Professional Education

  • Master of Science, Stanford University, MED-MS (2015)
  • Doctor of Philosophy, Stanford University, MI-PHD (2015)
  • Bachelor of Arts, Swarthmore College, Biology (2009)


All Publications

  • Intraspecies Competition for Niches in the Distal Gut Dictate Transmission during Persistent Salmonella Infection PLOS PATHOGENS Lam, L. H., Monack, D. M. 2014; 10 (12)
  • Salmonella Require the Fatty Acid Regulator PPAR delta for the Establishment of a Metabolic Environment Essential for Long-Term Persistence CELL HOST & MICROBE Eisele, N. A., Ruby, T., Jacobson, A., Manzanillo, P. S., Cox, J. S., Lam, L., Mukundan, L., Chawla, A., Monack, D. M. 2013; 14 (2): 171-182


    Host-adapted Salmonella strains are responsible for a number of disease manifestations in mammals, including an asymptomatic chronic infection in which bacteria survive within macrophages located in systemic sites. However, the host cell physiology and metabolic requirements supporting bacterial persistence are poorly understood. In a mouse model of long-term infection, we found that S. typhimurium preferentially associates with anti-inflammatory/M2 macrophages at later stages of infection. Further, PPARδ, a eukaryotic transcription factor involved in sustaining fatty acid metabolism, is upregulated in Salmonella-infected macrophages. PPARδ deficiency dramatically inhibits Salmonella replication, which is linked to the metabolic state of macrophages and the level of intracellular glucose available to bacteria. Pharmacological activation of PPARδ increases glucose availability and enhances bacterial replication in macrophages and mice, while Salmonella fail to persist in Pparδ null mice. These data suggest that M2 macrophages represent a unique niche for long-term intracellular bacterial survival and link the PPARδ-regulated metabolic state of the host cell to persistent bacterial infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chom.2013.07.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330851600008

    View details for PubMedID 23954156

  • Enterococcus species distribution among human and animal hosts using multiplex PCR JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY Layton, B. A., Walters, S. P., Lam, L. H., Boehm, A. B. 2010; 109 (2): 539-547


    This study evaluated the use of Enterococcus species differentiation as a tool for microbial source tracking (MST) in recreational waters.Avian, mammalian and human faecal samples were screened for the occurrence of Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus saccharolyticus using multiplex PCR. Host-specific patterns of Enterococcus species presence were observed only when data for multiple Enterococcus species were considered in aggregate.The results suggest that no single Enterococcus species is a reliable indicator of the host faecal source. However, Enterococcus species composite 'fingerprints' may offer auxiliary evidence for bacterial source identification.This study presents novel information on the enterococci species assemblages present in avian and mammalian hosts proximate to the nearshore ocean. These data will aid the development of appropriate MST strategies, and the approach used in this study could potentially assist in the identification of faecal pollution sources.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04675.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279733700016

    View details for PubMedID 20132375

  • Biogeographic Patterns in Genomic Diversity among a Large Collection of Vibrio cholerae Isolates APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Keymer, D. P., Lam, L. H., Boehm, A. B. 2009; 75 (6): 1658-1666


    Vibrio cholerae strains are capable of inhabiting multiple niches in the aquatic environment and in some cases cause disease in humans. However, the ecology and biodiversity of these bacteria in environmental settings remains poorly understood. We used the genomic fingerprinting technique enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) to profile 835 environmental isolates from waters and sediments obtained at nine sites along the central California coast. We identified 115 ERIC-PCR genotypes from 998 fingerprints, with a reproducibility of 98.5% and a discriminatory power of 0.971. When the temporal dynamics at a subset of sampling sites were explored, several genotypes provided evidence for cosmopolitan or geographically restricted distributions, and other genotypes displayed nonrandom patterns of cooccurrence. Partial Mantel tests confirmed that genotypic similarity of isolates across all sampling events was correlated with environmental similarity (0.04 < or = r < or = 0.05), temporal proximity (r = 0.09), and geographic distance (r = 0.09). A neutral community model for all sampling events explained 61% of the variation in genotype abundance. Cooccurrence indices (C-score, C-board, and Combo) were significantly different than expected by chance, suggesting that the V. cholerae population may have a competitive structure, especially at the regional scale. Even though stochastic processes are undoubtedly important in generating biogeographic patterns in diversity, deterministic factors appear to play a significant, albeit small, role in shaping the V. cholerae population structure in this system.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/AEM.01304-08

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263920900024

    View details for PubMedID 19139224