Bio

Bio


Dr. Laleh Gharahbaghian was born in Iran and came to the United States at the young age of 3, growing up in San Diego where she became an avid beachgoer and body surfer. She started volunteering at various community organizations, including the AIDS Foundation and San Diego's Youth and Community Services, at the age of 16 due to her commitment for giving back to the community in areas where not many would tread. This is why she created the Determined Advocates for Social Health at UCSD while an undergraduate, which began her interest in the field of medicine. Working in the 911 dispatch center and on a paramedic unit in the years before entering medical school, her interest in emergency medicine flourished.

She is an academic emergency physician who completed her fellowship in Emergency Ultrasound in 2007 at Stanford and remained on the Stanford faculty, now serving as Assistant Medical Director for Emergency Imaging and the Director of the Emergency Ultrasound program and fellowship. Her interests include ultrasound in medical education, quality improvement, resident education, and simulation-based ultrasound training, including procedural skills training and case-based learning for ultrasound interpretation and integration. Her research involves the study of various point-of-care ultrasound applications in the management of critical patients, in the screening of trauma patients, and in its education through simulation models. She is a leader in the national bedside ultrasound educational impact, has lead several very successful educational innovations in emergency ultrasound, including her internationally-known blog, SonoSpot.com, and being the first to create an online ultrasound-focused educational opportunity through gamification with SonoDoc. Due to her belief that adding ultrasound can enhance learning of the human body and disease while quickening diagnises and life-saving interventions, she has co-directed UltraFest, a free national medical student ultrasound symposium at Stanford, and travels internationally to provide educational sessions on ultrasound integration into emergency practice at various developed and underdeveloped countries and rural village clinics. She continues to direct bi-annual ultrasound CME workshops and instruct at several successful national CME ultrasound workshops, including at the national scientific assembly for the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and Stanford's Point-of-Care Ultrasound Workshop.

She is the Co-Chair of ACEP's Ultrasound Section Newsletter that publishes interesting cases and topics in bedside ultrasound quarterly and is a Faculty Mentor in the Chief Resident and Fellowship Incubator for the internationally known Academic Life in Emergency Medicine group. These educational efforts and her supervisory role in the emergency department have resulted in many faculty teaching awards. By being the Co-Chair of the Professional Performance and Evaluation Committee and continuing to work in the emergency department to care for her patients, she continues to be an advocate for social health, providing the highest quality of care, and ensuring that all patients and their family members feel assured that they are in good hands.

Clinical Focus


  • Emergency Medicine
  • Bedside Ultrasound
  • Quality Care

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Assistant Medical Director, Emergency Imaging, Department of Emergency Medicine (2016 - Present)
  • Co-Chair, Professional Performance and Evaluation Committee, Emergency Medicine (2016 - Present)
  • Patient Safety Champion, Stanford HealthCare, Emergency Department (2016 - Present)
  • Trauma Liaison, Department of Emergency Medicine (2016 - Present)
  • Radiology Liaison, Department of Emergency Medicine (2014 - Present)
  • Director, Emergency Ultrasound Fellowship (2013 - Present)
  • Director, Stanford Emergency Ultrasound (2011 - Present)
  • Co-Director, Emergency Ultrasound Fellowship (2008 - 2013)
  • Associate Director, Stanford Emergency Ultrasound (2008 - 2011)

Honors & Awards


  • Annual Faculty Clinical Teaching - Honorable Mention, Stanford Emergency Medicine (2016)
  • Certificate of Achievement, ACEP American Association of Women in Emergency Medicine (2016)
  • Annual Faculty Clinical Teaching- Honorable Mention, Stanford Emergency Medicine (2015)
  • Top Section Editor of the Year, Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (2014)
  • Alumni of the Year, University of California, Irvine, Department of Emergency Medicine (2012)
  • Quarterly Faculty Clinical Teaching Award, Stanford Emergency Medicine (2012)
  • Annual Faculty Clinical Teaching Award, Stanford Emergency Medicine (2011)
  • Quarterly Faculty Clinical Teaching Award, Stanford Emergency Medicine (2007)
  • Resident of the Year, University of California, Irvine, Department of Emergency Medicine (2007)
  • Cal-ACEP Scientific Assembly Best Research Project, CalACEP (2006)
  • Long Beach Memorial Medical Center Applause Award for Outstanding Service, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center (2005)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Co-Chair, Professional Performance and Evaluation committee, Emergency Medicine (2016 - Present)
  • Mentor, AAEM/RSA blog (2016 - Present)
  • Mentor, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine, Fellowship Incubator (2016 - Present)
  • Patient Safety Champion, Emergency Medicine/Stanford HealthCare (2016 - Present)
  • Interim Director, Professional Performance and Evaluation Committee, Emergency Medicine (2016 - 2016)
  • Mentor, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine, Chief Resident Incubator (2015 - Present)
  • Voting Member/Reviewer, ACEP Clinical Ultrasound Accreditation Program (2015 - Present)
  • Co-Chair, ACEP Ultrasound Section Newsletter (2014 - Present)
  • Clinical Liaison, Radiology, Department of Emergency Medicine (2012 - Present)
  • Section Author, ACEP Ultrasound Section Newsletter, Tips & Tricks (2012 - Present)
  • Voting Member, Professional Performance and Evaluation Committee, Emergency Medicine (2012 - Present)
  • Member, Education Committee- Ultrasound, Cal ACEP (2009 - 2013)
  • Section Editor/Reviewer, Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Ultrasound (2008 - Present)
  • Resident Respresentative, CalAAEM/WestJEM (2006 - 2007)
  • Steering Committee Member, Emergency Medicine Residents' Association (2005 - 2006)
  • Resident Representative, Emergency Medicine Residents' Association (2004 - 2006)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification: Emergency Medicine, American Board of Emergency Medicine (2008)
  • Fellowship, Stanford University, Emergency Ultrasound Fellowship (2008)
  • Residency:UCI Medical Center Dept of Emergency Medicine (2007) CA
  • Medical Education:UC Irvine School of Medicine (2004) CA

Community and International Work


  • Professor, all countries

    Topic

    Ultrasound

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Ultrasound Leadership Academy

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Lecturer, Nepal

    Topic

    Pre-hospital care

    Partnering Organization(s)

    SEMI

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • EMRI, Hydrabad, India

    Topic

    Pre-hospital care

    Partnering Organization(s)

    EMRI

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Volunteer Physician, Roatan, Honduras

    Topic

    Emergency Care

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Clinica Esperanza

    Populations Served

    Underserved

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Ultrasound Education, Guatemala, Iran, India, Mexico

    Topic

    Emergency ultrasound

    Populations Served

    villagers, clinics

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Emergency Ultrasound,
Resident Education,
Interesting Cases,
Visual Diagnosis

Projects


  • SonoDoc, online

    A case-based bedside ultrasound management online game - CME and non-CME

    Location

    online

  • SonoSpot

    The "spot" for learning bedside ultrasound online - an online blog to teach bedside ultrasound utilization through discussing tutorials, cases, research studies, and more.

    Location

    international

  • Stanford UltraFest

    A free national medical student symposium to expose bedside ultrasound utilization in all fields of medicine

    Location

    Stanford, CA

Teaching

Publications

All Publications


  • Integration of Ultrasound in Undergraduate Medical Education at the California Medical Schools: A Discussion of Common Challenges and Strategies From the UMeCali Experience. Journal of ultrasound in medicine Chiem, A. T., Soucy, Z., Dinh, V. A., Chilstrom, M., Gharahbaghian, L., Shah, V., Medak, A., Nagdev, A., Jang, T., Stark, E., Hussain, A., Lobo, V., Pera, A., Fox, J. C. 2016; 35 (2): 221-233

    Abstract

    Since the first medical student ultrasound electives became available more than a decade ago, ultrasound in undergraduate medical education has gained increasing popularity. More than a dozen medical schools have fully integrated ultrasound education in their curricula, with several dozen more institutions planning to follow suit. Starting in June 2012, a working group of emergency ultrasound faculty at the California medical schools began to meet to discuss barriers as well as innovative approaches to implementing ultrasound education in undergraduate medical education. It became clear that an ongoing collaborative could be formed to discuss barriers, exchange ideas, and lend support for this initiative. The group, termed Ultrasound in Medical Education, California (UMeCali), was formed with 2 main goals: to exchange ideas and resources in facilitating ultrasound education and to develop a white paper to discuss our experiences. Five common themes integral to successful ultrasound education in undergraduate medical education are discussed in this article: (1) initiating an ultrasound education program; (2) the role of medical student involvement; (3) integration of ultrasound in the preclinical years; (4) developing longitudinal ultrasound education; and (5) addressing competency.

    View details for DOI 10.7863/ultra.15.05006

    View details for PubMedID 26764278

  • Thymic Tumor Extension into the Heart, a Rare Finding Found by Point-of-Care Ultrasound. Cure¯us Kaufman, E., Hunter-Behrend, M., Leroux, E., Gharahbaghian, L., Lobo, V. 2016; 8 (8)

    Abstract

    We report a cardiac mass detected by point-of-care ultrasound performed within the emergency department on a 65-year-old male with thymic cancer who presented with chronic cough and fever. Results from the initial emergency workup, which included blood tests, urinalysis, and a computerized tomography with angiography scan with venous phasing of the chest, did not result in a definitive diagnosis. A point-of-care echocardiogram was performed to evaluate for possible infective endocarditis, but alternatively identified a large mass in the right atria and ventricle. The mass was later confirmed to be metastatic tumor from the patient's known thymic cancer. This case emphasizes the vital role ultrasound can play in the acute care setting.

    View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.724

    View details for PubMedID 27625910

  • Splenic Rupture Diagnosed with Bedside Ultrasound in a Patient with Shock in the Emergency Department Following Colonoscopy. The western journal of emergency medicine Mulkerin, W., Mitarai, T., Gharahbaghian, L., Perera, P. 2015; 16 (5): 758-759

    View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2015.6.27548

    View details for PubMedID 26587104

  • Prehospital Evaluation of Effusion, Pneumothorax, and Standstill (PEEPS): Point-of-care Ultrasound in Emergency Medical Services. The western journal of emergency medicine Bhat, S. R., Johnson, D. A., Pierog, J. E., Zaia, B. E., Williams, S. R., Gharahbaghian, L. 2015; 16 (4): 503-509

    Abstract

    In the United States, there are limited studies regarding use of prehospital ultrasound (US) by emergency medical service (EMS) providers. Field diagnosis of life-threatening conditions using US could be of great utility. This study assesses the ability of EMS providers and students to accurately interpret heart and lung US images.We tested certified emergency medical technicians (EMT-B) and paramedics (EMT-P) as well as EMT-B and EMT-P students enrolled in prehospital training programs within two California counties. Participants completed a pre-test of sonographic imaging of normal findings and three pathologic findings: pericardial effusion, pneumothorax, and cardiac standstill. A focused one-hour lecture on emergency US imaging followed. Post-tests were given to all EMS providers immediately following the lecture and to a subgroup one week later.We enrolled 57 prehospital providers (19 EMT-B students, 16 EMT-P students, 18 certified EMT-B, and 4 certified EMT-P). The mean pre-test score was 65.2%±12.7% with mean immediate post-test score of 91.1%±7.9% (95% CI [22%-30%], p<0.001). Scores significantly improved for all three pathologic findings. Nineteen subjects took the one-week post-test. Their mean score remained significantly higher: pre-test 65.8%±10.7%; immediate post-test 90.5%±7.0% (95% CI [19%-31%], p<0.001), one-week post-test 93.1%±8.3% (95% CI [21%-34%], p<0.001).Using a small sample of EMS providers and students, this study shows the potential feasibility for educating prehospital providers to accurately identify images of pericardial effusion, pneumothorax, and cardiac standstill after a focused lecture.

    View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2015.5.25414

    View details for PubMedID 26265961

  • Spontaneous pneumomediastinum on bedside ultrasound: case report and review of the literature. The western journal of emergency medicine Zachariah, S., Gharahbaghian, L., Perera, P., Joshi, N. 2015; 16 (2): 321-324

    Abstract

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare disease process with no clear etiology, although it is thought to be related to changes in intrathoracic pressure causing chest pain and dyspnea. We present a case of a 17-year-old male with acute chest pain evaluated initially by bedside ultrasound, which showed normal lung sliding but poor visualization of the parasternal and apical cardiac views due to significant air artifact, representing air in the thoracic cavity. The diagnosis was later verified by chest radiograph. We present a case report on ultrasound-diagnosed pneumomediastinum, and we review the diagnostic modalities to date.

    View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2015.1.24514

    View details for PubMedID 25834681

  • Diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum with bedside ultrasound. The western journal of emergency medicine Chao, A., Gharahbaghian, L., Perera, P. 2015; 16 (2): 302-?

    View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2014.12.24945

    View details for PubMedID 25834673

  • Clinical Correlation Needed: What Do Emergency Physicians Do After an Equivocal Ultrasound for Pediatric Acute Appendicitis? JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ULTRASOUND Ramarajan, N., Krishnamoorthi, R., Gharahbaghian, L., Pirrotta, E., Barth, R. A., Wang, N. E. 2014; 42 (7): 385-394

    Abstract

    Although follow-up CT is recommended for pediatric appendicitis if initial ultrasound (US) is equivocal, many physicians observe the patient at home. There are limited data to understand currently how common or safe this practice is. Our objectives are to assess prevalence of acute appendicitis and outcomes in patients with equivocal US with and without follow-up CT and to identify variables associated with ordering a follow-up CT.Retrospective analysis of the prevalence of appendicitis and outcomes of patients 1-18 years old with an equivocal US at a pediatric emergency department from 2003 to 2008. Recursive partitioning analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify variables associated with ordering follow-up CT.Fifty-five percent (340/620) of children with equivocal US did not receive CT, none of whom returned with a missed appendicitis. The prevalence of appendicitis in children with equivocal US was 12.5% (78/620). In children with follow-up CT, the prevalence was 22.1% (62/280); in those without follow-up CT, the prevalence was 4.7% (16/340). Recursive partitioning identified age >11 years, leukocytosis >15,000 cells/ml, and secondary signs predisposing toward acute appendicitis on US as significant predictors of CT.We view our study as a fundamental part of the incremental progress to understand how best to use US and CT imaging to diagnose pediatric appendicitis while minimizing ionizing radiation. Children at low risk for appendicitis with equivocal US are amenable to observation and reassessment prior to reimaging with US or CT.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jcu.22153

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340536300001

    View details for PubMedID 24700515

  • Cardiac Echocardiography CRITICAL CARE CLINICS Perera, P., Lobo, V., Williams, S. R., Gharahbaghian, L. 2014; 30 (1): 47-?

    Abstract

    Focused cardiac echocardiography has become a critical diagnostic tool for the emergency physician and critical care physician caring for patients in shock and following trauma to the chest, and those presenting with chest pain and shortness of breath,. Cardiac echocardiography allows for immediate diagnosis of pericardial effusions and cardiac tamponade, evaluation of cardiac contractility and volume status, and detection of right ventricular strain possibly seen with a significant pulmonary embolus. This article addresses how to perform cardiac echocardiography using the standard windows, how to interpret a focused goal-directed examination, and how to apply this information clinically at the bedside.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccc.2013.08.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329255600004

    View details for PubMedID 24295841

  • Resuscitation Ultrasound and Rapid Ultrasound in Shock in the Critically Ill Patient (The RUSH Exam). Decision Making in Emergency Critical Care: An Evidence-Based Handbook Perera, P., Gharahbaghian, L., Mailhot, T., Williams, S. R., Mandavia, D. Arbo J, Ruoss J, Lightall G and Jones M (Editors) Wolters-Kluwer Publications. 2014: 62-93
  • Ultrasound for Detection of Ascites and for Guidance of the Paracentesis Procedure: Technique and Review of the Literature International Journal of Clinical Medicine Ennis, J., Schultz, G., Perera, P., Williams, S. R., Gharahbaghian, L., Mandavia, D. 2014; 5: 1277-1293
  • Ultrasound for the Evaluation of Acute Cardiac Conditions and in the Resuscitation of the Critically Ill Patient Cardiac Emergencies-American College of Emergency Physicians Perera, P., Williams, S. R., Gharahbaghian, L. Bresler M, Mattu A (Editors). Dallas, Tx: American College of Emergency Physicians. 2014: 53-89
  • Interstitial Neuritis Masquerading as Acute Appendicitis: A Case Report Emergency Medicine-Open Access Lindquist, B., Gharahbaghian, L. 2014; 4 (4)
  • Thoracic Ultrasonography CRITICAL CARE CLINICS Lobo, V., Weingrow, D., Perera, P., Williams, S. R., Gharahbaghian, L. 2014; 30 (1): 93-?

    Abstract

    Thoracic ultrasonography (US) has proved to be a valuable tool in the evaluation of the patient with shortness of breath, chest pain, hypoxia, or after chest trauma. Its sensitivity and specificity for detecting disease is higher than that of a chest radiograph, and it can expedite the diagnosis for many emergent conditions. This article describes the technique of each thoracic US application, illustrating both normal and abnormal findings, as well as discussing the literature. Bedside thoracic US has defined imaging benefits in a wide range of thoracic disease, and US guidance has been shown to facilitate thoracic and airway procedures.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccc.2013.08.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329255600005

    View details for PubMedID 24295842

  • The FAST and E-FAST in 2013: Trauma Ultrasonography Overview, Practical Techniques, Controversies, and New Frontiers CRITICAL CARE CLINICS Williams, S. R., Perera, P., Gharahbaghian, L. 2014; 30 (1): 119-?

    Abstract

    This article reviews important literature on the FAST and E-FAST examinations in adults. It also reviews key pitfalls, limitations, and controversies. A practical "how-to" guide is presented. Lastly, new frontiers are explored.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccc.2013.08.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329255600006

  • FOCUSED CARDIAC ULTRASOUND TRAINING: HOW MUCH IS ENOUGH? JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE Chisholm, C. B., Dodge, W. R., Balise, R. R., Williams, S. R., Gharahbaghian, L., Beraud, A. 2013; 44 (4): 818-822

    Abstract

    Focused transthoracic echocardiography (F-TTE) is an important tool to assess hemodynamically unstable patients in the Emergency Department. Although its scope has been defined by the American College of Emergency Physicians, more research is needed to define an optimal F-TTE training program, including assessment of proficiency.The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of current standards in post-residency training to reach proficiency in F-TTE.Fourteen staff Emergency Physicians were enrolled in a standardized teaching curriculum specifically designed to meet the 2008 American College of Emergency Physicians' guidelines for general ultrasound training applied to echocardiography. This training program consisted of 6 h of didactics and 6 h of scanning training, followed by independent scanning over a 5-month period. Acquisition of echocardiographic knowledge was assessed by an online pre- and post-test. At the conclusion of the study, a hands-on skills test assessed the trainees' ability to perform and interpret F-TTE.Ninety percent of trainees passed the written post-test. Two views, the parasternal long and short axis, were easily obtainable, regardless of the level of training or the number of ultrasounds completed. Other views were more difficult to master, but strong trends toward increased competency were evident after 10 h of mixed didactic and scanning training and > 45 ultrasounds.A short, 12-h didactic training in F-TTE provided proficiency in image interpretation and in obtaining adequate images from the parasternal window. More extensive training is needed to master the apical and subcostal windows in a timely manner.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.07.092

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317282000024

  • Ultrasound Guided Peripheral Nerve Blocks Introduction to Bedside Ultrasound Lobo, V., Gharahbaghian, L. Dawson M., Mallin M (Editors) Emergency Ultrasund Solutions. 2013
  • USE OF CADAVER MODELS IN POINT-OF-CARE EMERGENCY ULTRASOUND EDUCATION FOR DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATIONS JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE Zaia, B. E., Briese, B., Williams, S. R., Gharahbaghian, L. 2012; 43 (4): 683-691

    Abstract

    As the use of bedside emergency ultrasound (US) increases, so does the need for effective US education.To determine 1) what pathology can be reliably simulated and identified by US in human cadavers, and 2) feasibility of using cadavers to improve the comfort of emergency medicine (EM) residents with specific US applications.This descriptive, cross-sectional survey study assessed utility of cadaver simulation to train EM residents in diagnostic US. First, the following pathologies were simulated in a cadaver: orbital foreign body (FB), retrobulbar (RB) hematoma, bone fracture, joint effusion, and pleural effusion. Second, we assessed residents' change in comfort level with US after using this cadaver model. Residents were surveyed regarding their comfort level with various US applications. After brief didactic sessions on the study's US applications, participants attempted to identify the simulated pathology using US. A post-lab survey assessed for change in comfort level after the training.Orbital FB, RB hematoma, bone fracture, joint effusion, and pleural effusion were readily modeled in a cadaver in ways typical of a live patient. Twenty-two residents completed the pre- and post-lab surveys. After training with cadavers, residents' comfort improved significantly for orbital FB and RB hematoma (mean increase 1.6, p<0.001), bone fracture (mean increase 2.12, p<0.001), and joint effusion (1.6, p<0.001); 100% of residents reported that they found US education using cadavers helpful.Cadavers can simulate orbital FB, RB hematoma, bone fracture, joint effusion, and pleural effusion, and in our center improved the comfort of residents in identifying all but pleural effusion.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.01.057

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309576700044

    View details for PubMedID 22504086

  • Sonographic Identification of Tube Thoracostomy Study (SITTS): Confirmation of Intrathoracic Placement. The western journal of emergency medicine Jenkins, J. A., Gharahbaghian, L., Doniger, S. J., Bradley, S., Crandall, S., Spain, D. A., Williams, S. R. 2012; 13 (4): 305-311

    Abstract

    Thoracostomy tubes (TT) are commonly placed in the management of surgical, emergency, and trauma patients and chest radiographs (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) are performed to confirm placement. Ultrasound (US) has not previously been used as a means to confirm intrathoracic placement of chest tubes. This study involves a novel application of US to demonstrate chest tubes passing through the pleural line, thus confirming intrathoracic placement.This was an observational proof-of-concept study using a convenience sample of patients with TTs at a tertiary-care university hospital. Bedside US was performed by the primary investigator using first the low-frequency (5-1 MHz) followed by the high-frequency (10-5 MHz) transducers, in both 2-dimensional gray-scale and M-modes in a uniform manner. The TTs were identified in transverse and longitudinal views by starting at the skin entry point and scanning to where the TT passed the pleural line, entering the intrathoracic region. All US images were reviewed by US fellowship-trained emergency physicians. CXRs and CTs were used as the standard for confirmation of TT placement.Seventeen patients with a total of 21 TTs were enrolled. TTs were visualized entering the intrathoracic space in 100% of cases. They were subjectively best visualized with the high-frequency (10-5 MHz) linear transducer. Sixteen TTs were evaluated using M-mode. TTs produced a distinct pattern on M-mode.Bedside US can visualize the TT and its entrance into the thoracic cavity and it can distinguish it from the pleural line by a characteristic M-mode pattern. This is best visualized with the high-frequency (10-5 MHz) linear transducer.

    View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2011.10.6680

    View details for PubMedID 22942927

  • Anorexia Nervosa A Case Report of a Teenager Presenting With Bradycardia, General Fatigue, and Weakness PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE Grover, C. A., Robin, J. K., Gharahbaghian, L. 2012; 28 (2): 174-177

    Abstract

    Anorexia nervosa is a disease with high prevalence in adolescents and carries the highest mortality of any psychiatric disorder.We present a case of a 17-year-old female presenting to the emergency department with bradycardia that was subsequently diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. We also review the clinical features, diagnosis, complications, and emergency department management of this disease.Patients with anorexia may present with multiple medical complaints, and it is imperative that the emergency physician be familiar with the syndrome so as to correctly identify and treat patients with this disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300339500018

    View details for PubMedID 22307188

  • Where is the fetal heartbeat? Pearls and Pitfalls for Bedside Ultrasound in Early Pregnancy Avoiding Common Errors in the Emergency Department Lin, B., Gharahbaghian, L. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012; 1: 852-854
  • : If Only Joint Disease was Crystal Clear - Crystal Arthropathies do not Preclude a Septic Joint Avoiding Common Errors in the Emergency Department Raghunathan, A., Gharahbaghian, L. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012; 1: 409-411
  • Cholecystitis: Don’t rely on your physical exam, but rely on your ultrasound Avoiding Common Errors in the Emergency Department Bass, A., Gharahbaghian, L. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012; 1: 839-841
  • Emergency Echocardiography and IVC Evaluation (Appendix) An Introduction to Clinical Emergency Medicine: Guide for Practitioners in the Emergency Department Williams, S. R., Gharahbaghian, L. Mahadevan & Garmel (eds), Cambridge University Press. 2012; 2
  • . It’s Not the Machine’s Fault! Using Basic System Controls to Improve your Ultrasound Images Avoiding Common Errors in the Emergency Department Robin, J. K., Gharahbaghian, L. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012; 1: 861-863
  • Know the Causes of Back Pain that Kill Patients Avoiding Common Errors in the Emergency Department Kassel, M., Gharahbaghian, L. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012; 1: 412-414
  • Chest Ultrasound for Pneumothorax (Appendix) An Introduction to Clinical Emergency Medicine: Guide for Practitioners in the Emergency Department Williams, S. R., Gharahbaghian, L. Mahadevan & Garmel (eds); Cambridge University Press. 2012; 2
  • Ultrasound Evaluation for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (Appendix) An Introduction to Clinical Emergency Medicine: Guide for Practitioners in the Emergency Department Williams, S. R., Gharahbaghian, L. Mahadevan & Garmel (eds), Cambridge University Press. 2012; 2
  • Just the Facts: Emergency Ultrasound Applications (Appendix) An Introduction to Clinical Emergency Medicine Williams, S. R., Gharahbaghian, L. Mahadevan SV, Garmel GM (eds): Cambridge University Press. 2012; 2
  • Is It a Pericardial Effusion or is it not? Pitfalls in the Use of Limited Bedside Echocardiography Avoiding Common Errors in the Emergency Department Rossi, J., Crandall, S., Gharahbaghian, L. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012; 1: 841-843
  • Do Not Assume that Synovial Fluid Analysis in 100% Accurate the Diagnosis of Septic Arthritis Avoiding Common Errors in the Emergency Department Baine, J., Gharahbaghian, L. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012; 1: 407-408
  • Unilateral facial swelling with fever. Parotitis. Annals of emergency medicine Grover, C. A., Gharahbaghian, L. 2011; 58 (6): e5-6

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2011.06.017

    View details for PubMedID 22099003

  • Test characteristics of focused assessment of sonography for trauma for clinically significant abdominal free fluid in pediatric blunt abdominal trauma. Academic emergency medicine Fox, J. C., Boysen, M., Gharahbaghian, L., Cusick, S., Ahmed, S. S., Anderson, C. L., Lekawa, M., Langdorf, M. I. 2011; 18 (5): 477-482

    Abstract

    Focused assessment of sonography in trauma (FAST) has been shown useful to detect clinically significant hemoperitoneum in adults, but not in children. The objectives were to determine test characteristics for clinically important intraperitoneal free fluid (FF) in pediatric blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) using computed tomography (CT) or surgery as criterion reference and, second, to determine the test characteristics of FAST to detect any amount of intraperitoneal FF as detected by CT.This was a prospective observational study of consecutive children (0-17 years) who required trauma team activation for BAT and received either CT or laparotomy between 2004 and 2007. Experienced physicians performed and interpreted FAST. Clinically important FF was defined as moderate or greater amount of intraperitoneal FF per the radiologist CT report or surgery.The study enrolled 431 patients, excluded 74, and analyzed data on 357. For the first objective, 23 patients had significant hemoperitoneum (22 on CT and one at surgery). Twelve of the 23 had true-positive FAST (sensitivity = 52%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 31% to 73%). FAST was true negative in 321 of 334 (specificity = 96%; 95% CI = 93% to 98%). Twelve of 25 patients with positive FAST had significant FF on CT (positive predictive value [PPV] = 48%; 95% CI = 28% to 69%). Of 332 patients with negative FAST, 321 had no significant fluid on CT (negative predictive value [NPV] = 97%; 95% CI = 94% to 98%). Positive likelihood ratio (LR) for FF was 13.4 (95% CI = 6.9 to 26.0) while the negative LR was 0.50 (95% CI = 0.32 to 0.76). Accuracy was 93% (333 of 357, 95% CI = 90% to 96%). For the second objective, test characteristics were as follows: sensitivity = 20% (95% CI = 13% to 30%), specificity = 98% (95% CI = 95% to 99%), PPV = 76% (95% CI = 54% to 90%), NPV = 78% (95% CI = 73% to 82%), positive LR = 9.0 (95% CI = 3.7 to 21.8), negative LR = 0.81 (95% CI = 0.7 to 0.9), and accuracy = 78% (277 of 357, 95% CI = 73% to 82%).In this population of children with BAT, FAST has a low sensitivity for clinically important FF but has high specificity. A positive FAST suggests hemoperitoneum and abdominal injury, while a negative FAST aids little in decision-making.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01071.x

    View details for PubMedID 21569167

  • Test Characteristics of Focused Assessment of Sonography for Trauma for Clinically Significant Abdominal Free Fluid in Pediatric Blunt Abdominal Trauma ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE Fox, J. C., Boysen, M., Gharahbaghian, L., Cusick, S., Ahmed, S. S., Anderson, C. L., Lekawa, M., Langdorf, M. I. 2011; 18 (5): 476-481
  • THE EFFECT OF EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT OBSERVATIONAL EXPERIENCE ON MEDICAL STUDENT INTEREST IN EMERGENCY MEDICINE JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE Gharahbaghian, L., Hindiyeh, R., Langdorf, M. I., Vaca, F., Anderson, C. L., Kahn, J. A., Wiechmann, W., Lotfipour, S. 2011; 40 (4): 458-461

    Abstract

    In many different health care educational models, shadowing, or observational experience, is accepted as integral to introducing students to the specifics of medical specialties.We investigated whether emergency department (ED) observational experiences (EDOs) affect medical students' (MSs') interest in emergency medicine (EM). Additionally, we examined how the subjective quality of clinical exposures influences this interest and the decision to recommend EDOs to other students.This is a survey of MSs at a Level 1 tertiary care university hospital during a 2-year period. The study focused on assessing perception of ED exposure, post-EDO change in EM interest, and decision to recommend EDOs to others.The majority of MSs had a change in EM interest post-EDO and recommended EDOs. Both variables correlated to ED exposure ratings.The EDO significantly influenced MS interest in EM by providing exposure to various aspects of the ED.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jemermed.2010.02.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289828600024

    View details for PubMedID 20381989

  • Patellar tendonitis. The western journal of emergency medicine Zaia, B., Gharahbaghian, L. 2011; 12 (1): 139-140

    View details for PubMedID 21691492

  • Cardiac tamponade after minimally invasive coronary artery bypass graft. The western journal of emergency medicine Liang, E. C., Rossi, J., Gharahbaghian, L. 2011; 12 (1): 116-117

    View details for PubMedID 21691484

  • Methemoglobinemia and sulfhemoglobinemia in two pediatric patients after ingestion of hydroxylamine sulfate. The western journal of emergency medicine Gharahbaghian, L., Massoudian, B., DiMassa, G. 2009; 10 (3): 197-201

    Abstract

    This case report describes two pediatric cases of immediate oxygen desaturation from methemoglobinemia and sulfhemoglobinemia after one sip from a plastic water bottle containing hydroxylamine sulfate used by a relative to clean shoes. Supplemental oxygen and two separate doses of methylene blue given to one of the patients had no effect on clinical symptoms or pulse oximetry. The patients were admitted to the pediatric Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with subsequent improvement after exchange transfusion. Endoscopy showed ulcer formation in one case and sucralafate was initiated; both patients were discharged after a one-week hospital stay.

    View details for PubMedID 19718385

  • Clitoral priapism with no known risk factors. The western journal of emergency medicine Gharahbaghian, L. 2008; 9 (4): 235-237

    Abstract

    Clitoral priapism is a rare condition that is associated with an extended duration of clitoral erection due to local engorgement of clitoral tissue resulting in pain. Although the pathophysiology is not completely understood, it has been associated with specific classes of medications, diseases that alter clitoral blood flow or others associated with small to large vessel disease. We present a case report of a 26-year-old patient who developed clitoral priapism without a clear medication or disease related etiology. The patient was treated with opiates, imipramine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and local ice packs. She recovered uneventfully.

    View details for PubMedID 19561754

  • Welcome to the Resident/Student/Fellow Section of WestJEM! The western journal of emergency medicine Gharahbaghian, L. 2008; 9 (1): 46-?

    View details for PubMedID 19561703

  • Biliary Ultrasound Clinical Emergency Radiology Scruggs, W., Gharahbaghian, L., Fox, J. C. Cambridge University Press. 2008; 1
  • Welcome to the Resident/Fellow/Student Section. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine Gharahbaghian, L. 2008; 9 (4)
  • . Central Diabetes Insipidus Misdiagnosed as Acute Gastroenteritis in a Pediatric Patient: a Case Report. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine Gharahbaghian, L., McCoy, C., Lotfipour, S., Langdorf, M. 2008; April
  • New Onset Thyrotoxicosis Presenting as Vomiting, Abdominal Pain and Transaminitis in the Emergency Department: a Case Report. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine Gharahbaghian, L., Brosnan, D., Fox JC., Stratton, S., Langdorf, M. 2007; 8 (3)
  • Sarin and Other Nerve Agents of the Organophosphate Class: Properties, Medical Effects and Management. International Journal of Disaster Medicine Gharahbaghian, L., Bey, T. 2003; 2: 103-108
  • Survival After Ethylene Glycol Poisoning in a Patient With an Arterial pH of 6.58 Veterinary and Human Toxicology Bey, T., Walter, F., Gilby, R., James, S.T., Gharahbaghian, L. 2002