin were measured in 1101 extremely low birth weight infants at 5 +/- 1 days of age. Clinical criteria were used to classify infants as clinically stable or unstable. Survivors were examined at 18-22 months corrected age by certified examiners. Outcome variables were death or neurodevelopmental impairment, death or cerebral palsy, death or hearing loss, and death prior to follow-up. For all outcomes, the interaction between bilirubin variables and clinical status was assessed in logistic regression analyses adjusted for multiple risk factors.Regardless of clinical status, an increasing level of unbound bilirubin was associated with higher rates of death or neurodevelopmental impairment, death or cerebral palsy, death or hearing loss and death before follow-up. Total plasma bilirubin values were directly associated with death or neurodevelopmental impairment, death or cerebral palsy, death or hearing loss, and death before follow-up in unstable infants, but not in stable infants. An inverse association between total plasma bilirubin and death or cerebral palsy was found in stable infants. CONCLUSIONs: In extremely low birth weight infants, clinical status at 5 days of age affects the association between total plasma bilirubin and death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-22 months of corrected age. An increasing level of UB is associated a higher risk of death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes regardless of clinical status. Increasing levels of total plasma bilirubin are directly associated with increasing risk of death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in unstable, but not in stable infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01688.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276034800011

    View details for PubMedID 20105142

  • Inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis BMC PEDIATRICS Askie, L. M., Ballard, R. A., Cutter, G., Dani, C., Elbourne, D., Field, D., Hascoet, J., Hibbs, A. M., Kinsella, J. P., Mercier, J., Rich, W., Schreiber, M. D., Srisuparp, P., Subhedar, N. V., Van Meurs, K. P., Voysey, M., Barrington, K., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Finer, N. 2010; 10

    Abstract

    Preterm infants requiring assisted ventilation are at significant risk of both pulmonary and cerebral injury. Inhaled Nitric Oxide, an effective therapy for pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic respiratory failure in the full term infant, has also been studied in preterm infants. The most recent Cochrane review of preterm infants includes 11 studies and 3,370 participants. The results show a statistically significant reduction in the combined outcome of death or chronic lung disease (CLD) in two studies with routine use of iNO in intubated preterm infants. However, uncertainty remains as a larger study (Kinsella 2006) showed no significant benefit for iNO for this combined outcome. Also, trials that included very ill infants do not demonstrate significant benefit. One trial of iNO treatment at a later postnatal age reported a decrease in the incidence of CLD. The aim of this individual patient meta-analysis is to confirm or refute these potentially conflicting results and to determine the extent to which patient or treatment characteristics may explain the results and/or may predict benefit from inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants.The Meta-Analysis of Preterm Patients on inhaled Nitric Oxide (MAPPiNO) Collaboration will perform an individual patient data meta-analysis to answer these important clinical questions. Studies will be included if preterm infants receiving assisted ventilation are randomized to receive inhaled Nitric Oxide or to a control group. The individual patient data provided by the Collaborators will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis where possible. Binary outcomes will be analyzed using log-binomial regression models and continuous outcomes will be analyzed using linear fixed effects models. Adjustments for trial differences will be made by including the trial variable in the model specification.Thirteen (13) trials, with a total of 3567 infants are eligible for inclusion in the MAPPiNO systematic review. To date 11 trials (n = 3298, 92% of available patients) have agreed to participate. Funding was successfully granted from Ikaria Inc as an unrestricted grant. A collaborative group was formed in 2006 with data collection commencing in 2007. It is anticipated that data analysis will commence in late 2009 with results being publicly available in 2010.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2431-10-15

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277088200001

    View details for PubMedID 20331899

  • Synchronized Nasal Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation and Neonatal Outcomes PEDIATRICS Bhandari, V., Finer, N. N., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Saha, S., Das, A., Walsh, M. C., Engle, W. A., Van Meurs, K. P. 2009; 124 (2): 517-526

    Abstract

    Synchronized nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (SNIPPV) use reduces reintubation rates compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). Limited information is available on the outcomes of infants managed with SNIPPV.To compare the outcomes of infants managed with SNIPPV (postextubation or for apnea) to infants not treated with SNIPPV at 2 sites.Clinical retrospective data was used to evaluate the use of SNIPPV in infants

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2008-1302

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268377000011

    View details for PubMedID 19651577

  • Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes, Oligohydramnios, and Pulmonary Hypoplasia AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Chock, V. Y., Van Meurs, K. P., Hintz, S. R., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Lemons, J. A., Kendrick, D. E., Stevenson, D. K. 2009; 26 (4): 317-322

    Abstract

    We sought to determine if inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) administered to preterm infants with premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), oligohydramnios, and pulmonary hypoplasia improved oxygenation, survival, or other clinical outcomes. Data were analyzed from infants with suspected pulmonary hypoplasia, oligohydramnios, and PPROM enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Development Neonatal Research Network Preemie Inhaled Nitric Oxide (PiNO) trial, where patients were randomized to receive placebo (oxygen) or iNO at 5 to 10 ppm. Outcome variables assessed were PaO (2) response, mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Twelve of 449 infants in the PiNO trial met criteria. Six infants received iNO and six received placebo. The iNO group had a mean increase in PaO (2) of 39 +/- 50 mm Hg versus a mean decrease of 11 +/- 15 mm Hg in the control group. Mortality was 33% versus 67%, BPD (2/5) 40% versus (2/2) 100%, and severe IVH or PVL (1/5) 20% versus (1/2) 50% in the iNO and control groups, respectively. None of these changes were statistically significant. Review of a limited number of cases from a large multicenter trial suggests that iNO use in the setting of PPROM, oligohydramnios, and suspected pulmonary hypoplasia improves oxygenation and may decrease the rate of BPD and death without increasing severe IVH or PVL. However, the small sample size precludes definitive conclusions. Further studies are required to determine if iNO is of benefit in this specific patient population.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0028-1104743

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264506400012

    View details for PubMedID 19067285

  • Impact of Postnatal Corticosteroid Use on Neurodevelopment at 18 to 22 Months' Adjusted Age: Effects of Dose, Timing, and Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants PEDIATRICS Wilson-Costello, D., Walsh, M. C., Langer, J. C., Guillet, R., Laptook, A. R., Stoll, B. J., Shankaran, S., Finer, N. N., Van Meurs, K. P., Engle, W. A., Das, A. 2009; 123 (3): e430-e437

    Abstract

    Postnatal steroid use decreases lung inflammation but increases impairment. We hypothesized that increased dose is associated with increased neurodevelopmental impairment, lower postmenstrual age at exposure increases impairment, and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia modifies the effect of postnatal corticosteroid.Steroid dose and timing of exposure beyond 7 days was assessed among 2358 extremely low birth weight infants nested in a prospective trial, with 1667 (84%) survivors examined at 18 to 22 months' postmenstrual age. Logistic regression tested the relationship between impairment (Bayley Mental Developmental Index/Psychomotor Developmental Index of <70, disabling cerebral palsy, or sensory impairment), total dose (tertiles: <0.9, 0.9-1.9, and >/=1.9 mg/kg), and postmenstrual age at first dose. Separate logistic regression tested effect modification according to bronchopulmonary dysplasia severity (Romagnoli risk > 0.5 as high risk, n = 2336 (99%) for days of life 4-7).Three hundred sixty-six (16%) neonates were steroid-treated (94% dexamethasone). Treated neonates were smaller and less mature; 72% of those treated were at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Exposure was associated with neurodevelopmental impairment/death. Impairment increased with higher dose; 71% dead or impaired at highest dose tertile. Each 1 mg/kg dose was associated with a 2.0-point reduction on the Mental Developmental Index and a 40% risk increase for disabling cerebral palsy. Older age did not mitigate the harm. Treatment after 33 weeks' postmenstrual age was associated with greatest harm despite not receiving the highest dose. The relationship between steroid exposure and impairment was modified by the bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk, with those at highest risk experiencing less harm.Higher steroid dose was associated with increased neurodevelopmental impairment. There is no "safe" window for steroid use in extremely low birth weight infants. Neonates with low bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk should not be exposed. A randomized trial of steroid use in infants at highest risk is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2008-1928

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263825500057

    View details for PubMedID 19204058

  • Aggressive vs. conservative phototherapy for infants with extremely low birth weight NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Morris, B. H., Oh, W., Tyson, J. E., Stevenson, D. K., Phelps, D. L., O'Shea, T. M., McDavid, G. E., Perritt, R. L., Van Meurs, K. P., Vohr, B. R., Grisby, C., Yao, Q., Pedroza, C., Das, A., Poole, W. K., Carlo, W. A., Duara, S., Laptook, A. R., Salhab, W. A., Shankaran, S., Poindexter, B. B., Fanaroff, A. A., Walsh, M. C., Rasmussen, M. R., Stoll, B. J., Cotten, C. M., Donovan, E. F., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Guillet, R., Higgins, R. D. 2008; 359 (18): 1885-1896

    Abstract

    It is unclear whether aggressive phototherapy to prevent neurotoxic effects of bilirubin benefits or harms infants with extremely low birth weight (1000 g or less).We randomly assigned 1974 infants with extremely low birth weight at 12 to 36 hours of age to undergo either aggressive or conservative phototherapy. The primary outcome was a composite of death or neurodevelopmental impairment determined for 91% of the infants by investigators who were unaware of the treatment assignments.Aggressive phototherapy, as compared with conservative phototherapy, significantly reduced the mean peak serum bilirubin level (7.0 vs. 9.8 mg per deciliter [120 vs. 168 micromol per liter], P<0.01) but not the rate of the primary outcome (52% vs. 55%; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.02; P=0.15). Aggressive phototherapy did reduce rates of neurodevelopmental impairment (26%, vs. 30% for conservative phototherapy; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.99). Rates of death in the aggressive-phototherapy and conservative-phototherapy groups were 24% and 23%, respectively (relative risk, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.22). In preplanned subgroup analyses, the rates of death were 13% with aggressive phototherapy and 14% with conservative phototherapy for infants with a birth weight of 751 to 1000 g and 39% and 34%, respectively (relative risk, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.34), for infants with a birth weight of 501 to 750 g.Aggressive phototherapy did not significantly reduce the rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment. The rate of neurodevelopmental impairment alone was significantly reduced with aggressive phototherapy. This reduction may be offset by an increase in mortality among infants weighing 501 to 750 g at birth. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00114543.)

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260454500005

    View details for PubMedID 18971491

  • Predictors of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants with respiratory failure JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Ambalavanan, N., Van Meurs, K. P., Perritt, R., Carlo, W. A., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Stevenson, D. K., Lemons, J. A., Poole, W. K., Higgins, R. D. 2008; 28 (6): 420-426

    Abstract

    To identify the variables that predict death/physiologic bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants with severe respiratory failure.The study was a secondary analysis of data from the NICHD Neonatal Research Network trial of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in preterm infants. Stepwise logistic regression models and Classification and Regression Tree (CART) models were developed for the outcome of death or physiologic BPD (O(2) at 36 weeks post-menstrual age).Death and/or BPD was associated with lower birth weight, higher oxygen requirement, male gender, additional surfactant doses, higher oxygenation index and outborn status, but not the magnitude of response in PaO(2) to iNO. The positive predictive value of the CART model was 82% at 95% sensitivity.The major factors associated with death/BPD were an increased severity of respiratory failure, lower birth weight, male gender and outborn status, but not the magnitude of initial response to iNO.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2008.18

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256437600007

    View details for PubMedID 18337740

  • Defect size determines survival in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia PEDIATRICS Lally, K. P., Lally, P. A., Lasky, R. E., Tibboel, D., Jaksic, T., Wilson, J. M., Frenckner, B., Van Meurs, K. P., Bohn, D. J., Davis, C. F., Hirschl, R. B. 2007; 120 (3): E651-E657

    Abstract

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a significant cause of neonatal mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical factors associated with death in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia by using a large multicenter data set.This was a prospective cohort study of all liveborn infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia who were cared for at tertiary referral centers belonging to the Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Study Group between 1995 and 2004. Factors thought to influence death included birth weight, Apgar scores, size of defect, and associated anomalies. Survival to hospital discharge, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay were evaluated as end points.A total of 51 centers in 8 countries contributed data on 3062 liveborn infants. The overall survival rate was 69%. Five hundred thirty-eight (18%) patients did not undergo an operation and died. The defect size was the most significant factor that affected outcome; infants with a near absence of the diaphragm had a survival rate of 57% compared with infants having a primary repair with a survival rate of 95%. Infants without agenesis but who required a patch for repair had a survival rate of 79% compared with primary repair.The size of the diaphragmatic defect seems to be the major factor influencing outcome in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. It is likely that the defect size is a surrogate marker for the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. Future research efforts should be directed to accurately quantitate the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia or defect size antenatally. Experimental therapies can then be targeted to prospectively identify high-risk patients who are more likely to benefit.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2006-3040

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249232000072

    View details for PubMedID 17766505

  • Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants with severe respiratory failure enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Hintz, S. R., Van Meurs, K. P., Perritt, R., Poole, W. K., Das, A., Stevenson, D. K., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Lemons, J. A., Vohr, B. R., Heyne, R., Childers, D. O., Peralta-Carcelen, M., Dusick, A., Johnson, Y. R., Morris, B., Dillard, R., Vaucher, Y., Steichen, J., Adams-Chapman, I., Konduri, G., Myers, G. J., De Ungria, M., Tyson, J. E., Higgins, R. D. 2007; 151 (1): 16-22

    Abstract

    We hypothesized that inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) would not decrease death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in infants enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Preemie iNO Trial (PiNO) trial, nor improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in the follow-up group.Infants <34 weeks of age, weighing <1500 g, with severe respiratory failure were enrolled in the multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. NDI at 18 to 22 months corrected age was defined as: moderate to severe cerebral palsy (CP; Mental Developmental Index or Psychomotor score Developmental Index <70), blindness, or deafness.Of 420 patients enrolled, 109 who received iNO (52%) and 98 who received placebo (47%) died. The follow-up rate in survivors was 90%. iNO did not reduce death or NDI (78% versus 73%; relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% CI, 0.95-1.19), or NDI or Mental Developmental Index <70 in the follow-up group. Moderate-severe CP was slightly higher with iNO (RR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.01-5.75), as was death or CP in infants weighing <1000 g (RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43).In this extremely ill cohort, iNO did not reduce death or NDI or improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. Routine iNO use in premature infants should be limited to research settings until further data are available.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.03.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247851900007

    View details for PubMedID 17586184

  • Interobserver reliability and accuracy of cranial ultrasound scanning interpretation in premature infants JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Hintz, S. R., Slovis, T., Bulas, D., Van Meurs, K. P., Perritt, R., Stevenson, D. K., Poole, W. K., Das, A., Higgins, R. D. 2007; 150 (6): 592-596

    Abstract

    To assess interobserver reliability between 2 central readers of cranial ultrasound scanning (CUS) and accuracy of local, compared with central, interpretations.The study was a retrospective analysis of CUS data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) trial of inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants. Interobserver reliability of 2 central readers was assessed with kappa or weighted kappa. Accuracy of local, compared with central, interpretations was assessed by using sensitivity and specificity.CUS from 326 infants had both central reader and local interpretations. Central reader agreement for grade 3/4 intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), grade 3/4 IVH or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), grade of IVH, and degree of ventriculomegaly was very good (kappa = 0.84, 0.81, 0.79, and 0.75, respectively). Agreement was poor for lower grade IVH and for PVL alone. Local interpretations were highly accurate for grade 3/4 IVH or PVL (sensitivity, 87%-90%; specificity, 92%-93%), but sensitivity was poor-to-fair for grade 1/2 IVH (48%-68%) and PVL (20%-44%).Our findings demonstrate reliability and accuracy of highly unfavorable CUS findings, but suggest caution when interpreting mild to moderate IVH or white matter injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.02.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246939700011

    View details for PubMedID 17517240

  • Inhaled nitric oxide in infants > 1500 g and < 34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Van Meurs, K. P., Hintz, S. R., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Lemons, J. A., Ball, M. B., Poole, W. K., Perritt, R., Das, A., Higgins, R. D., Stevenson, D. K. 2007; 27 (6): 347-352

    Abstract

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) use in infants >1500 g, but <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure will reduce the incidence of death and/or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).Infants born at <34 weeks gestation with a birth weight >1500 g with respiratory failure were randomly assigned to receive placebo or iNO.Twenty-nine infants were randomized. There were no differences in baseline characteristics, but the status at randomization showed a statistically significant difference in the use of high-frequency ventilation (P=0.03). After adjustment for oxygenation index entry strata, there was no difference in death and/or BPD (adjusted relative risk (RR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 1.48; P=0.50), death (adjusted RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.47 to 3.41; P=0.65) or BPD (adjusted RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.47 to 3.41; P=0.21).Although sample size limits our ability to make definitive conclusions, this small pilot trial of iNO use in premature infants >1500 g and <34 weeks with severe respiratory failure suggests that iNO does not affect the rate of BPD and/or death.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.jp.7211690

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246905800005

    View details for PubMedID 17443204

  • Early inhaled nitric oxide therapy for term and near-term newborn infants with hypoxic respiratory failure: Neurodevelopmental follow-up JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Konduri, G. G., Vohr, B., Robertson, C., Sokol, G. M., Solimano, A., Singer, J., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Singhal, N., Wright, L. L., Van Meurs, K., Stork, E., Kirpalani, H., Peliowski, A., Johnson, Y. 2007; 150 (3): 235-240

    Abstract

    To report the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants enrolled in a randomized multicenter trial of early inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in term and near-term neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension.Neonates born at > or = 34 weeks gestation who required assisted ventilation and had an oxygenation index > or = 15 and < 25 were randomized to an early iNO group or a control group. A comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment of survivors was performed at age 18 to 24 months.The trial enrolled 299 infants, of which 266 (89%) survived to age 18 to 24 months (136 in the early iNO group and 130 in the control group). Follow-up evaluations were done on 234 (88%) of surviving infants. There were no differences between the 2 groups in the incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment (early iNO, 27%; control, 25%) and hearing impairment (early iNO, 23%; control, 24%). Mental development index scores were similar in the 2 groups; however, psychomotor developmental index scores were significantly higher in the control group (early iNO, 89 +/- 17.7; control, 93.5 +/- 18.4).Early iNO therapy for hypoxic respiratory failure in term and near-term infants is not associated with an increase in neurodevelopmental impairment or hearing loss at 18 to 24 months postnatal age.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.11.065

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244629700009

    View details for PubMedID 17307536

  • The use of inhaled nitric oxide in the premature infant with respiratory distress syndrome. Minerva pediatrica Van Meurs, K., Hintz, S., Rhine, W., Benitz, W. 2006; 58 (5): 403-422

    Abstract

    The identification of the biologic properties of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the key scientific discoveries of the century, but its potential for treating human disease is yet to be fully realized. NO has a basic role in regulating vascular tone of the pulmonary circulation, and recent animal models have suggested a more wide reaching influence on perinatal lung development. In animal models, NO has effects on lung growth, angiogenesis, airway smooth muscle proliferation, vascular remodeling, surfactant function, inflammation, and pulmonary mechanics. However, despite extensive basic science investigation and completion of several large clinical trials, the role of NO in the treatment of the premature infant with respiratory distress syndrome remains unclear. One must conclude that the interaction of lung immaturity, ventilator and oxygen-induced lung injury, and NO biology in the premature newborn is incompletely understood. Clinical trial results of inhaled NO therapy in the premature infant are accumulating, but the results do not suggest a clear-cut advantage for the population at greatest risk for death and disability. Whether trial design, dose, duration of therapy, or other factors are responsible has not been determined. Further research is needed to answer these questions and more clearly define the population of premature infants who may derive benefit from this new therapy.

    View details for PubMedID 17008853

  • Treatment evolution in high-risk congenital diaphragmatic hernia - Ten years experience with diaphragmatic agenesis ANNALS OF SURGERY Lally, K. P., Lally, P. A., Van Meurs, K. P., Bohn, D. J., Davis, C. F., Rodgers, B., Bhatia, J., Dudell, G. 2006; 244 (4): 505-513

    Abstract

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of newer therapies on the highest risk patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), those with agenesis of the diaphragm.CDH remains a significant cause of neonatal mortality. Many novel therapeutic interventions have been used in these infants. Those children with large defects or agenesis of the diaphragm have the highest mortality and morbidity.Twenty centers from 5 countries collected data prospectively on all liveborn infants with CDH over a 10-year period. The treatment and outcomes in these patients were examined. Patients were followed until death or hospital discharge.A total of 1,569 patients with CDH were seen between January 1995 and December 2004 in 20 centers. A total of 218 patients (14%) had diaphragmatic agenesis and underwent repair. The overall survival for all patients was 68%, while survival was 54% in patients with agenesis. When patients with diaphragmatic agenesis from the first 2 years were compared with similar patients from the last 2 years, there was significantly less use of ECMO (75% vs. 52%) and an increased use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) (30% vs. 80%). There was a trend toward improved survival in patients with agenesis from 47% in the first 2 years to 59% in the last 2 years. The survivors with diaphragmatic agenesis had prolonged hospital stays compared with patients without agenesis (median, 68 vs. 30 days). For the last 2 years of the study, 36% of the patients with agenesis were discharged on tube feedings and 22% on oxygen therapy.There has been a change in the management of infants with CDH with less frequent use of ECMO and a greater use of iNO in high-risk patients with a potential improvement in survival. However, the mortality, hospital length of stay, and morbidity in agenesis patients remain significant.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.sla.0000239027.61651.fa

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241254900004

    View details for PubMedID 16998359

  • Cardiovascular support in preterm infants CLINICAL THERAPEUTICS Evans, J. R., Short, B. L., Van Meurs, K., Sachs, H. C. 2006; 28 (9): 1366-1384

    Abstract

    Despite increasing investigation in the area of cardiovascular instability in preterm infants, huge gaps in knowledge remain. None of the current treatments for hypotension, including the use of inotropic agents, have been well studied in the preterm population, and data regarding safety and efficacy are lacking. Thus, the labeling information regarding the use of inotropes as therapeutic agents in this population is inadequate.This article reviews the current deficiencies in knowledge with respect to measuring and achieving normal organ perfusion; summarizes the clinical, methodological, and ethical issues to consider when designing trials to evaluate medications for hemodynamic instability in the preterm neonate; and proposes 2 possible trial designs. Unanswered questions and potential obstacles for the systematic study of drugs to treat cardiovascular instability in preterm neonates are discussed.The neonatal Cardiology Group was established in 2003 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) as part of the Newborn Drug Development Initiative. The Cardiology Group conducted a number of teleconferences and one meeting to develop a document addressing gaps in knowledge regarding cardiovascular drugs commonly used in low-birth-weight neonates and possible approaches to investigate these drugs. This work was presented at a workshop cosponsored by the NICHD and the FDA held in March 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. Information for this article was gathered during this initiative.To develop rational, evidence-based guidelines corroborated by robust scientific data for cardiovascular support in newborns, well-designed and adequately powered pharmacologic studies and clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of inotropic agents and to determine the short- and long-term effects of these drugs. Trials investigating the currently available and novel therapies for cardiovascular instability in neonates will provide information that can be incorporated into product labeling and a scientific framework for cardiovascular management in critically ill neonates. The Cardiology Group identified and prioritized 2 conditions for investigation of therapeutic options for the management of neonatal cardiovascular instability: (1) cardiovascular instability in preterm neonates; and (2) cardiac dysfunction in neonates after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Key research questions in the area of cardiovascular instability in the preterm infant include determining optimal blood pressure (BP) in preterm infants; identifying better measures than BP to determine organ perfusion; optimizing hemodynamic treatments; and clarifying any associations between BP or therapy for low BP and mortality, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and neurodevelopmental outcome. The Cardiology Group concluded that the study of inotropic agents in neonates using outcomes of importance to patients will require a complicated trial design to address the elements discussed. The group proposed 2 clinical trial designs: (1) a placebo-controlled trial with rescue therapy for symptomatic infants; and (2) a targeted BP trial.This summary is intended to stimulate and assist future research in the area of cardiovascular support for preterm infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clinthera.2006.09.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241685600012

    View details for PubMedID 17062310

  • Corticosteroids for fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: can we show benefit? JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC SURGERY Lally, K. P., Bagolan, P., Hosie, S., Lally, P. A., Stewart, M., Cotten, C. M., Van Meurs, K. P., Alexander, G. 2006; 41 (4): 668-674

    Abstract

    Prenatal corticosteroids have been used in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We tested the utility of steroids by 2 methods.Mothers carrying fetuses with CDH were randomized to 3 weekly doses of betamethasone or placebo starting at 34 weeks. Patients were followed until death or discharge. In a separate cohort study, the CDH Registry was used to compare infants who received prenatal steroids to those who had not.Thirty-four patients were enrolled at 7 centers, with 32 completing the trial. There were 15 placebo and 17 steroid patients. There was no difference in survival, length of stay, duration of ventilation, or oxygen use at 30 days. For the cohort study, we looked at infants older than 34 weeks who were born after October 2000 when data on prenatal steroids were collected. There were 1093 patients; 390 were evaluable, with 56 receiving steroids. There was no difference in survival, length of stay, ventilator days, or oxygen use at 30 days.Neither the trial nor the CDH Registry suggest that late prenatal corticosteroids benefit fetuses with CDH. More than 1700 mothers and fetuses would need to be enrolled in a trial to show a 10% improvement in survival. It is unlikely that late steroids offer benefit to most fetuses with CDH.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2005.12.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237015800014

    View details for PubMedID 16567174

  • Summary proceedings from the cardiology group on cardiovascular instability in preterm infants PEDIATRICS Short, B. L., Van Meurs, K., EVANS, J. R. 2006; 117 (3): S34-S39

    Abstract

    The appropriate determination of adequate tissue perfusion and the best approach to treatment of perceived abnormalities in blood pressure in the neonate remain controversial. There is no consensus regarding the actual definition of hypotension in the neonate or how best to raise perceived low blood pressure. In addition, there is no direct and prospectively collected information available on the result of treatment of a "low" blood pressure on neonatal morbidity and mortality. It also has not been clearly demonstrated that bringing systemic blood pressure to a "normal" range improve outcomes. However, it is widely accepted by clinicians that early and aggressive treatment of hypotension leads to improved neurologic outcome and survival in the neonate. Commonly used therapeutic maneuvers to correct systemic hypotension in the neonate include volume expansion, inotropic agents, and corticosteroids. Although there is a paucity of research on the cardiovascular response to these commonly used agents in neonates, among the commonly used inotropic drugs dopamine has been shown to be more effective than dobutamine in raising blood pressure in the neonate. The cardiology group focused on the use of inotropes, particularly dopamine and dobutamine, to treat very low birth weight infants with cardiac instability and neonatal postoperative cardiac patients. The cardiology group identified key issues that must be considered when designing studies of inotropic agents in preterm infants and proposed 2 clinical-trial designs: (1) a placebo-controlled trial with rescue for symptomatic infants; and (2) a targeted-blood pressure study. The first trial design would answer questions concerning efficacy of treatment with inotropic agents in this population. The second trial design would address concerns related to the lack of knowledge on normal blood pressure ranges in this population. The group identified specific design elements that would need to be addressed for the complicated trial design to study inotropic agents in neonates.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peda.2005-0620F

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235727300005

    View details for PubMedID 16777820

  • The Newborn Drug Development Initiative (NDDI) Workshop: Summary proceedings from the Cardiology Group on Cardiovascular Instability in Preterm Infants. Pediatrics Short BL, Van Meurs K, Evans JR, the Cardiology Working Group. 2006; 117: S34-39
  • Inhaled nitric oxide for the premature infant with respiratory distress syndrome: Animal models and clinical trials. Tufts University/Floating Hospital Reports on Neonatal Respiratory Diseases Van Meurs K, Benitz We 2006; 16 (1): 1-8
  • Inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants with severe respiratory failure NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Van Meurs, K. P., Wright, L. L., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Lemons, J. A., Ball, M. B., Poole, W. K., Perritt, R., Higgins, R. D., Oh, W., Hudak, M. L., Laptook, A. R., Shankaran, S., Finer, N. N., Carlo, W. A., Kennedy, K. A., Fridriksson, J. H., Steinhorn, R. H., Sokol, G. M., Konduri, G. G., Aschner, J. L., Stoll, B. J., D'Angio, C. T., Stevenson, D. K., Oh, W., Hensman, A., Gingras, D., Stoll, B. J., Jain, L., Hale, E., Seabrook, I., Sokol, G., Lorant, D., Appel, D. D., Miller, L., Chriscinske, D., Attwood, J., Steinhorn, R., Sautel, M., Van Meurs, K., Ball, B., Proud, D., Carlo, W. A., Cosby, S. S., Johnson, R. B., Fridriksson, J., Warner, B., Mersmann, M., Alexander, B., Shively, J., Mincey, H., Hoover, M., Sapienz, S., Stephenson, E., Finer, N. N., Rasmussen, M. R., Henderson, C., Demetrio, C., Rich, W., Joseph, C., Hudak, M., Osbeck, S., Case, E., Kellum, A., Hogans, L., D'Angio, C. T., Reubens, L., Hutton, G., Laptook, A., Madison, S., Hensley, G., Miller, N., Metoyer, G., Kennedy, K., McDavid, G., Emerson, D., Konduri, G., Paquette, M., Wong, S., Aschner, J., O'Shea, T. M., Peters, N., Hansell, B. J., Griffin, J., Adams, C., Shankaran, S., Bara, R. A., Muran, G., Weekfall, W., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Gettner, P., Caldwell, A., Oh, W., Fanaroff, A. A., Goldberg, R. N., Stoll, B. J., Lemons, J. A., Stevenson, D. K., Carlo, W. A., Donovan, E. F., Finer, N. N., Duara, S., Phelps, D. L., Laptook, A. R., TYSON, J. E., O'Shea, T. M., Shankaran, S., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Jobe, A., Poole, W. K., Hastings, B., Petrie, C., Higgins, R. D., Wright, L. L., McClure, E., BULAS, D., Mertens, D., Slovis, T., Avery, G., D'Alton, M., Poole, W. K., Fletcher, J. C., Gleason, C. A., Redmond, C. 2005; 353 (1): 13-22

    Abstract

    Inhaled nitric oxide is a controversial treatment for premature infants with severe respiratory failure. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, blinded, controlled trial to determine whether inhaled nitric oxide reduced the rate of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia in such infants.We randomly assigned 420 neonates, born at less than 34 weeks of gestation, with a birth weight of 401 to 1500 g, and with respiratory failure more than four hours after treatment with surfactant to receive placebo (simulated flow) or inhaled nitric oxide (5 to 10 ppm). Infants with a response (an increase in the partial pressure of arterial oxygen of more than 10 mm Hg) were weaned according to protocol. Treatment with study gas was discontinued in infants who did not have a response.The rate of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 80 percent in the nitric oxide group, as compared with 82 percent in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.97; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.06; P=0.52), and the rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 60 percent versus 68 percent (relative risk, 0.90; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.08; P=0.26). There were no significant differences in the rates of severe intracranial hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia. Post hoc analyses suggest that rates of death and bronchopulmonary dysplasia are reduced for infants with a birth weight greater than 1000 g, whereas infants weighing 1000 g or less who are treated with inhaled nitric oxide have higher mortality and increased rates of severe intracranial hemorrhage.The use of inhaled nitric oxide in critically ill premature infants weighing less than 1500 g does not decrease the rates of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Further trials are required to determine whether inhaled nitric oxide benefits infants with a birth weight of 1000 g or more.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230267300004

    View details for PubMedID 16000352

  • Inhaled NO and markers of oxidant injury in infants with respiratory failure. Journal of perinatology Van Meurs, K. P., Cohen, T. L., Yang, G., Somaschini, M., Kuruma, P., Dennery, P. a. 2005; 25 (7): 463-469

    Abstract

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is an effective adjunct in the treatment of infants with respiratory failure. Although there are clear benefits to this therapy, potential toxicity could result from reactive nitrosylated species.To evaluate whether iNO therapy is associated with increased serum markers of oxidative stress.Multiple markers were prospectively evaluated in the serum of term infants with severe respiratory failure treated with iNO for 1 to 72 hours. These were compared to those of patients exposed to greater than 80% oxygen for more than 6 hours and room air controls.After 24 hours of exposure, the iNO-treated infants had increased serum lipid hydroperoxides (LPO), protein carbonyls and nitrotyrosine residues as well as increased serum total glutathione (GSH) content. The increase in LPO peaked at 24 hours and correlated with the cumulative dose of iNO whereas other markers did not. The presence of chronic lung disease (CLD) did not correlate with serum markers of oxidative injury.In term infants with respiratory failure, prolonged iNO exposure is associated with a transient increase in markers of oxidative stress, but this finding does not appear to predict the development of CLD.

    View details for PubMedID 15889132

  • ECMO for neonatal respiratory failure SEMINARS IN PERINATOLOGY Bahrami, K. R., Van Meurs, K. P. 2005; 29 (1): 15-23

    Abstract

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been offered as a life-saving technology to newborns with respiratory and cardiac failure refractory to maximal medical therapy. ECMO has been used in treatment of neonates with a variety of cardio-respiratory problems, including meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PPHN), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), sepsis/pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), air leak syndrome, and cardiac anomalies. For this group of high-risk neonates with an anticipated mortality rate of 80% to 85%, ECMO has an overall survival rate of 84%, with recent data showing nearly 100% survival in many diagnostic groups. This article reviews the current selection criteria for ECMO and the clinical management of neonates on ECMO, and discusses the long-term outcome of neonates treated with ECMO.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.semperi.2005.02.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228783700004

    View details for PubMedID 15921148

  • Utilization and outcomes of neonatal cardiac extracorporeal life support: 1996-2000. Pediatric critical care medicine Hintz, S. R., Benitz, W. E., Colby, C. E., Sheehan, A. M., Rycus, P., Van Meurs, K. P. 2005; 6 (1): 33-38

    Abstract

    Extracorporeal life support for neonatal respiratory failure has decreased, but utilization and outcome of cardiac extracorporeal life support are not well characterized. Among neonates born 1996-2000, our objects were to evaluate changes in utilization and outcome of cardiac extracorporeal life support and characterize correlates of survival.Retrospective analysis of Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry data.Intensive care units participating in the ELSO registry.Patients placed on extracorporeal life support for center-specified "cardiac support" at 15 days was associated with improved survival among hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients (p = .03), and survivors had fewer mean extracorporeal life support hours (89.3 +/- 52.3 vs. 147.5 +/- 129.7, p = .015). Logistic regression showed that only greater number of hours on extracorporeal life support was independently associated with nonsurvival.Neonatal cardiac extracorporeal life support use increased substantially from 1996 to 2000, with survival to discharge or transfer in more than one third of patients. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome was not associated with nonsurvival. Fewer hours on extracorporeal life support, diagnoses of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and transposition of the great arteries, and extracorporeal life support at <3 days were associated with survival.

    View details for PubMedID 15636656

  • Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in the premature infant with respiratory distress syndrome NeoReviews Van Meurs KP 2005; 6 (6): e268-277
  • Surfactant replacement therapy on ECMO does not improve outcome in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC SURGERY Colby, C. E. 2004; 39 (11): 1632-1637

    Abstract

    Respiratory failure in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) may in part be caused by a primary or secondary surfactant deficiency. Knowledge of the optimal approach to surfactant replacement in neonates with CDH and respiratory failure is limited. The aim of this study was to determine if surfactant replacement on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) results in improved outcomes in neonates > or =35 weeks' gestation with unrepaired CDH.Using the CDH Study Group Registry, the authors identified 448 neonates with CDH who were > or =35 weeks' gestation, had no major anomalies, were treated with ECMO within the first 7 days of life, and underwent repair on or after ECMO therapy. Patients in 2 groups were compared: group 1 (- Surf, n = 334) consisted of patients who received no surfactant and group 2 (+ Surf, n = 114) consisted of patients who received at least 1 dose of surfactant while on ECMO. An analysis of all patients in both groups was performed. Additionally, subgroup analyses stratified by gestational age were performed for patients 351/7 to 366/7 weeks' gestation and for patients > or =37 weeks' gestation. Primary end-points for the study were survival and length of ECMO run. Secondary end-points were length of intubation, need for supplemental oxygen at 30 days of life, and at discharge to home. Demographic, clinical, and outcome variables were examined using Fisher's Exact tests for categorical variables and using unpaired t tests for continuous variables. Odds ratios were calculated for categorical end-point variables.Demographic and clinical variables were similar between groups. Analyses of aggregate data showed no significant differences between groups in length of ECMO run, survival, number of days intubated, and percent of patients requiring supplemental oxygen at 30 days or discharge. Subgroup stratification by gestational age did not show significant differences between groups in any of the outcome variables.The data from this study suggest that surfactant replacement on ECMO for neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia does not provide significant benefit in the infant's clinical course with respect to survival, length of ECMO course, length of intubation, or subsequent need for supplemental oxygen.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pedsurg.2004.07.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225445100005

    View details for PubMedID 15547824

  • Is surfactant therapy beneficial in the treatment of the term newborn infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia? JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Van Meurs, K. 2004; 145 (3): 312-316

    Abstract

    To determine the impact of surfactant replacement on survival, need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and chronic lung disease in term infants with prenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).Prenatally diagnosed infants born at > or =37 weeks' gestation with immediate distress at delivery and no other major congenital anomalies, who were enrolled in the CDH Registry, were analyzed. For univariate analysis, chi 2 tests were used for categoric variables and unpaired t tests for nominal variables. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios.Eligible infants (n = 522) were identified. Demographic variables were similar between the surfactant-treated (n = 192) and nonsurfactant-treated (n = 330) groups, with the exception of race (white, 88.0% vs 71.2%; P =.0007). The use of ECMO and incidence of chronic lung disease were higher (59.8 vs 50.6, P =.04; 59.9 vs 47.6, P =.0066) and survival lower in the surfactant-treated cohort (57.3 vs 70.0, P =.0033). Adjusted logistic regression for use of ECMO, survival, and chronic lung disease resulted in odds ratios inconsistent with an improved outcome associated with surfactant use.This analysis shows no benefit associated with surfactant therapy for term infants with a prenatal diagnosis of isolated CDH.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.04.056

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223857400011

    View details for PubMedID 15343181

  • Surfactant does not improve survival rate in preterm infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC SURGERY Lally, K. P., Lally, P. A., Langham, M. R., Hirschl, R., Moya, F. R., Tibboel, D., Van Mears, K. 2004; 39 (6): 829-833

    Abstract

    Use of exogenous surfactant in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) patients is routine in many centers. The authors sought to determine the impact of surfactant use in the premature infant with CDH.Data on liveborn infants with CDH from participating institutions were collected prospectively. Surfactant use and timing and outcome data were analyzed retrospectively. The authors evaluated the prenatal diagnosis patients as well. The outcome variable was survival to discharge. Odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated.Five hundred ten infants less than 37 weeks' gestation were entered in the CDH registry. Infants with severe anomalies (n = 80) were excluded. Information on surfactant use was available for 424 patients. Infants receiving surfactant (n = 209) had a greater odds of death than infants not receiving surfactant (n = 215, odds ratio, 2.17, 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.2; P <.01). In prenatally diagnosed infants with immediate distress, there was a trend toward worse survival rates among those receiving surfactant at 1 hour (52 patients) versus those that did not (93 patients; odds ratio, 1.93, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.9; P <.07).Surfactant, as currently used, is associated with a lower survival rate in preterm infants with CDH. The use of surfactant replacement in premature infants with CDH can be recommended only within the context of a randomized clinical trial.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2004.02.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222262900014

    View details for PubMedID 15185206

  • A randomized trial of early versus standard inhaled nitric oxide therapy in term and near-term newborn infants with hypoxic respiratory failure PEDIATRICS Konduri, G. G., Solimano, A., Sokol, G. M., Singer, J., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Singhal, N., Wright, L. L., Van Meurs, K., Stork, E., Kirpalani, H., Peliowski, A. 2004; 113 (3): 559-564

    Abstract

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) reduces the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)/incidence of death in term and near-term neonates with severe hypoxic respiratory failure. We conducted a randomized, double masked, multicenter trial to determine whether administration of iNO earlier in respiratory failure results in additional reduction in the incidence of these outcomes.Neonates who were born at > or =34 weeks' gestation were enrolled when they required assisted ventilation and had an oxygenation index (OI) > or =15 and <25 on any 2 measurements in a 12-hour interval. Infants were randomized to early iNO or to simulated initiation of iNO (control). Infants who had an increase in OI to 25 or more were given iNO as standard therapy.The trial enrollment was halted after 75% of target sample size was reached because of decreasing availability of eligible patients. The 150 infants who were given early iNO and 149 control infants had similar baseline characteristics. Arterial oxygen tension increased by >20 mm Hg in 73% of early iNO and 37% of control infants after study gas initiation. Control infants received standard iNO and deteriorated to OI >40 more often than infants who were given early iNO. The incidence of death (early iNO, 6.7% vs control, 9.4%), ECMO (10.7% vs 12.1%), and their combined incidence (16.7% vs 19.5%) were similar in both groups.iNO improves oxygenation but does not reduce the incidence of ECMO/mortality when initiated at an OI of 15 to 25 compared with initiation at >25 in term and near-term neonates with respiratory failure.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000189344400020

    View details for PubMedID 14993550

  • Neonatal Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study Group. A randomized trial of early versus standard inhaled nitric oxide therapy in term and near-term newborn infants with hypoxic respiratory failure. Pediatrics Konduri GG, Solimano A, Sokol GM, Singer J, Ehrenkranz RA, Singal N, Wright LL, Van Meurs K, Stork E, Kirpalani H, Peliowski A. 2004; 113: 559-564
  • Maintaining adequate anticoagulation on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy: Hemochron Junior Low Range versus Hemochron 400. The Journal of extra-corporeal technology Colby, C. E., Sheehan, A., Benitz, W., Van Meurs, K., Halamek, L. P., Moss, R. L. 2003; 35 (1): 35-38

    Abstract

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy requires that patients be anticoagulated to prevent clotting and thrombotic complications. There are several bedside whole blood microcoagulation systems available to determine activated clotting time (ACT) levels. Many ECMO centers use Hemochron (International Technidyne, Edison, NJ) products to determine ACT levels. During the study period, we used the Hemochron 400 and then changed to the Hemochron Junior Low Range. There were two specific aims of this study. First, to determine if there was a difference in ACT levels measured by these two distinct Hemochron products both marketed for the use in ECMO therapy. Second, to determine if the differing ACT levels produced by these two devices affected clinical outcomes. We compared ACT levels between two devices on 70 paired blood specimens obtained from four neonatal ECMO patients receiving heparin. A retrospective review of 77 ECMO patients was performed to analyze frequency of circuit emergencies and length of ECMO circuit life while using the two products. In lower ACT ranges, the Hemochron Jr. LR consistently yielded higher ACT values than the Hemochron 400. In higher ACT ranges, the Hemochron Jr. LR consistently yielded lower ACT values than the Hemochron 400. Without calibration, after changing devices, this discrepancy led to shorter circuit life and more circuit clotting complications. After calibration and adjustment in target ACT values, there was a trend toward longer circuit life, and there were fewer clotting complications. There is a difference in the ACT values produced by Hemochron 400 and Hemochron Jr. LR. Failure to calibrate target ACT levels after changing machines may lead to shorter circuit life and more clotting complications.

    View details for PubMedID 12680494

  • Use of bronchoscopy for conenital diaphragmatic hernia patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Clin Intens Care Hintz SR, Sheehan AM, Halamek LP, Rhine WD, Van Meurs KP, Benitz WE, Frankel LR. 2002; 13 (2-3): 101-106
  • Early high-frequency oscillatory ventilation versus synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation in very low birth weight infants: a pilot study of two ventilation protocols. Journal of perinatology Durand, D. J., Asselin, J. M., Hudak, M. L., Aschner, J. L., MCARTOR, R. D., Cleary, J. P., VanMeurs, K. P., Stewart, D. L., Shoemaker, C. T., WISWELL, T. E., Courtney, S. E. 2001; 21 (4): 221-229

    Abstract

    To evaluate the feasibility of conducting a prospective, randomized trial comparing early high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) to synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) in very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants. This pilot study evaluated two ventilator management protocols to determine how well they could be implemented in a multicenter clinical trial. Although this pilot study was not powered to detect differences in outcome, we also collected outcome data.Prospective, multicenter, randomized pilot study.Seven tertiary-level intensive care nurseries with previous experience with both HFOV and flow-triggered SIMV.Fifty infants weighing 501 to 1200 g, less than 4 hours of age, who had received one dose of surfactant and required ventilation with mean airway pressure > or =6 cm H2O and F(I)O2 > or =0.25, and had an anticipated duration of ventilation greater than 24 hours.Patients were stratified by birth weight and prenatal steroid status, then randomized to either HFOV or SIMV with tidal volume monitoring. Ventilator management for patients in both study arms was strictly governed by protocols that included optimizing lung inflation and blood gases, weaning strategies, and extubation criteria.Data were collected using the tools planned for the larger collaborative study. Protocol compliance was closely monitored, with successive changes in the protocol made as necessary to improve clarity and increase compliance. The incidence of major neonatal adverse outcomes was recorded.Data are presented for 24 HFOV and 24 SIMV infants (two infants, twins, were withdrawn from the study at parent's request). Nineteen of the 24 HFOV infants and 20 of the 24 SIMV infants survived to 36 weeks corrected age. Age at final extubation for survivors was 16+/-16 (mean+/-SD) days for HFOV infants and 24+/-24 days for SIMV infants. At 36 weeks corrected age, 14 of the 19 HFOV survivors were extubated and in room air, whereas 5 required supplemental oxygen. In comparison, 6 of the 20 SIMV survivors were extubated and in room air, whereas 14 required supplemental oxygen. Grade III/IV IVH and/or periventricular leukomalacia occurred in 2 HFOV and 2 SIMV patients. Overall compliance with the ventilator protocols was 82% for the SIMV protocol, and 88% for the HFOV protocol.The preliminary outcome data supports conducting the large randomized trial, which began in July of 1998. The protocols for the ventilator management of VLBW infants, both with HFOV and with SIMV were easily implemented and consistently followed, and are presented here.

    View details for PubMedID 11533838

  • Decreased use of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO): How new treatment modalities have affected ECMO utilization PEDIATRICS Hintz, S. R., Suttner, D. M., Sheehan, A. M., Rhine, W. D., Van Meurs, K. P. 2000; 106 (6): 1339-1343

    Abstract

    Over the last decade, several new therapies, including high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), exogenous surfactant therapy, and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), have become available for the treatment of neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure. The purpose of this retrospective study was to ascertain to what extent these modalities have impacted the use of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at our institution.Patients from 2 time periods were evaluated: May 1, 1993 to November 1, 1994 (group 1) and May 1, 1996 to November 1, 1997 (group 2). During the first time period (group 1), HFOV was not consistently used; beractant (Survanta) use for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), and pneumonia was under investigation; and iNO was not yet available. During the second time period (group 2), HFOV and beractant treatment were considered to be standard therapies, and iNO was available to patients with oxygenation index (OI) >/=25 x 2 at least 30 minutes apart, or on compassionate use basis. Patients were included in the data collection if they met the following entry criteria: 1) OI >15 x 1 within the first 72 hours of admission; 2) EGA >/=35 weeks; 3) diagnosis of MAS, PPHN or sepsis/pneumonia; 4) <5 days of age on admission; and 5) no congenital heart disease, diaphragmatic hernia, or lethal congenital anomaly.Of the 49 patient in group 1, 21 (42.8%) required ECMO therapy. Of these ECMO patients, 14 (66.6%) had received diagnoses of MAS or PPHN. Only 3 of the patients that went on to ECMO received beractant before the initiation of bypass (14.3%). All ECMO patients in group 1 would have met criteria for iNO had it been available. Of all patients in group 1, 18 (36.7%) were treated with HFOV, and 13 (26.5%) received beractant. Of the 47 patients in group 2, only 13 (27.7%) required ECMO therapy (compared with group 1). Of these ECMO patients, only 5 (38.5%) had diagnoses of MAS or PPHN, with the majority of patients (61.5%) requiring ECMO for sepsis/pneumonia, with significant cardiovascular compromise. Only 5 of these ECMO patients, all outborn, did not receive iNO before cannulation because of the severity of their clinical status on admission. Of all patients in group 2, 41 (87.2%) were treated with HFOV (compared with group 1), 42 (89.3%) received beractant (compared with group 1), and 18 (44.7%) received iNO.The results indicate that ECMO was used less frequently when HFOV, beractant and iNO was more commonly used. The differences in treatment modalities used and subsequent use of ECMO were statistically significant. We speculate that, in this patient population, the diagnostic composition of neonatal ECMO patients has changed over time.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165914800020

    View details for PubMedID 11099586

  • Secondary infection presenting as recurrent pulmonary hypertension. Journal of perinatology Hintz, S. R., Benitz, W. E., Halamek, L. P., Van Meurs, K. P., Rhine, W. D. 2000; 20 (4): 262-264

    Abstract

    Primary infection in the neonate, especially group B streptococcal infection, has long been recognized as a cause of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), sometimes requiring treatment with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). However, secondary nosocomial infections in the neonatal period have not been widely reported as a cause of severe recurrent pulmonary hypertension (PHTN). We now present two cases of secondary infection in the neonate leading to significant PHTN. In both cases, the infants presented with PPHN soon after birth, requiring transfer to a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit and treatment with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and iNO. After successful resolution of the initial PPHN, including extubation to nasal cannula, both infants developed signs of severe recurrent PHTN, leading to reintubation, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and iNO therapy, and consideration of ECMO. In both cases, blood cultures taken at the time of recurrence of PHTN returned positive, one for Staphylococcus epidermidis, the other for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. These unusual cases present the possibility of severe recurrent PHTN requiring iNO or ECMO in the setting of secondary infection. We speculate that these infants, although extubated after their first episodes of PHTN, were at risk for recurrence of PHTN due to continued pulmonary vascular reactivity.

    View details for PubMedID 10879342

  • Inhaled nitric oxide in term and near-term infants: Neurodevelopmental follow-up of The Neonatal Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study Group (NINOS) JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Finer, N. N., Vohr, B. R., Robertson, C. M., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Verter, J., Wright, L. L., Hoffman, H. J., Walsh-Sukys, M. C., Dusick, A. M., Fleisher, B. E., Steichen, J., Laadt, G., Yolton, K., Delaney-Black, V., Vohr, B. R., Whitfield, M. F., Blayney, M. P., Sauve, R. S., Casiro, O. G., Saigal, S., Riley, S. P., Robertson, C. M., Sankaran, K., Gosselin, R., Reynolds, A., Stork, E., Gorjanc, E., Verter, J., Powers, T., Sokol, G. M., Appel, D., Wright, L. L., Van Meurs, K., Rhine, W., Ball, B., Brilli, R., Moles, L., Crowley, M., Backstrom, C., Crouse, D., Hudson, T., Konduri, G. G., Bara, R., Kleinman, M., Hensmann, A., Rothstein, R. W., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Solimano, A., Germain, F., Walker, R., Ramirez, A. M., Singhal, N., Bourcier, L., Fajardo, C., Cook, V., Kirpalani, H., Monkman, S., Johnston, A., Mullahoo, K., Finer, N. N., Peliowski, A., Etches, P., Kamstra, B., Sankaran, K., Riehl, A., Blanchard, P., Gouin, R., Wearden, M. E., Gomez, M. R., Moon, Y. S., Avery, G. B., D'Alton, M. E., Bracken, M. B., Catz, C., Gleason, C. A., Maguire, M., Redmond, C. K., Sinclair, J. C., Verter, J. 2000; 136 (5): 611-617

    Abstract

    Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) improved oxygenation and reduced the occurrence of death or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in term and near-term hypoxic neonates. We report the results of neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants enrolled in the NINOS trial.Hypoxic infants >/=34 weeks' gestation and <14 days of age were randomized to 20 ppm INO or 100% oxygen as control. Comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment of survivors occurred at 18 to 24 months of age.A total of 235 infants were enrolled in the original trial. There were 36 deaths, 20 of 121 infants in the control group and 16 of 114 infants in the INO-treated group. Of the 199 surviving infants, 173 (86.9%) were seen for follow-up (88 members of the control group and 85 members of the INO-treated group), and 135 infants were normal (69 [79.3%] members of the control group and 66 [77.6%] members of the INO-treated group). Twenty-two infants had sensorineural hearing loss (12 members of the control group and 10 members of the INO-treated group). Moderate to severe cerebral palsy occurred in 13 infants (7 infants in the control group and 6 infants in the INO-treated group). Mental developmental index scores (87 +/- 18.7 in the control group vs 85 +/- 21.7 in the INO-treated group) and psychomotor developmental index scores (93.6 +/- 17.5 in the control group vs 85.7 +/- 21.2 in the INO-treated group) were not different. A total of 29.6% of the control group compared with 34.5% of the INO-treated group had at least one disability. Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, enrolled in a separate but parallel trial, had similar outcomes with a higher incidence of sensorineural hearing loss.Inhaled nitric oxide is not associated with an increase in neurodevelopmental, behavioral, or medical abnormalities at 2 years of age.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086985900011

    View details for PubMedID 10802492

  • Inhaled nitric oxide in term and near-term infants: Neurodevelopmental follow-up of the Neonatal Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study Group (NINOS). J Pediatr The Neonatal Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study Group (NINOS). 2000; 136 (5): 611-617
  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: the neonatologist's perspective. Pediatrics in review Van Meurs, K., Lou Short, B. 1999; 20 (10): e79-87

    View details for PubMedID 10512896

  • Nitrogen dioxide formation during inhaled nitric oxide therapy CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Sokol, G. M., Van Meurs, K. P., Wright, L. L., Rivera, O., Thorn, W. J., Chu, P. M., Sams, R. L. 1999; 45 (3): 382-387

    Abstract

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic by-product of inhalation therapy with nitric oxide (NO). The rate of NO2 formation during NO therapy is controversial.The formation of NO2 was studied under dynamic flows emulating a base case NO ventilator mixture containing 80 ppm NO in a 90% oxygen matrix. The difficulty in measuring NO2 concentrations below 2 ppm accurately was overcome by the use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy.Using a second-order model, the rate constant, k, for NO2 formation was determined to be (1.19 +/- 0.11) x 10(-11) ppm-2s-1, which is in basic agreement with evaluated data from atmospheric literature.Inhaled NO can be delivered safely in a well-designed, continuous flow neonatal ventilatory circuit, and NO2 formation can be calculated reliably using the rate constant and circuit dwell time.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078979100009

    View details for PubMedID 10053039

  • Cigarette smoking, pregnancy, and the developing fetus. Stanford Medical Review Van Meurs KP 1999; 1 (1): 14-16
  • Multicenter study of surfactant (beractant) use in the treatment of term infants with severe respiratory failure. J Pediatr Lotze A, Mitchell BR, Bulas DI, Zola EM, Shalwitz RA, Gunkel JH, the Survanta Term Infants Study Group. 1998; 132: 40-47
  • Response of premature infants with severe respiratory failure to inhaled nitric oxide. Preemie NO Collaborative Group. Pediatric pulmonology Van Meurs, K. P., Rhine, W. D., Asselin, J. M., Durand, D. J. 1997; 24 (5): 319-323

    Abstract

    Elevated pulmonary vascular resistance is seen in premature infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to decrease pulmonary vascular resistance and to improve oxygenation in some patients with respiratory failure. The purpose of this study was to determine whether premature infants with severe RDS would respond to inhaled NO with an improvement in oxygenation. Eleven premature infants (mean gestational age 29.8 weeks) with severe respiratory failure caused by RDS were treated with NO in four concentrations [1, 5, 10, 20 parts per million (ppm) NO] and with placebo (0 ppm NO). Arterial blood gas measurements were drawn immediately before and at the end of each of the 15-minute treatments and were used to determine the arterial/alveolar oxygen ratio (PaO2/PAO2). Ten of the 11 infants had a greater than 25% increase in PaO2/PAO2. Five of the 11 had a greater than 50% increase in PaO2/PAO2. Despite normal cranial ultrasound imaging prior to NO, 3 infants had intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) noted on their first ultrasound scan after this brief period of NO treatment, and 4 additional infants developed ICH later during their hospitalization. No infant had significant elevations of methemoglobin concentrations after the total 60-minute exposure to NO. NO may be an effective method of improving oxygenation in infants with severe RDS. The disturbing incidence of ICH in this small group of infants needs to be carefully evaluated before considering routine use or NO for preterm infants.

    View details for PubMedID 9407564

  • Response of premature infants with severe respiratory failure to inhaled nitric oxide PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY VanMeurs, K. P., Rhine, W. D., Asselin, J. M., Durand, D. J., Peverini, R., Dudell, G., Butler, S., Durand, D., Asselin, J., VANMEURS, K., Rhine, W. 1997; 24 (5): 319-323
  • Hemopericardium from coronary artery laceration complicating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Journal of perinatology Rhine, W. D., Hartman, G. E., Shochat, S. J., Benitz, W. E., Van Meurs, K. P. 1997; 17 (3): 189-192

    Abstract

    We report the clinical course and successful surgical treatment of hemopericardium resulting from coronary artery (CA) laceration in two patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) bypass.Retrospective case review.Two neonates with CDH had needle aspiration for either pneumothorax or pericardial effusion before initiation of ECMO. While on bypass, progressive hemopericardium led to narrow pulse pressure and decreased venous return that limited bypass flow. Widened cardiac silhouette on chest radiographs suggested hemopericardium; echocardiography was confirmatory in one case. The underlying diagnosis of CA laceration was made during pericardiotomy and treated with surgical patching.Pre-ECMO history of cardiothoracic needle aspiration is important because complications such as hemothorax or hemopericardium may arise once ECMO bypass is initiated. Inadvertent CA laceration may lead to acute hemopericardium, compromising venous drainage. However, CA laceration can be successfully repaired while the patient is on bypass.

    View details for PubMedID 9210072

  • Inhaled nitric oxide in full-term and nearly full-term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Stork, E., Gorjanc, E., Verter, J., Younes, N., Stenzel, B. A., Powers, T., Sokol, G., Wright, L. L., Yaffe, S. J., Catz, C., VANMEURS, K., Rhine, W., Ball, B., Brilli, R., Moles, L., Crowley, M., Backstrom, C., Crouse, D., Hudson, T., Konduri, G., Bara, R., Kleinman, M., Hensman, A., Rothstein, R. W., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Solimano, A., Germain, F., Walker, R., Ramirez, A. M., Singhal, N., Bourcier, L., Fajardo, C., Cook, V., Kirpalani, H., Monkman, S., Johnston, A., Mullahoo, K., Finer, N. N., Peliowski, A., Etches, P., Kamstra, B., Sankarhan, K., Riehl, A., Blanchard, P., Gouin, R., Wearden, M., Gomez, M., Moon, Y., Bauer, C. R., Donovan, E. F., Fanaroff, A. A., Korones, S. B., Lemons, J. A., Oh, W., Papile, L. A., Shankaran, S., Stoll, B. J., TYSON, J. E., Avery, G., DALTON, M., Bracken, M. B., Gleason, C. A., Maguire, M., Redmond, C., Silverman, W., Sinclair, J. 1997; 336 (9): 597-604
  • Inhaled nitric oxide in full term and nearly full term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure. N Engl J Med The Neonatal Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study Group (NINOS) 1997; 336: 597-604
  • Nitrovasodilator therapy for severe respiratory distress syndrome. Journal of perinatology Benitz, W. E., Rhine, W. D., Van Meurs, K. P., Stevenson, D. K. 1996; 16 (6): 443-448

    Abstract

    Improved gas exchange in infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome has been reported in association with infusion of nitroprusside and during inhalation of nitric oxide. To evaluate the association between nitrovasodilator therapy and clinical improvement in premature neonates with severe respiratory distress syndrome, we reviewed the courses of 22 infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome who were treated with sodium nitroprusside for at least 24 hours. These infants had birth weights of 2049 +/- 828 gm (range 720 to 3430 gm), gestational ages of 32.5 +/- 3.5 weeks (range 25 to 38 weeks), high ventilator settings before treatment (FIO2 of 100%, peak inspiratory pressures of 37.8 +/- 6.1 cm H2O [range 30 to 50 cm H2O], and mean airway pressures of 18.0 +/- 3.3 cm H2O [range 12.3 to 26 cm H2O]), and low pretreatment PaO2 of 49.3 +/- 9.4 mm Hg (range 27 to 69 mm Hg). Baseline oxygenation indexes were 39.4 +/- 12.1 (range 18.6 to 66.7). Nitroprusside infusion was temporally associated with increased PaO2, decreased PaCO2, and reduced oxygenation index. Potentially beneficial changes were inconsistent in infants with pulmonary interstitial emphysema and were greatest in infants treated with end-expiratory pressures of at least 4 cm H2O. These observations provide a basis for the hypothesis that nitrovasodilator therapy produces improvement in gas exchange in premature infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome.

    View details for PubMedID 8979182

  • CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION FOR HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH SENGERS-SYNDROME ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Robbins, R. C., Bernstein, D., Berry, G. J., VanMeurs, K. P., Frankel, L. R., Reitz, B. A. 1995; 60 (5): 1425-1427

    Abstract

    Sengers' syndrome is a rare condition consisting of congenital cataracts, mitochondrial myopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The syndrome is transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. Progressive cardiac failure is the cause of death in most patients. This report describes cardiac transplantation for the treatment of the cardiomyopathy associated with Sengers' syndrome.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TE95600056

    View details for PubMedID 8526648

  • INHALED NITRIC-OXIDE DOES NOT ALTER THE LONGITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION OF PULMONARY VASCULAR-RESISTANCE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY LINDEBORG, D. M., Kavanagh, B. P., VANMEURS, K., Pearl, R. G. 1995; 78 (1): 341-348

    Abstract

    Because the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) may be localized to its site of delivery, we studied the effects of inhaled NO on the longitudinal distribution of pulmonary vascular resistance during pulmonary hypertension in perfused rabbit lungs. Before NO administration, pulmonary hypertension was produced by infusion of the thromboxane A2 mimetic U-46619 in all lungs. Pulmonary vascular resistance was divided into arterial, microvascular, and venous components by arterial and venous occlusion techniques. In the buffer-perfused lung, all doses of inhaled NO (5, 20, and 80 ppm) produced small decreases (approximately 3 mmHg) in pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), with equivalent proportional reductions in all segmental vascular resistances. Similar results were obtained after an extended inhaled NO dose range of 20, 80, and 240 ppm. In the buffer-perfused lung, inhibition of endogenous NO synthesis with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) potentiated the effects of U-46619. Subsequent inhaled NO administration produced larger decreases (approximately 7 mmHg) in Ppa with equivalent proportional reductions in all segmental vascular resistances. In the blood-perfused lung, L-NAME did not alter baseline pulmonary pressures. Administration of inhaled NO during U-46619-induced pulmonary hypertension produced dose-related decreases in Ppa. The highest dose (80 ppm) of inhaled NO decreased Ppa by 3.5 mmHg, with equivalent proportional reductions in all segmental vascular resistances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QC30100049

    View details for PubMedID 7713835

  • LOBAR LUNG TRANSPLANTATION AS A TREATMENT FOR CONGENITAL DIAPHRAGMATIC-HERNIA JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC SURGERY VanMeurs, K. P., Rhine, W. D., Benitz, W. E., Shochat, S. J., Hartman, G. E., Sheehan, A. M., Starnes, V. A. 1994; 29 (12): 1557-1560

    Abstract

    The mortality rate for infants severely affected with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains high despite significant advances in surgical and neonatal intensive care including delayed repair and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Because of the increasingly successful experience with single-lung transplantation in adults; this approach has been suggested as a potential treatment for CDH infants with unsalvageable pulmonary hypoplasia. The authors report on a newborn female infant who was the product of a pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios. At birth, she was found to have a right-sided CDH and initially was treated with preoperative ECMO, followed by delayed surgical repair. Despite the CDH repair and apparent resolution of pulmonary hypertension, the infant's condition deteriorated gradually after decannulation, and escalating ventilator settings were required as well as neuromuscular paralysis and pressor support because of progressive hypoxemia and hypercarbia. A lung transplant was performed 8 days after decannulation, using the right lung obtained from a 6-week-old donor. The right middle lobe was excised because of the size discrepancy between the donor and recipient. After transplantation, the patient was found to have duodenal stenosis and gastroesophageal reflux, which required duodenoduodenostomy and fundoplication. The patient was discharged from the hospital 90 days posttransplantation, at 3 1/2 months of age. Currently she is 24 months old and doing well except for poor growth. This case shows the feasibility of single-lung transplantation for infants with CDH, and the potential use of ECMO as a temporary bridge to transplantation. Lobar lung transplantation allowed for less stringent size constraints for the donor lung.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PW61200018

    View details for PubMedID 7877027

  • INTRACRANIAL ABNORMALITIES AND NEURODEVELOPMENTAL STATUS AFTER VENOVENOUS EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE-OXYGENATION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS VanMeurs, K. P., Nguyen, H. T., Rhine, W. D., Marks, M. P., Fleisher, B. E., Benitz, W. E. 1994; 125 (2): 304-307

    Abstract

    Computed tomography scans of the head and early neurodevelopmental assessment (Bayley Scales of Infant development) were recorded for 24 surviving infants who received venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and were compared with those of infants treated with venoarterial bypass matched by diagnosis and oxygenation index before extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A comparable neuroradiographic and early neurodevelopmental outcome was documented for survivors of venoarterial and venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PA95200025

    View details for PubMedID 8040782

  • CONGENITAL DIAPHRAGMATIC-HERNIA - LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN NEONATES TREATED WITH EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE-OXYGENATION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS VanMeurs, K. P., ROBBINS, S. T., Reed, V. L., Karr, S. S., Wagner, A. E., Glass, P., Anderson, K. D., Short, B. L. 1993; 122 (6): 893-899

    Abstract

    As more infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survive with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), it seems prudent to detail the longterm outcome in these medically complex infants. Eighteen children with CDH-treated with postoperative ECMO were recruited for participation in this study. The mean duration of ECMO was 193 hours (range 82 to 493 hours), mean time to extubation after ECMO was 142 hours (range 34 to 312 hours), and median duration of hospitalization was 46 days (range 30 to 181 days). Of the 18 infants, 4 (22%) were discharged home requiring oxygen therapy. At follow-up the notable findings were a high incidence of gastroesophageal reflux and failure to thrive. At both 1 and 2 years of age, 50% of infants were at less than the 5th percentile for weight. At 1 and 2 years of age, 39% and 21%, respectively, were at less than the 5th percentile for weight/length ratio. A total of 16 children (89%) had clinical evidence of reflux, and 8 (44%) were discharged home on a regimen of nasogastric feedings. Reherniation occurred in 4 children (22%) and was more frequent when a patch was used. An electrocardiogram showed right ventricular hypertrophy in 6 (43%); oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry was > 95% in all children, and pulmonary artery pressure was estimated by Doppler echocardiography to be normal in 12 of 14 children examined. The neurodevelopmental outcome (Bayley Scales or Stanford-Binet scale) at 1 to 4 years of age was not dissimilar from that of other ECMO-treated children. Given the severity of illness in the neonatal period, the general health and development of children with CDH surviving after ECMO are good. Surprisingly few children have long-term respiratory complications related to pulmonary hypoplasia. Follow-up in the first few years should be aimed at aggressive nutritional intervention to prevent the growth failure that appears to be prevalent in these children.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LF55200009

    View details for PubMedID 8501565

  • EXTRACORPOREAL LIFE-SUPPORT - ISSUES OF WHO, WHEN, WHY, AND HOW CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE VanMeurs, K. P., Frankel, L. R., Pearl, R. G. 1992; 20 (9): 1200-1202

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JN86900003

    View details for PubMedID 1521433

  • In vitro testing of the 0.6 M2 SciMed membrane oxygenator J Extra Corpor Technol Van Meurs KP, Mikesell GT, Hearty JP III, Seale WR, Rivera O, Short BL. 1992; 23 (2): 49-53
  • A FLOW CYTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF LYMPHOCYTE SUBPOPULATIONS IN NEONATES UNDERGOING EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE-OXYGENATION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS DePalma, L., Short, B. L., VANMEURS, K., LUBAN, N. L. 1991; 118 (1): 117-120

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EU22200026

    View details for PubMedID 1986078

  • EFFECT OF EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE-OXYGENATION ON SURVIVAL OF INFANTS WITH CONGENITAL DIAPHRAGMATIC-HERNIA JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS VanMeurs, K. P., Newman, K. D., Anderson, K. D., Short, B. L. 1990; 117 (6): 954-960

    Abstract

    To determine the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) on the survival of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, we undertook a retrospective review of 31 infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia treated at Children's National Medical Center. Infants were categorized by means of the Bohn quadrant analysis to determine the impact of ECMO on infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and a "poor prognosis." All infants assigned to the Bohn 100% mortality quadrant required ECMO. The survival rate in this group was 86% (6/7) when assessed preoperatively and 67% (6/9) when assessed postoperatively. Comparison of the change occurring in ventilation index and arterial carbon dioxide pressure demonstrated that after repair the clinical condition of 48% of infants deteriorated, 40% improved, and 12% remained unchanged. Of the 12 infants whose condition was worse after surgery, 11 eventually required ECMO. Our review demonstrates that ECMO improved survival significantly in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia who had a "poor prognosis" by the criteria of Bohn et al. We recommend consideration of ECMO for all infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia for whom maximal medical therapy has failed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EM11600025

    View details for PubMedID 2246699

  • Maximum blood flow rates for arterial cannulae used in neonatal ECMO. ASAIO transactions / American Society for Artificial Internal Organs Van Meurs, K. P., Mikesell, G. T., Seale, W. R., Short, B. L., Rivera, O. 1990; 36 (3): M679-81

    Abstract

    The arterial cannulae used in neonatal ECMO cause hemolysis and red blood cell damage at elevated blood flows. Hemolysis in extracorporeal circuits has been found to occur with shear stress greater than 132 dynes/cm2, turbulence as measured by Reynold's number greater than 1,000, and velocity greater than 120 to 200 cm/sec. These parameters need to be considered when sizing the proper arterial cannula for a required flow rate. In-vitro measurements of the pressure drop across six arterial cannulae at varying flow rates were performed using human blood with a hematocrit of 43%. Shear stress, Reynold's number, velocity, and pressure drop were calculated for each catheter at flow rates from 50 to 1,000 cc/min. The maximum mean flow rate to maintain the shear stress, Reynold's number, velocity, and pressure drop within the accepted range, was determined for each cannula. Recommended maximum blood flow rates for each of the six cannulae are given. Internal diameter, length, and cannula geometry appear to be the factors most affecting the flow achievable without causing red blood cell damage and hemolysis. Ten French Biomedicus, 10 French Cook, and 10 French Elecath arterial cannulae appear best suited to deliver the range of blood flow rates used in neonatal ECMO.

    View details for PubMedID 2252781

  • MULTIPLE FORMS OF G0-ALPHA MESSENGER-RNA - ANALYSIS OF THE 3'-UNTRANSLATED REGIONS BIOCHEMISTRY Price, S. R., Murtagh, J. J., Tsuchiya, M., SERVENTI, I. M., VanMeurs, K. P., Angus, C. W., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. 1990; 29 (21): 5069-5076

    Abstract

    Go, a guanine nucleotide binding protein found predominantly in neural tissues, interacts in vitro with rhodopsin, muscarinic, and other receptors and has been implicated in the regulation of ion channels. Despite the virtual identity of reported cDNA sequences for the alpha subunit of Go (Go alpha), multiple molecular weight forms of mRNA have been identified in tissues from all species examined. To investigate the molecular basis for the size heterogeneity of Go alpha mRNAs, four cDNA clones were isolated from the same retinal lambda gt10 cDNA library that was used earlier to isolate lambda GO9, a clone encompassing the complete coding region of Go alpha. These clones were identified as Go alpha clones based on nucleotide sequence identity with lambda GO9 in the coding region; they diverge, however, from lambda GO9 in the 3'-untranslated region 28 nucleotides past the stop codon. An oligonucleotide probe complementary to a portion of the 3'-untranslated region of lambda GO9 that differs from the newly isolated clones hybridized with 3.0- and 4.0-kb mRNAs present in bovine brain and retina whereas a similar probe for the unique region of the new clones hybridized with a 4.0-kb mRNA in both tissues and with a 2.0-kb mRNA found predominantly in retina. A similar hybridization pattern was observed when brain poly(A+) RNA from other species was hybridized with the different 3'-untranslated region probes. It appears that differences in the 3'-untranslated regions could, in part, be the basis for the observed heterogeneity in Go alpha mRNAs.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DF84300011

    View details for PubMedID 2116165

  • Signal transduction by guanine nucleotide-binding proteins: possible molecular basis for multiple forms of Go alpha mRNA. Transactions of the Association of American Physicians Murtagh, J. J., Price, S. R., Van Meurs, K. P., Angus, C. W., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. 1988; 101: 235-241

    View details for PubMedID 3152020

  • DEDUCED AMINO-ACID-SEQUENCE OF BOVINE RETINAL GO-ALPHA - SIMILARITIES TO OTHER GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE-BINDING PROTEINS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA VanMeurs, K. P., Angus, C. W., Lavu, S., Kung, H. F., Czarnecki, S. K., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. 1987; 84 (10): 3107-3111

    Abstract

    A bovine retinal cDNA clone encoding the complete sequence (354 amino acids) of Go alpha, a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein), was isolated by using oligonucleotide probes complementary to published sequences in two putative clones for the alpha subunit of bovine transducin (T alpha). The deduced amino acid sequence contained sequences identical to those in seven tryptic peptides (total 63 amino acids) from bovine brain Go alpha. The cDNA for bovine retinal Go alpha exhibits greater than 90% identity in both coding and 3' untranslated regions with a recently described partial cDNA clone for Go alpha from rat brain [Itoh, H., Kozasa, T., Nagata, S., Nakamura, S., Katada, T., Ui, M., Iwai, S., Ohtsuka, E., Kawasaki, H., Suzuki, K. & Kaziro, Y. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 3776-3780]. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the bovine Go alpha clone with those previously reported for other G proteins of bovine origin (Gs alpha, Gi alpha, and T alpha) reveals extensive regions identical to those surrounding the amino acids modified by cholera toxin and pertussis toxin. There are also marked similarities of sequence in regions of the G proteins, elongation factors, and the ras p21 gene products that are believed to be involved in guanine nucleotide binding and GTP hydrolysis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H388200007

    View details for PubMedID 3106961

  • IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBABLE SITE OF CHOLERAGEN-CATALYZED ADP-RIBOSYLATION IN A GO-ALPHA-LIKE PROTEIN BASED ON CDNA SEQUENCE PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Angus, C. W., VanMeurs, K. P., Tsai, S. C., Adamik, R., MIEDEL, M. C., Pan, Y. C., Kung, H. F., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. 1986; 83 (16): 5813-5816

    Abstract

    Go alpha, a 39-kDa guanyl nucleotide-binding protein, is functionally and structurally similar to the alpha subunits of the stimulatory and inhibitory guanyl nucleotide-binding proteins (Gs alpha, Gi alpha) of adenylate cyclase and to the alpha subunit of transducin (T alpha), the guanyl nucleotide-binding protein of the retinal photon reception system. A cDNA clone was isolated from a bovine retinal lambda gt10 library by using oligonucleotide probes complementary to sequences in two putative T alpha clones. Partial sequence analysis revealed a deduced amino acid sequence identical to sequences of four tryptic peptides from bovine brain Go alpha. Gs alpha and T alpha are known to serve as substrates for ADP-ribosylation by choleragen. Other workers have established the sequence of the tetrapeptide in T alpha containing the arginine that is ADP-ribosylated and its location in the amino acid sequence deduced from T alpha cDNA. The Go alpha cDNA described here includes a region encoding an amino acid sequence very similar to that surrounding the ADP-ribosylation site in T alpha, consistent with observations that Go alpha can also be a substrate for choleragen. A corresponding sequence in the recently identified Gs alpha cDNA is less homologous to that in T alpha or Go alpha. The reported differences in conditions that promote choleragen-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha vs. Go alpha could be related to differences in amino acid sequence in the region of the acceptor arginine.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D754900014

    View details for PubMedID 3090546

Conference Proceedings


  • HYPOXIC ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IN THE COOLING ERA: SHORT TERM OUTCOMES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA Kracer, B., Hintz, S. R., Van Meurs, K. P., Lee, H. C. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2013: 166-166
  • Venoarterial versus venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry, 1990-1999 Dimmitt, R. A., Moss, R. L., Rhine, W. D., Benitz, W. E., Henry, M. C., VanMeurs, K. P. W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. 2001: 1199-1204

    Abstract

    Venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) traditionally has been the mode of support used in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). A few studies report success using venovenous (VV) ECMO. The purpose of this study is to compare outcomes in CDH patients treated with VA and VV.The authors queried the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry for newborns with CDH treated with ECMO from January 1, 1990 through December 31, 1999. They analyzed the pre-ECMO data, ECMO course, and complications.VA was utilized in 2,257 (86%) and VV in 371 (14%) patients. The pre-ECMO status was similar, with greater use of nitric oxide, surfactant, and pressors in VV. Survival rate was similar (58.4% for VV and 52.2% for VA, P =.057). VA was associated with more seizures (12.3% v 6.7%, P =.0024) and cerebral infarction (10.5% v 6.7%, P =.03). Sixty-four treatments were converted from VV to VA (VV-->VA). Survival rate in VV-->VA was not significantly different than VA (43.8% v 52.2%, respectively; P =.23). VV-->VA and VA patients had similar neurologic complications.CDH patients treated with VV and VA have similar survival rates. VA had more neurologic complications. The authors identified no disadvantage to the use of VV as an initial mode of ECMO for CDH, although some infants may need conversion to VA.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/jpsu.2001.25762

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170120300021

    View details for PubMedID 11479856

  • EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE-OXYGENATION AND CONGENITAL DIAPHRAGMATIC-HERNIA - SHOULD ANY INFANT BE EXCLUDED Newman, K. D., Anderson, K. D., VANMEURS, K., Parson, S., Loe, W., Short, B. W B SAUNDERS CO. 1990: 1048-1053

    Abstract

    Mortality in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains high despite improvements in neonatal and surgical care because many infants develop persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) following repair. Since 1984, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used as rescue therapy in all infants (n = 25) with PPHN following CDH repair when conventional management failed, with an overall survival of 60%. Repair was performed in this hospital on 12 infants and in other hospitals in 13 infants transferred for consideration of ECMO after repair. Mortality was the same in the group repaired here and those transferred for ECMO. Although complications were frequent in the surviving group, they were successfully managed with nonoperative or operative therapy. Selective use of ECMO has been advocated in CDH patients based on various predictors of high mortality such as "best" PO2 postrepair less than 100 mm Hg, oxygenation index greater than 40, and ventilation index greater than 1,000 with PCO2 greater than 40. Seven surviving infants following ECMO would have been classified as unsalvageable by at least one parameter if selection criteria based on these parameters had been used. We conclude from this series that current predictors of high mortality in CDH patients are unreliable when ECMO is used. Surgeons caring for infants with CDH should consider the use of ECMO in all infants.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EC27000008

    View details for PubMedID 2262856

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