Emeritus Faculty-Med Ctr Line, Radiology - General Radiology
Assistant Chief, Radiology, VAPAHCS (1986 - 2013)
Gastrointestinal motility in spinal cord injury, patients; use of CT and MRI in imaging liver and biliary tree; contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract and, hepatobiliary system; gastrointestinal motility disorders; abdominal, imaging; hepatobiliary imaging
The purpose of this article is to show the value of volumetric oblique coronal reformation of CT data sets for assessing the normal anatomy and abnormalities of the ampulla of Vater.Volumetric oblique coronal reformations are a useful noninvasive method to provide diagnostic information about periampullary abnormalities as well as show secondary features important for local staging and management. The technique is also valuable in providing a time-efficient method to review pertinent findings with clinicians.
View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.08.2069
View details for PubMedID 19696260
The purpose of this pictorial essay is to showcase the use of minimum intensity projection in the imaging of low attenuation structures such as the pancreatic duct.Minimum intensity projection is a valuable adjunct to other processing techniques for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and cystic tumors of the pancreas.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00261-007-9212-6
View details for Web of Science ID 000254847000014
View details for PubMedID 17387537
Recombinant human growth hormone (GH) and pioglitazone (PIO) in abdominally obese adults with impaired glucose tolerance were evaluated under the hypothesis that the combination attenuates GH-induced increases in glucose concentrations, reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and improves insulin sensitivity over time.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 x 2 factorial design.Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States.62 abdominally obese adults aged 40-75 with impaired glucose tolerance.GH (8 microg/kg/d, or placebo) and pioglitazone (30 mg/d, or placebo) for 40 wk.Baseline and after 40 wk of treatment, VAT content was quantified by CT scan, glucose tolerance was assessed using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and insulin sensitivity was measured using steady-state plasma glucose levels obtained during insulin suppression test.BASELINE: body mass index (BMI), plasma glucose, and visceral fat content were similar. 40 wk: visceral fat area declined 23.9 +/- 7.4 cm(2) in GH group, mean difference from placebo: -28.1 cm(2) (95% CI -49.9 to -6.3 cm(2); p = 0.02). Insulin resistance declined 52 +/- 11.8 mg/dl with PIO, mean difference from placebo of -58.8 mg/dl (95% CI -99.7 to -18.0 mg/dl; p = 0.01). VAT and SSPG declined with GH and PIO combined, mean differences from placebo of -31.4 cm(2) (95% CI -56.5 cm(2) to -6.3 cm(2); p = 0.02) and -55.3 mg/dl (95% CI -103.9 to -6.7 mg/dl; p = 0.02), respectively. Fasting plasma glucose increased transiently in GH group. No significant changes in BMI were observed.Addition of PIO to GH attenuated the short-term diabetogenic effect of GH; the drug combination reduced VAT and insulin resistance over time. GH plus PIO may have added benefit on body composition and insulin sensitivity in the metabolic syndrome.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pctr.0020021
View details for Web of Science ID 000246737100002
View details for PubMedID 17479164
Our purpose was to correlate the imaging findings of small cystic pancreatic lesions to the incidence of growth on follow-up imaging and their pathologic diagnoses.CT images for 159 patients with cystic pancreatic lesions were retrospectively evaluated and lesions were assessed for size, number, connection to the main pancreatic duct (MPD), MPD dilatation, and any presence of loculation, wall irregularity, thick septations, or solid components. A total of 86 patients had follow-up imaging with time periods of less than 6 months (n = 21), 6-12 months (n = 22), 1-2 years (n = 14), and greater than 2 years (n = 29). Lesion histology was available in 20 patients.Lesions with pathologic correlation proved to be: side branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm or tumor (IPMT) (n = 5), combined type IPMT (n = 4), nonmucinous cyst (n = 4), chronic pancreatitis (n = 2), and reactive atypia with nonmucinous fluid (n = 1), combined type IMPT with foci of adenocarcinoma (n = 1), mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 2), and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 1). Lesions with solid components were significantly more likely to grow and be malignant (P < 0.05). The presence of MPD dilatation was more common in patients with combined type IPMTs or malignancies. No other factors were predictive of malignancy.Solid components are predictive of malignancy, and MPD dilatation should prompt consideration of surgery. Other cystic lesions can be followed.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00261-006-9080-5
View details for Web of Science ID 000246405800020
View details for PubMedID 16944031
The objective of our study was to determine the negative predictive value of MDCT with curved planar reformations for detecting vascular invasion and predicting overall resectability in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Imaging findings related to vascular invasion and overall tumor resectability in 25 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced biphasic MDCT evaluation were correlated with actual vessel invasion and overall resectability determined at surgery and pathologic examination. The presence of vascular invasion was assessed in 110 major peripancreatic vessels in 22 patients who underwent resection.On MDCT, 23 (92%) of 25 patients were deemed to have resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The tumors in the remaining two (8%) were considered not resectable because of the presence of vascular invasion (which was confirmed in only one patient at surgery). Of those 23 patients deemed to be candidates for curative resection on the basis of MDCT results, 20 were found to have resectable adenocarcinoma at time of surgery, yielding a negative predictive value for MDCT of 87% (20/23 patients) for overall resectability. In the other three patients, adenocarcinoma was deemed to be unresectable because of small metastases to the liver (two patients) or to the peritoneum (one patient) discovered at surgery. For detection of vascular invasion, MDCT yielded a negative predictive value of 100% (108/108 vessels) with no false-negative findings and an accuracy of 99% (109/110 vessels) with 108 true-negative findings, one true-positive finding, and one false-positive finding.Our preliminary data on MDCT show that the technique has excellent negative predictive value for vascular invasion and good negative predictive value for overall tumor resectability in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, suggesting an improvement over previous results reported using single-detector CT. The problem of undetected micrometastases to the liver and peritoneum remains.
View details for Web of Science ID 000188590800035
View details for PubMedID 14736675
The formation of an intestinal stoma is very effective in the treatment of colonic dysmotility associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Little is known about the difference in the long-term outcome among left-sided colostomies, right-sided colostomies, and ileostomies in this patient population.The records of 45 SCI patients with intestinal stomas at our institution were reviewed retrospectively. Operative details and preoperative colonic transit times (CTT) were recorded. Patients who were alive and available were interviewed using a questionnaire designed to assess the quality of life (QOL), health status, and time to bowel care before and after stoma formation.Between 1976 and 2002, 45 patients underwent a total of 48 intestinal stomas. A left-sided colostomy (LC) was formed in 21 patients, right-sided colostomy (RC) in 20, and ileostomy (IL) in 7. Three of the patients in the RC group ultimately underwent total abdominal colectomy and ileostomy. The indications for stoma formation and CTT were different in the three groups. Bloating, constipation, chronic abdominal pain, difficulty evacuation with prolonged CTT was the main indication in 95% of patients in the RC group, 43% of patients in the LC group, and 29% in the IL group. Management of complicated decubitus ulcers, perineal and pelvic wounds was the primary indication in 43% of patients in the LC group, 5% in the RC group, and none in the IL group. Preoperative total and right CTTs were longer in the RC group compared with the LC group: 127.5 versus 83.1 hours (P <0.05) and 53.7 versus 28.5 hours (P <0.05), respectively. Eighty-two percent of patients (37 of 45) were interviewed at a mean follow-up of 5.5 years after stoma formation. Most patients who were interviewed were satisfied with their stoma (RC, 88%; LC, 100%; IL, 83%) and the majority would have preferred to have the stoma earlier (RC, 63%; LC, 77%; and IL, 63%). The QOL index significantly improved in all groups (RC, 49 to 79, P <0.05; LC, 50 to 86, P <0.05; and IL, 60 to 82, P <0.05), as well as the health status index (RC, 58 to 83, P <0.05; LC, 63 to 92, P <0.05; IL, 61 to 88, P <0.05). The average daily time to bowel care was significantly shortened in all groups (RC, 102 to 11 minutes, P <0.05; LC, 123 to 18 minutes, P <0.05; and IL, 73 to 13 minutes, P <0.05.).Regardless of the type of stoma, most patients had functional improvement postoperatively. Patients who underwent RC had longer CTT and more chronic symptoms related to colonic dysmotility, reflecting the preoperative selection bias. The successful outcome noted in all groups suggests that preoperative symptoms and CTT studies may have been helpful in optimal choice of stoma site selection.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2003.07.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000186307300005
View details for PubMedID 14599603
An important feature of multidetector-row helical computed tomography (CT) is the increased speed of scanning that permits routine use of very thin collimation and acquisition of near isometric imaging data of the abdomen within the time span of a single breath-hold. The parallel escalation in the capabilities of workstations makes feasible the practical use of advanced postprocessing techniques to create high quality volumetric imaging. This article highlights the unique contributions of multidetector-row CT and advanced postprocessing techniques to the evaluation of the pancreas and peripancreatic vascular structures and their value in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic neoplasms.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00261-002-0056-9
View details for Web of Science ID 000182610300011
View details for PubMedID 12719907
To evaluate the utility of curved planar reformations compared with standard transverse images in the assessment of pancreatic tumors.Forty-three patients suspected of having pancreatic tumors underwent contrast material-enhanced biphasic multi-detector row computed tomography (CT). Curved planar reformations were generated along the pancreatic duct, common bile duct, and major mesenteric vessels. Three blinded independent readers assessed the curved planar reformations and transverse images separately for the presence of tumor, resectability, and vascular involvement. The results were compared with those of a consensus panel who evaluated the curved planar reformations and transverse images together along with clinical data and surgical findings.Of 43 patients, 20 had pancreatic malignancies as judged by the consensus panel and proven at biopsy and/or clinical follow-up. For tumor detection, transverse images and curved planar reformations had an average sensitivity of 95.0% and 98.4% (P >.05), respectively, and an average specificity of 90.9% and 91.3% (P >.05), respectively. For tumor resectability, transverse images and curved planar reformations had an average sensitivity of 85.7% and 71.4% (P >.05), respectively, and an average specificity of 85.2% and 84.3% (P >.05), respectively. Average interpretation time was 6.4 minutes with transverse images and 4.1 minutes with curved planar reformations.Curved planar reformations are equivalent to transverse images in the detection of pancreatic tumors and determination of surgical resectability.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2253010886
View details for Web of Science ID 000179420800020
View details for PubMedID 12461258
To determine which patients suspected of having acute appendicitis benefit from preoperative imaging.The medical records of 462 consecutive patients who underwent appendectomy for clinically suspected acute appendicitis and underwent preoperative evaluation at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into four groups: women (n = 166), girls (n = 46), men (n = 178), and boys (n = 72). Preoperative computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography (US), requested by the referring clinician, was performed in 313 of the 462 patients. Unnecessary, or negative, appendectomy and perforation rates were calculated for each group for preoperative evaluation with CT, with US, and with neither CT nor US. In addition, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of CT and US were calculated for diagnosing appendicitis.In women, the negative appendectomy rate was significantly lower for those who underwent preoperative CT (7% [six of 85 patients], P =.005) or US (8% [four of 49 patients], P =.019), as compared with 28% [nine of 32 patients] for those who underwent no preoperative imaging (P >.35 for all groups). The negative appendectomy rates for girls, men, and boys were not significantly affected by preoperative imaging. The sensitivity of CT and US for diagnosing acute appendicitis exceeded 93% and 77%, respectively, in all groups. The positive predictive values for both CT and US were greater than 92% in all groups.Women suspected of having appendicitis benefit the most from preoperative CT or US, with a statistically significantly lower negative appendectomy rate than women who undergo no preoperative imaging. Therefore, we propose that preoperative imaging be considered part of the routine evaluation of women suspected of having acute appendicitis.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2251011780
View details for Web of Science ID 000178264300021
View details for PubMedID 12354996
Multidetector-row CT provides excellent visualization of the pancreas and peripancreatic structures, yielding information that is crucial for detecting pancreatic neoplasms and accurately determining their staging. This new technology enables the acquisition of large volumetric data sets to create high-quality curved planar reformations that clearly depict the common bile duct, the pancreatic duct, and the peripancreatic vasculature. Additionally, curved planar reformations highlight critical anatomic and pathologic relationships which are useful for surgical planning in patients with resectable disease.
View details for Web of Science ID 000179691500012
View details for PubMedID 12481736
A variety of high-resolution imaging techniques are currently available for the evaluation of patients with RUQ pain. In these patients, an imaging approach that is based on identifying the presence of certain clinical signs and symptoms can aid in choosing the appropriate imaging modality and establishing the diagnosis. For patients presenting with a positive Murphy sign, sonography and biliary scintigraphy are the most useful initial imaging techniques. In patients with fever and a negative Murphy sign, a combination of sonography and contrast-enhanced CT can establish the diagnosis in most cases. And finally, in patients without fever or a positive Murphy sign, CT and MR are appropriate first-line imaging techniques.
View details for Web of Science ID 000168046900003
View details for PubMedID 11329660
View details for PubMedID 11222206
To evaluate the usefulness of functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) as a noninvasive method to stimulate the colon in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).A prospective before-after trial consisting of 2 protocols.FMS laboratories of 2 SCI centers.Two able-bodied men and 13 men with SCI levels ranging from C3 to L1. Protocol 1 consisted of 9 subjects, 2 of whom were excluded from the analysis. Protocol 2 consisted of 4 subjects.Commercially available magnetic stimulators with round magnetic coils (MCs) were used. Protocol 1 measured the effects of FMS on rectal pressure by placing the MC on the transabdominal and lumbosacral regions. Protocol 2 consisted of a 5-week stimulation period to investigate the effects of FMS on total and segmental colonic transit times (CTTs).An increase in rectal pressure and a decrease in CTT by magnetic stimulation.Data were averaged and the standard error of the mean was calculated. Statistically significant changes in rectal pressure and CTT were also measured. Rectal pressures increased from 26.7 +/- 7.44cmH(2)O to 48.0 +/- 9.91cmH(2)O, p =.0037, with lumbosacral stimulation, and from 30.0 +/- 6.35cmH(2)O to 42.7 +/- 7.95cmH(2)O, p =.0015, with transabdominal stimulation. With FMS, the mean CTT decreased from 105.2 to 89.4 hours, p =.02.FMS is able to stimulate the colon and reduce CTT. FMS is a noninvasive, technological advancement for managing neurogenic bowel in patients with SCI.
View details for DOI 10.1053/apmr.2001.18215
View details for Web of Science ID 000166846000004
View details for PubMedID 11239306
To present our early experience with a classification scheme for categorizing focal liver lesions on the basis of the enhancement patterns that they exhibit in the arterial phase of computed tomography (CT) and to determine whether particular enhancement patterns suggest particular diagnoses.The authors reviewed arterial phase CT images in 100 consecutive patients with focal liver lesions, excluding simple cysts. The enhancement pattern of the dominant or representative lesion in each patient was classified into one of five categories-homogeneous, abnormal internal vessels or variegated, peripheral puddles, complete ring, or incomplete ring-by three radiologists blinded to the proved diagnosis. Lesions without enhancement were recorded separately. Agreement was reached by consensus in all cases. Standards of reference included findings at histologic examination, correlative imaging, or clinical and imaging follow-up.Ninety-two percent of the 100 lesions demonstrated arterial phase enhancement. Patterns associated with positive predictive values of 82% or greater and specificity of 80% or greater included abnormal internal vessels or variegated (hepatocellular carcinoma), peripheral puddles (hemangioma), and complete ring (metastasis).The appearance of hepatic lesions in the arterial phase of enhancement has potential use in the determination of specific diagnoses. The classification scheme used in this study may be a useful tool for the interpretation of arterial phase CT studies.
View details for Web of Science ID 000087247000020
View details for PubMedID 10831693
The goals of this study were to define the distinguishing characteristics and frequency of urinary bladder pseudolesions that are produced as opacified urine enters the bladder during contrast-enhanced helical CT of the abdomen and to evaluate the usefulness of delayed imaging in differentiating pseudolesions from true lesions.Contrast-enhanced routine CT scans of 184 patients were obtained prospectively. For each patient, we also obtained 5-min delayed images of the bladder. The images were evaluated for apparent focal thickening or polypoid lesions involving the bladder wall, findings that may represent bladder neoplasia, without knowledge of the indications for the scan, the patient's clinical history, or the patient's diagnosis. Apparent lesions that were visible on routine images and entirely absent on delayed images were considered to be pseudolesions.Apparent lesions were identified on 20 (10.9%+/-4.5% [limits of the 95% confidence interval]) of the routine CT scans. Using delayed images, the 21 apparent lesions in these 20 patients were resolved as 13 pseudolesions and eight true lesions. Pseudolesions were present in 6.5%+/-3.6% of patients.Pseudolesions of the bladder that are indistinguishable from true lesions pose a significant clinical problem in routine contrast-enhanced helical CT of the abdomen. Delayed imaging of the bladder is useful in distinguishing pseudolesions from true lesions.
View details for Web of Science ID 000076580400036
View details for PubMedID 9798877
Dual-phase helical CT permits imaging of the pancreas and the peripancreatic structures in the arterial dominant and portal venous phases of enhancement, providing information crucial in the assessment of the local extent of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This essay reviews the dual-phase helical CT findings of local extension that preclude potentially curative surgery, including vascular involvement, ligamentous or mesenteric invasion, extension of the tumor to involve the stomach or duodenum, and invasion of adjacent solid organs.
View details for PubMedID 9530395
We report three patients with esophageal wall thickening, incidentally found at CT, in whom further evaluation led to the diagnosis of diffuse esophageal spasm (DES). All cases showed smooth, symmetric, circumferential wall thickening of the distal two-thirds of the esophagus with normal periesophageal fat. No lung parenchymal abnormalities suggestive of aspiration were seen. DES, although uncommon, is another benign condition that should be included in the differential diagnosis of esophageal wall thickening detected by CT.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997WM65500029
View details for PubMedID 9071309
Helical CT scanners now allow sequential arterial phase and portal venous phase scans of the entire liver to be obtained during a single bolus injection of contrast material. The purpose of this study was to determine if arterial phase scans improve detection of small (< or = 1.5 cm) malignant hepatic neoplasms when compared with portal venous scans alone.Dual-phase helical CT of the liver was done in 96 patients referred for known or suspected malignant hepatic lesions. Malignant hepatic neoplasms were detected in 38 patients (27 with at least one small neoplasm), one patient had undetected metastases, one patient had a benign hepatic neoplasm, and 56 patients had no hepatic neoplasm. Proof of individual neoplasms was based on biopsy results, surgical findings, or findings on other imaging studies (primarily follow-up CT). The absence of disease was established by surgical or autopsy findings, findings on subsequent imaging studies, or a combination of clinical and laboratory data. A total of 150 ml of 60% nonionic contrast material was infused at 5 ml/sec followed by sequential arterial phase and portal venous phase helical scans of the liver. Three radiologists retrospectively reviewed the scans. Individual lesions were measured and the conspicuity of each lesion on arterial phase and portal venous phase scans was compared. The percentage of patients in whom some malignant neoplasms were detected better on the arterial phase scan was calculated using categories based on lesion size and typical tumor vascularity.In 10 (37%) of 27 patients who had at least one small malignant neoplasm, lesions 1.5 cm or less in diameter were only visible or were more conspicuous on the arterial phase scan. No malignant neoplasms more than 1.5 cm in diameter were visible only on the arterial phase scan. In four (11%) of 38 cases, malignant neoplasms more than 1.5 cm in diameter were more conspicuous on the arterial phase scan. The arterial phase scans improved lesion conspicuity in nine (39%) of 23 patients who had typically hypervascular neoplasms, whereas lesion conspicuity was improved in three (20%) of 15 patients who had typically hypovascular neoplasms (p = .02). The arterial phase scan resulted in the false-positive detection of lesions in two (2%) of 96 cases.Arterial phase helical CT of the liver improves detection of some small, malignant hepatic neoplasms when performed in addition to portal venous scanning. The value is greatest in those patients who have hypervascular neoplasms.
View details for PubMedID 7726040
Color Doppler sonography was used to evaluate the length and distribution of the cystic artery in the gallbladder wall in 115 normal adults and in 54 patients with surgically proved cholecystitis. All patients were scanned with a 5 MHz curved array transducer optimized for low volume color sensitivity. A specific attempt was made to visualize the cystic artery throughout its course. Spectral Doppler waveforms were obtained to document arterial flow. The length of the cystic artery visualized was analyzed as a quartile percentage length of the anterior gallbladder wall. The distribution of the cystic artery flow also was analyzed in specific quartiles. Of 54 patients with acute cholecystitis, 26% had cystic artery length greater than half of the anterior gallbladder wall, compared with 2% of 115 normal controls (P < 0.001); 19% of patients with cholecystitis had flow in the distal (fundal) quartile, compared to 0% of normal controls (P < 0.0001). Although the presence or absence of flow in the gallbladder is not a reliable finding to establish the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, length of cystic artery visualized is a potentially useful criterion to suggest the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, especially in cases in which flow in the distal fundal quartile of the gallbladder. The usefulness of color Doppler sonography in acute cholecystitis is limited owing to the fact that it is insensitive, and many patients with cholecystitis have no detectable flow or have normal flow patterns.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995QB24000006
View details for PubMedID 7707474
Color Doppler sonographic images of five patients with a total of six lesions of FNH were reviewed. All cases were confirmed pathologically. All six lesions showed increased intralesional flow in comparison to surrounding liver parenchyma on color Doppler sonography. Four of the six lesions showed significant peripheral flow; two of the six lesions showed central flow radiating peripherally from a central vessel. We conclude that increased color Doppler flow may be a characteristic feature of FNH. Increased internal flow has also been reported in HCC and hepatic metastatic disease. Considerable overlap is seen in color Doppler flow patterns. However, in patients clinically at low risk for malignancy, detection of a liver mass with increased color Doppler flow should suggest the diagnosis of FNH.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993LU71000012
View details for PubMedID 8107187
The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of color flow Doppler sonography for the specific diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions.Color flow Doppler images of 118 focal hepatic lesions in 108 patients were analyzed prospectively. In most patients, liver disease was suspected or known to be present before the Doppler images were obtained. Experienced sonologists obtained and interpreted all sonograms. The lesions were classified, according to their color flow pattern, into two main categories: lesions with internal vascularity and lesions with no internal vascularity. The color flow Doppler pattern of each lesion was correlated with the diagnosis of the lesion on a lesion-by-lesion basis. One hundred two lesions were proved by biopsy and 16 lesions were confirmed by evaluation with other imaging techniques. Lesions included 29 hepatocellular carcinomas, 64 metastases, one cholangiocarcinoma, and 24 benign lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of vascularity as shown by color Doppler imaging in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma were determined.The majority of hepatocellular carcinoma lesions (76%) had internal vascularity. Most of the metastases (67%) and benign lesions (75%) had no internal vascularity. When the presence of internal vascularity was used as the discriminating criterion, the sensitivity of color flow Doppler findings for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was 0.76. The specificity of internal vascularity for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma vs other focal lesions was 0.69; for hepatocellular carcinoma vs metastases it was 0.67.Although most hepatocellular carcinomas have internal vascularity on color flow Doppler images, a significant number of metastases also have internal vascularity. This overlap limits the usefulness of color flow Doppler imaging for distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic tumors.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992JZ24000008
View details for PubMedID 1332456
One quarter of patients with spinal cord injuries eventually have severe chronic gastrointestinal symptoms. Because there are about 1.5 million such patients in the United States, major chronic gastrointestinal symptoms will develop in approximately 400,000 patients, all of whom are likely to need the services of radiologists. These gastrointestinal abnormalities, however, are quite different from the gastrointestinal problems that occur in the general population. For this reason, the imaging methods used for diagnosis in these patients are also different from those used with persons who do not have spinal cord injuries. The purpose of this review is to describe the role of diagnostic imaging in patients with severe chronic gastrointestinal symptoms associated with spinal cord injury.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992HB05800008
View details for PubMedID 1729781
This article describes the MR appearances of the six most common congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava. As a basis for understanding those anomalies, it describes the embryology of the inferior vena cava, based on an actual study of embryos and fetuses. The article takes a fresh look at the original research in this area, discusses the possible embryogenesis of the relevant anomalies, and describes different opinions on that subject, where different opinions exist.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992HT43600008
View details for PubMedID 1598750
Efforts to develop satisfactory intraluminal gastrointestinal contrast agents for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have focused on depicting only the bowel lumen to exclude possible involvement by a pathologic process. To determine whether the bowel wall can be adequately imaged with use of the contrast agent and whether bowel wall visualization is a better index of the utility of the contrast agent for MR imaging, perfluoroocytlbromide (PFOB) was studied in human subjects. Twenty consecutive patients referred for abdominal or pelvic MR imaging were selected. All patients were given 400-1,000 mL of PFOB orally. MR imaging was performed at 0.38 and 1.5 T with T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo pulse sequences before and after administration of PFOB. The images were graded independently by three blinded readers. All readers reported significantly superior conspicuity of the bowel lumen and wall after PFOB than before PFOB administration (P less than .002). Among the post-PFOB studies, those with superior bowel wall visualization demonstrated superior overall image quality. In three patients, lesions were optimally demonstrated because the relationship of the process to the bowel wall, rather than just to the lumen, was identified. In two patients, masses arising within the bowel wall could be identified prospectively only when the bowel wall was adequately imaged. The authors conclude that while lumen identification is improved with PFOB, its greatest clinical utility may be in facilitating intestinal wall visualization.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991HA76500013
View details for PubMedID 1802151
Detailed interviews of 127 consecutive patients seen by our spinal cord injury service were performed in order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of chronic gastrointestinal problems in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Chronic gastrointestinal problems were defined as recurring symptoms that were significant enough to alter lifestyle or require chronic treatment. Thirty-four (27%) of the patients had a significant chronic gastrointestinal problem. The limited manner through which SCI patients can manifest symptoms resulted in complaints which were characteristically quite vague. The most common problems that impaired quality of life were poorly localized abdominal pain (14%) and difficulty with bowel evacuation (20%). Hemorrhoids (74%), abdominal distention (43%), and autonomic hyperreflexia arising from the gastrointestinal tract (43%) were also very common, but had a lesser impact on lifestyle. Twenty-three percent of our population required at least one admission to the hospital for a gastrointestinal complaint following their injury. The prevalence of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms increased with time after injury, suggesting that these problems are acquired, and may therefore be avoided by the adoption of certain chronic care routines. Chronic gastrointestinal problems in SCI patients merit more study because they are: 1) very different from those in the general population, 2) responsible for a disproportionately great amount of morbidity in these patients, 3) potentially preventable.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990DX53800012
View details for PubMedID 2389723
We carried out a prospective, double-blind study at three institutions, comparing esophagography with esophagoscopy for the detection of simultaneous cancer of the esophagus in patients with other squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. The goal was to determine whether esophagography and esophagoscopy are necessary for the examination of patients before treatment. One hundred eighty-two patients were studied; both examinations were done in 148 patients. Twenty-one patients could not undergo esophagoscopy; esophagography was inadequate in 9 patients; 4 patients could have neither examination. Concordance was noted between the two procedures in 86.5% of patients. Sixty-five percent were normal, and 21.5% were abnormal. One esophageal cancer was found in this series that was diagnosed by both methods. Our data suggest that esophagoscopy and esophagography may be complementary in evaluating squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in patients before treatment. Esophagography alone was useful in patients in whom esophagoscopy could not be performed.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990DT07500004
View details for PubMedID 2378717
We reviewed our experience with colostomy performed in 20 spinal cord injury (SCI) patients to determine the effectiveness and safety of colostomy when it is performed for a late complication of SCI. Objective evaluation of gastrointestinal function, ie, colonic transit time and anorectal manometry, was performed in six patients with chronic gastrointestinal complaints to identify the site and severity of bowel dysfunction. Twelve patients had colostomy performed for chronic gastrointestinal problems, seven as an adjunct in the treatment of perineal pressure ulcers, and one for rectal cancer. When patients with difficult bowel evacuation or incontinence were considered, colostomy reliably simplified bowel care, relieved abdominal distention, and prevented fecal incontinence. The amount of time spent on bowel care decreased from an average of 98.6 min/day to 17.8 min/day (p less than .05) after colostomy. When performed as an adjunct in the treatment of pressure ulcers, colostomy provided a dry, clean environment, and seven of seven ulcers healed. Colostomy was well accepted by all patients; all patients with chronic gastrointestinal complaints reported that colostomy improved the quality of their lives. Objective testing differentiated between failure of the colon to adequately transport material to the rectum and inability to adequately evacuate the rectum. Testing was useful in choosing the level at which a colostomy was created, and, in one instance, it identified a specific syndrome (ischemic proctitis) which required colostomy.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990DH15700014
View details for PubMedID 2350223
This report describes a study of transit time through the colon, as well as the caliber of the colon and distal small bowel, in 28 spinal cord-injured patients to see if there is a correlation between those findings and difficulty with bowel care and symptoms. In 15 of these 28 patients anorectal dynamic studies were also done. Each patient ingested 20 radiopaque markers, after which colon transit times were measured by multiple abdominal radiographs. The width of the ileum was measured and correlated with symptoms. The findings indicate that transit time was delayed in the left and rectosigmoid colon; four patients had a large and highly compliant rectum, whereas six had anorectal dyssynergia. All ten had difficulty with bowel care. The distal small bowel was dilated in ten patients, all of whom had symptoms and nine of whom had spinal cord lesions superior to T5.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990CM63800002
View details for PubMedID 2312245
There are two forms of Menetrier's disease. The common form involves thickened gastric rugae, while the rare form involves discrete gastric polyps. The clinical literature suggests an association between Menetrier's disease and acromegaly, as well as other neuroendocrine neoplasms; the radiological literature has not addressed the issue. We describe a patient with acromegaly who developed the rare polypoidal form of Menetrier's disease.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990CC60700015
View details for PubMedID 2298356
This is the first report of an intratesticular leiomyoma. On ultrasonography the lesion was hypoechoic, indistinguishable from a malignant testicular neoplasm, but similar in appearance to other leiomyomas occurring elsewhere in the body.
View details for Web of Science ID A1989AE05000016
View details for PubMedID 2660961
The authors reviewed the three-phase bone scans and radiographs of 24 patients with suspected pedal osteomyelitis who also had histologic confirmation of the diagnosis. Twenty patients had a pedal ulcer, cellulitis, or necrosis. Sensitivity and specificity of bone scanning were 70% and 43% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of radiography were 70% and 50% respectively. The non-invasive diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis remains problematic due to the poor specificity of bone scans and radiographs.
View details for Web of Science ID A1989U252100003
View details for PubMedID 2706867
A patient with essential mixed cryoglobulinemia (EMC) presented initially with gastric ulcers and, six months later, with a lesion of the ileum, mild stricture of the transverse colon, and stricture of the sigmoid colon with deep ulceration. The initial diagnosis was Crohn's disease, but pathologic examination of the resected sigmoid lesion showed vasculitis secondary to EMC. Patients with EMC can present with gastrointestinal manifestations mimicking Crohn's disease. A review and classification of the gastrointestinal manifestations of EMC are presented.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988M274300014
View details for PubMedID 3360250
A patient with severe undiagnosed and untreated pyelitis developed mural masses in the renal pelvis and in the infundibulum of the upper pole calyx. The masses were presumed to be inflammatory. The patient developed a severe stricture of the renal pelvis and complete occlusion of the upper pole calyx. This is an example of obliterative pyelitis, as described in the era before antibiotics were available.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q235600010
View details for PubMedID 3188297
A 75-year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented clinically with urinary frequency was found on physical examination to have a pelvic mass. Ultrasound and computed tomography showed it to be due to a large ectopic spleen lying in the pelvis behind the bladder and compressing it anteriorly. The spleen became smaller and the symptoms regressed with chemotherapy. We review the features of an ectopic spleen as seen on diagnostic imaging studies.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988R521400007
View details for PubMedID 3072753
We present here a case of a bladder infarct as a complication of aortofemoral bypass surgery. An intravenous urogram 6 weeks after surgery showed reduced expansion on the left side of the bladder and a sausage-shaped filling defect at the site of the infarct. The diagnosis was made by histologic examination of bladder wall biopsies.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988N465300010
View details for PubMedID 3394185
This paper presents two unusual fistulae between the rectum and the lower urinary tract in adults, one a posttraumatic fistula following dilatation of a sigmoid colon stricture and the other a congenital anomaly. In both cases a contrast enema was negative; in one case a voiding cystourethrogram was negative. The fistula was demonstrated in case 1 by repeating the enema and having the patient raise his intraabdominal pressure, and in case 2 by having the patient hold while attempting to pass flatus during a cystogram, which demonstrated gas bubbles entering the bladder.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988N465300012
View details for PubMedID 3394187