Clinical Focus

  • Urology
  • Infertility, Male
  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • Men's Health
  • Hypogonadism
  • Peyronie's Disease
  • Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: Urology, American Board of Urology (2013)
  • Residency:UCSF (2010) CA
  • Residency:UCSF (2005) CA
  • Internship:UCSF (2006) CA
  • Fellowship:Baylor College of Medicine (2011) TX
  • Medical Education:Yale University School of Medicine (2004) CT


2014-15 Courses


Journal Articles

  • Semen quality, infertility and mortality in the USA HUMAN REPRODUCTION Eisenberg, M. L., Li, S., Behr, B., Cullen, M. R., Galusha, D., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2014; 29 (7): 1567-1574
  • Frequency of the Male Infertility Evaluation: Data from the National Survey of Family Growth JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Lathi, R. B., Baker, V. L., Westphal, L. M., Milki, A. A., Nangia, A. K. 2013; 189 (3): 1030-1034


    An estimated 7 million American couples per year seek infertility care in the United States. A male factor contributes to 50% of cases but it is unclear what proportion of infertile couples undergoes male evaluation.We analyzed data from cycles 5 to 7 of the National Survey of Family Growth performed by the Centers for Disease Control to determine the frequency of a male infertility evaluation, and associated reproductive and demographic factors.A total of 25,846 women and 11,067 men were surveyed. Male evaluation was not completed in 18% of couples when the male partner was asked vs 27% when female partners were asked. This corresponds to approximately 370,000 to 860,000 men in the population who were not evaluated at the time of infertility evaluation. Longer infertility duration and white race were associated with increased odds of male infertility evaluation. The male and female samples showed no change in the receipt of male examination with time.Many men from infertile couples do not undergo male evaluation in the United States. Given the potential implications to reproductive goals and male health, further examination of this pattern is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2012.08.239

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315109600076

  • Increased risk of cancer among azoospermic men. Fertility and sterility Eisenberg, M. L., Betts, P., Herder, D., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2013


    To determine whether men with azoospermia are at an elevated risk of developing cancer in the years following an infertility evaluation.Cohort study.United States andrology clinic.A total of 2,238 men with complete records were evaluated for infertility at a single andrology clinic in Texas from 1989 to 2009.None.Cancer incidence was determined by linkage to the Texas Cancer Registry.In all, 451 men had azoospermia, and 1,787 were not azoospermic, with a mean age at infertility evaluation of 35.7 years. Compared with the general population, infertile men had a higher risk of cancer, with 29 cases observed compared with 16.7 expected (standardized incidence rate [SIR] 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.5). When stratifying by azoospermia status, azoospermic men had an elevated risk of cancer (SIR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.4). Infertile men without azoospermia had a trend toward a higher rate of cancer (SIR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9-2.2). The Cox regression model revealed that azoospermic men had 2.2-fold higher cancer risk compared with nonazoospermic men (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.8).Men with azoospermia have an increased risk of subsequently developing cancer, suggesting a possible common etiology between azoospermia and cancer development. Additional follow-up of azoospermic men after reproductive efforts end may be warranted.

    View details for PubMedID 23790640

  • Sperm counts and sperm sex ratio in male infertility patients ASIAN JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Murthy, L., Hwang, K., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2012; 14 (5): 683-686


    In recent years, investigators have noted a trend toward a declining proportion of male births in many industrialized nations. While men bear the sex-determining chromosome, the role of the female partner as it pertains to fertilization or miscarriage may also alter the gender ratio. We attempted to determine a man's secondary sex ratio (F1 generation) by directly examining the sex chromosomes of his sperm. We examined our male infertility clinic database for all men who had undergone a semen fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Patient demographic and semen parameters were recorded. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare gender ratios (Y chromosomes/total chromosomes). Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the odds of possessing a Y-bearing sperm after accounting for demographic and semen parameters. A total of 185 men underwent sperm FISH. For the entire cohort, the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm was 51.5%. Men with less than five million motile sperm had a significantly lower proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm (50.8%) compared to men with higher sperm counts (51.6%; P=0.02). After multivariable adjustment, a higher sperm concentration, total motile sperm count and semen volume significantly increased the odds of having a Y chromosome-bearing sperm (P<0.01). As a man's sperm production declines, so does the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm. Thus, a man's reproductive potential may predict his ability to sire male offspring.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/aja.2012.58

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308666400009

    View details for PubMedID 22842703

  • The Relationship Between Anogenital Distance and Reproductive Hormone Levels in Adult Men JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Jensen, T. K., Walters, R. C., Skakkebaek, N. E., Lipshultz, L. I. 2012; 187 (2): 594-598


    Anogenital distance is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies in which decreased distance has been associated with testicular dysfunction. In this study we investigated whether anogenital distance was associated with reproductive hormone levels in adult men.A total of 116 men (mean age 36.1 ± 8.0 years) were evaluated at an andrology clinic in Houston. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length were measured using digital calipers. Testis size was estimated by physical examination. Linear regression was used to determine correlations between genital measurements and hormone levels.Anogenital distance (r = 0.20, p = 0.03) and penile length (r = 0.20, p = 0.03) were significantly associated with serum testosterone levels while total testis size was not (r = 0.17, p = 0.07). No relationship between genital length and luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone or estradiol was identified. After adjusting for age the serum testosterone increased by 20.1 ng/dl (95% CI 1.8, 38.4; p = 0.03) for each 1 cm increase in anogenital distance. On multivariable models no statistically significant relationship existed between penile length and testosterone levels. Moreover men with hypogonadal testosterone levels (less than 300 ng/dl) had a significantly shorter anogenital distance compared to men with higher testosterone levels (31.6 vs 37.3 mm, p = 0.02).Anogenital distance may provide a novel metric to assess testicular function in men. Assuming that anogenital distance at birth predicts adult anogenital distance, our findings suggest a fetal origin for adult testicular function.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2011.10.041

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299070400082

    View details for PubMedID 22177168

  • Fatherhood and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study HUMAN REPRODUCTION Eisenberg, M. L., Park, Y., Hollenbeck, A. R., Lipshultz, L. I., Schatzkin, A., Pletcher, M. J. 2011; 26 (12): 3479-3485


    Fertility potential and reproductive fitness may reflect a man's future health, given that over one-third of the male human genome is involved in reproduction. We sought to determine if offspring number predicts cardiovascular death in the US men.Using data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, 137,903 men (aged 50-71) without prior cardiovascular disease were followed-up for an average of 10.2 years. International Classification of Diseases, ninth edition, codes were used to establish the cause of death, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate the association between offspring number and cardiovascular death while accounting for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics.Almost all (92%) participants had fathered at least one child and 50% had three or more offspring. A total of 3082 men died of cardiovascular causes during follow-up for an age-adjusted incidence rate of 2.70 per 1000 person-years. Compared with fathers, after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, childless men had a 17% [hazard ratio (HR): 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.32] increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease contracted in the study period, and this elevated risk appeared to extend also to men with only one child. In comparison with fathers of five or more children, adjusted relative hazards for cardiovascular mortality of this sort were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.92-1.22) for four children, 1.02 (0.90-1.16) for three children, 1.02 (0.90-1.16) for two children, 1.11 (0.95-1.30) for one child and 1.21 (1.03-1.41) for no children.Married men who have no children have a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease contracted after the age of 50 than men with two or more children.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/der305

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297058000033

    View details for PubMedID 21946940

  • Fecundity and sex ratio of offspring in an infertile cohort FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L., Schembri, M., Croughan, M. S., Walsh, T. J. 2011; 96 (4): 833-836


    To determine whether male and female subfecundity is associated with the gender ratio.Retrospective cohort study.Reproductive endocrinology clinics in California.A cohort of 30,448 women who sought infertility treatment or evaluation in California between 1990 and 1998 was identified. A fertile comparison group was assembled after matching data from vital statistics records.Not applicable.Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of a male birth based on fertility status.We identified 5,293 infertile women and 6,730 fertile matched women in the live-birth and fetal death records. There were 6,178 children born to women evaluated and/or treated for infertility, compared with 9,131 born to fertile women, for a total of 15,309 births. There was no significant difference in the secondary sex ratio between births in the infertile cohort and the fertile cohort or on the basis of male factor infertility versus female factor infertility. After controlling for confounding factors, there was no difference in sex ratio based on the use of advanced reproductive technologies, duration of infertility treatment, or the type of infertility.This study found no statistical evidence to support an association between infertility and secondary sex ratio.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.07.1141

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295938800015

    View details for PubMedID 21864839

  • The Relationship between Anogenital Distance, Fatherhood, and Fertility in Adult Men PLOS ONE Eisenberg, M. L., Hsieh, M. H., Walters, R. C., Krasnow, R., Lipshultz, L. I. 2011; 6 (5)


    Anogenital distance (AGD), a sexually dimorphic measure of genital development, is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies and may be shorter in infant males with genital anomalies. Given the correlation between anogenital distance and genital development, we sought to determine if anogenital distance varied in fertile compared to infertile adult men.A cross sectional study of consecutive men being evaluated for infertility and men with proven fertility was recruited from an andrology clinic. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length (PL) were measured using digital calipers. ANOVA and linear regression were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status, and semen analysis parameters (sperm density, motility, and total motile sperm count).A total of 117 infertile men (mean age: 35.3±17.4) and 56 fertile men (mean age: 44.8±9.7) were recruited. The infertile men possessed significantly shorter mean AGD and PL compared to the fertile controls (AGD: 31.8 vs 44.6 mm, PL: 107.1 vs 119.5 mm, p<0.01). The difference in AGD persisted even after accounting for ethnic and anthropomorphic differences. In addition to fatherhood, on both unadjusted and adjusted linear regression, AGD was significantly correlated with sperm density and total motile sperm count. After adjusting for demographic and reproductive variables, for each 1 cm increase in a man's AGD, the sperm density increases by 4.3 million sperm per mL (95% CI 0.53, 8.09, p?=?0.03) and the total motile sperm count increases by 6.0 million sperm (95% CI 1.34, 10.58, p?=?0.01). On adjusted analyses, no correlation was seen between penile length and semen parameters.A longer anogenital distance is associated with fatherhood and may predict normal male reproductive potential. Thus, AGD may provide a novel metric to assess reproductive potential in men.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0018973

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290483600004

    View details for PubMedID 21589916

  • Fatherhood and incident prostate cancer in a prospective US cohort INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Park, Y., Brinton, L. A., Hollenbeck, A. R., Schatzkin, A. 2011; 40 (2): 480-487


    Fatherhood status has been hypothesized to affect prostate cancer risk but the current evidence is limited and contradictory.We prospectively evaluated the relationship between offspring number and the risk of prostate cancer in 161,823 men enrolled in the National Institues of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Participants were aged 50-71 years without a cancer diagnosis at baseline in 1995. Analysing 8134 cases of prostate cancer, Cox regression was used to estimate the association between offspring number and prostate cancer incidence while accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics.When examining the entire cohort, there was no relationship between fatherhood and incident prostate cancer [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.02]. However, after stratifying for prostate cancer screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) unscreened childless men had a lower risk of prostate cancer (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91) compared with fathers due to the interaction between PSA screening and fatherhood (P for interaction?< 0.01). A trend for the lower risk of prostate cancer among unscreened fathers compared with childless men was seen for low-grade prostate cancer (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.61-1.01), high-grade prostate cancer (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.37-1.04) and even fatal prostate cancer (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.07-1.12). The number of children fathered was not related to prostate cancer (P(trend)?= 0.17). In addition, men's inability to sire female offspring showed a weak positive association with prostate cancer in the PSA unscreened study subjects.Our findings suggest fatherhood status and offspring gender is associated with a man's prostate cancer risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ije/dyq163

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289165800028

    View details for PubMedID 20959354

  • Estimating the Number of Vasectomies Performed Annually in the United States: Data From the National Survey of Family Growth JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Lipshultz, L. I. 2010; 184 (5): 2068-2072


    While hospital discharge and ambulatory surgery registries provide accurate estimates of female sterilization procedures, current estimates of male sterilization rates are lacking since these procedures are done in many settings. Population based data are used to estimate annual sterilization numbers.We analyzed data on 4,928 men and 7,643 women from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. We determined the year of vasectomy in men and the year of tubal ligation in women who reported a history of surgical sterilization. After accounting for the complex survey design of the National Survey of Family Growth we calculated the estimated number of individuals who underwent surgical sterilization in the United States.A total of 141 men reported vasectomy, representing an overall 6% prevalence in National Survey of Family Growth survey population, while 1,173 women (16%) reported tubal ligation. Using National Survey of Family Growth data an estimated 175,000 to 354,000 vasectomies were done yearly from 1998 to 2002. In the same period the National Survey of Family Growth estimated that 546,000 to 789,000 tubal ligations were done annually in the United States. This compares closely to the 596,000 to 687,000 tubal ligations calculated using ambulatory surgery and hospital discharge data from a similar period.The estimated annual number of tubal ligations from the National Survey of Family Growth is in line with the current literature using hospital discharge and ambulatory surgery registries, suggesting the accuracy of the method of estimating surgical sterilization numbers. This suggests that the National Survey of Family Growth may be used to provide an estimate of vasectomy use in the United States.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2010.06.117

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282679200086

    View details for PubMedID 20850832

  • Increased Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer Among Infertile Men CANCER Walsh, T. J., Schembri, M., Turek, P. J., Chan, J. M., Carroll, P. R., Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Van Den Eeden, S. K., Croughan, M. S. 2010; 116 (9): 2140-2147


    It has been reported that fatherhood status may be a risk factor for prostate cancer. In the current study, the authors examined the subsequent occurrence of prostate cancer in a cohort of men evaluated for infertility to determine whether male infertility is a risk factor for prostate cancer.A total of 22,562 men who were evaluated for infertility from 1967 to 1998 were identified from 15 California infertility centers and linked to the California Cancer Registry. The incidence of prostate cancer was compared with the incidence in an age-matched and geography-matched sample of men from the general population. The risk of prostate cancer in men with and those without male factor infertility was modeled using a Cox proportional hazards regression model.A total of 168 cases of prostate cancer that developed after infertility were identified. Men evaluated for infertility but not necessarily with male factors were not found to have an increased risk of cancer compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 0.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.8-1.1). This risk was found to be highest for men with male factor infertility who developed high-grade prostate cancer (SIR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0). On multivariate analyses, men with male factor infertility were found to be 2.6 times more likely to be diagnosed with high-grade prostate cancer (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-4.8).Men with male factor infertility were found to have an increased risk of subsequently developing high-grade prostate cancer. Male infertility may be an early and identifiable risk factor for the development of clinically significant prostate cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.25075

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277111900012

    View details for PubMedID 20309846

  • Anogenital distance as a measure of human male fertility JOURNAL OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTION AND GENETICS Eisenberg, M. L., Lipshultz, L. I. 2015; 32 (3): 479-484


    In humans, recent studies have correlated anogenital distance (AGD) in adult men to testicular function. While studies of a group of men suggest an association, the utility of AGD in an infertility evaluation remains uncertain. We sought to determine the utility of AGD to predict male fertility.Between 2010 and 2011, men were recruited at a urology clinic to participate. AGD was measured using digital calipers in men being evaluated at a urology clinic. ANOVA and ROC analyses were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status, and semen parameters.In all, 473 men were included in the analysis with a mean age of 43 ± 13 years. Anogenital distance was significantly longer in men with higher sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total motile sperm count. In order to evaluate the discriminating ability of AGD, ROC curves were created comparing AGD and total testis volume. The area under the curve (AUC) was significantly larger for total testis volume compared to AGD when evaluating fertility (0.71 vs 0.63, p = 0.02). Similarly, there was a trend towards a higher AUC for testis volume compared to AGD for sperm concentration and total sperm count. Stratification of men with long/short AGD and large/small testes also did not improve the predictive value of AGD.While AGD is associated with sperm production on a population level, at the individual level the distinction based AGD alone cannot accurately estimate the efficiency of spermatogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10815-014-0410-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351509400021

    View details for PubMedID 25533333

  • Testosterone therapy and mortality risk INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMPOTENCE RESEARCH Eisenberg, M. L., Li, S., Herder, D., LAMB, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2015; 27 (2): 46-48


    Recent data suggest an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in men on testosterone therapy (TT). To date, there are no long-term, prospective studies to determine safety. In such cases, retrospective observational studies can be helpful. We examined our patient database to determine whether TT altered the risk of all-cause mortality in men. We queried our hormone database for all men with a serum testosterone level and then examined charts to determine testosterone status. In all, 509 men had charts available for review. We linked our patient records to the National Death Index to determine mortality. Of the 509 men who met inclusion criteria, 284 were on TT and 225 did not use testosterone. Age (mean 54 years) and follow-up time (mean 10 years) were similar for both groups. In all, 19 men died--10 (4.4%) men not on TT and 9 (3.2%) men on TT. After adjusting for age and year of evaluation, there was no significant difference in the risk of death based on TT (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.36-2.35, P=1.0). There appears to be no change in mortality risk overall for men utilizing long-term testosterone therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ijir.2014.29

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351022400002

    View details for PubMedID 25078049

  • Testosterone therapy and cancer risk. BJU international Eisenberg, M. L., Li, S., Betts, P., Herder, D., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2015; 115 (2): 317-321


    To determine if testosterone therapy (TT) status modifies a man's risk of cancer.The Urology clinic hormone database was queried for all men with a serum testosterone level and charts examined to determine TT status. Patient records were linked to the Texas Cancer Registry to determine the incidence of cancer. Men accrued time at risk from the date of initiating TT or the first office visit for men not on TT. Standardised incidence rates and time to event analysis were performed.In all, 247 men were on TT and 211 did not use testosterone. In all, 47 men developed cancer, 27 (12.8%) were not on TT and 20 (8.1%) on TT. There was no significant difference in the risk of cancer incidence based on TT (hazard ratio [HR] 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-1.9; P = 1.8). There was no difference in prostate cancer risk based on TT status (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.54-2.50).There was no change in cancer risk overall, or prostate cancer risk specifically, for men aged >40 years using long-term TT.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bju.12756

    View details for PubMedID 24684569

  • Relationship between semen production and medical comorbidity FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L., Li, S., Behr, B., Pera, R. R., Cullen, M. R. 2015; 103 (1): 66-71


    To study the relationship between semen quality and current health status in a cohort of men evaluated for infertility.Cross-sectional study.Fertility clinic.Nine thousand three hundred eighty-seven men evaluated for infertility between 1994 and 2011.None.Charlson comorbidity index, medical diagnoses by organ system.At the time of evaluation, 9,387 men with a mean age of 38 years had semen data available. Of these men, 44% had at least one medical diagnosis unrelated to infertility. When stratifying the cohort by the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), differences in all measured semen parameters were identified. Men with a higher CCI had lower semen volume, concentration, motility, total sperm count, and morphology scores. In addition, men with diseases of the endocrine, circulatory, genitourinary, and skin diseases all showed significantly higher rates of semen abnormalities. Upon closer examination of diseases of the circulatory system, men with hypertensive disease, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular disease, and nonischemic heart disease all displayed higher rates of semen abnormalities.The current report identified a relationship between medical comorbidites and male semen production. Although genetics help guide a man's sperm production, his current condition and health play an important role.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.10.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346911400015

    View details for PubMedID 25497466

  • Parental age at delivery and a mans semen quality HUMAN REPRODUCTION Priskorn, L., Jensen, T. K., Lindahl-Jacobsen, R., Skakkebaek, N. E., Bostofte, E., Eisenberg, M. L. 2014; 29 (5): 1097-1102


    Is parental age at delivery associated with a man's semen quality?In this large register-based study both mother's and father's age are found to have minimal effects on semen quality in men.Both maternal and paternal age have been associated with a range of adverse health effects in the offspring. Given the varied health effects of parental age upon offspring, and the sensitivity of genital development to external factors, it is plausible that the age of a man's mother and father at conception may impact his reproductive health. To our knowledge this is the first examination of the effects of parental age on semen quality.A retrospective cohort study of 10 965 men with semen data and parental data.The study was based on Danish men referred to the Copenhagen Sperm Analysis Laboratory due to infertility in their partnership. Men born from 1960 and delivering a semen sample until year 2000 were included. The men were linked to the Danish Civil Registration System to obtain information on parent's age at delivery. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for impaired semen quality. Linear regression analyses were used to examine a relationship between semen parameters and paternal age.There were no convincing effect of either mother's or father's age on a man's semen quality. As no trends were noted, the few statistically significant results are likely attributable to chance.Information regarding individual subject characteristics which may impact sperm production (i.e. smoking, BMI) were not available. While our sample size was large, we cannot exclude the possibility that a trend may have been identified with a still larger sample. In addition, the Danish Civil Registration System is merely administrative and hence does not discriminate between biological and adopted children. However, the low rate of adoption (≈2%) suggests that misclassification would have a minimal impact. The men were all referred to the laboratory for infertility problems in their partnership and, therefore, do not represent the general population. We, however, compared semen quality among men within the cohort, and it is therefore less important whether they, in fact, represent the general population.The current study found no link between parental age and a son's semen quality, suggesting other factors may explain recent impairments in men's reproductive health.This work was supported by the Hans and Nora Buchard's Fund and the Kirsten and Freddy Johansen's Fund. No competing interests.Not relevant.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/deu039

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334921400021

    View details for PubMedID 24578474

  • Fertility issues in cancer survivorship CA-A CANCER JOURNAL FOR CLINICIANS Kort, J. D., Eisenberg, M. L., Millheiser, L. S., Westphal, L. M. 2014; 64 (2): 118-134


    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Breakthroughs in cancer diagnosis and treatment have led to dramatic improvements in survival and the need to focus on survivorship issues. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be gonadotoxic, resulting in impaired fertility. Techniques to help cancer survivors reproduce have been improving over the past decade. Discussion of the changes to a patient's reproductive health after cancer treatment is essential to providing comprehensive quality care. The purpose of this review is to aid in pre- and posttreatment counseling, focusing on fertility preservation and other strategies that may mitigate risks to the patient's reproductive, sexual, and overall health. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:118-134. (©) 2013 American Cancer Society.

    View details for DOI 10.3322/caac.21205

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332963800005

    View details for PubMedID 24604743

  • Impact of fresh versus cryopreserved testicular sperm upon intracytoplasmic sperm injection pregnancy outcomes in men with azoospermia due to spermatogenic dysfunction: a meta-analysis FERTILITY AND STERILITY Ohlander, S., Hotaling, J., Kirshenbaum, E., Niederberger, C., Eisenberg, M. L. 2014; 101 (2): 344-349


    To determine if clinical pregnancy rates and fertilization rates with the use of cryopreserved sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in patients with azoospermia due to spermatogenic dysfunction (i.e., nonobstructive azoospermia) are similar to those with fresh sperm.Systematic review and meta-analysis.Academic medical center.Azoospermic men secondary to spermatogenic dysfunction.Not applicable.Clinical pregnancy rate, fertilization rate.Eleven studies met criteria for the outcome of clinical pregnancy rate. Seventy-nine (28.7%) of 275 intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles using fresh testicular sperm resulted in a clinical pregnancy, compared with 84 (28.1%) of 299 intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles using cryopreserved sperm (relative risk [RR] 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.33). Ten studies met criteria for the outcome of fertilization rate. A total of 1,422 (52.9%) of 2,687 oocytes injected with fresh testicular sperm were fertilized, compared with 1,490 (54.0%) of 2,757 oocytes injected with cryopreserved sperm (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92-1.02).In men with azoospermia due to spermatogenic dysfunction, there is no statistical difference between the use of fresh versus cryopreserved-thawed testicular sperm when assessing clinical pregnancy or fertilization rates in couples undergoing ICSI.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.10.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330578000014

    View details for PubMedID 24345355

  • The relationship between male BMI and waist circumference on semen quality: data from the LIFE study HUMAN REPRODUCTION Eisenberg, M. L., Kim, S., Chen, Z., Sundaram, R., Schisterman, E. F., Louis, G. M. 2014; 29 (2): 193-200
  • Diabetes Severity, Metabolic Syndrome, and the Risk of Erectile Dysfunction JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Weinberg, A. E., Eisenberg, M., Patel, C. J., Chertow, G. M., Leppert, J. T. 2013; 10 (12): 3102-3109


    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is more common in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and/or the metabolic syndrome (MetS).The aim of this study is to investigate the associations among proxy measures of diabetic severity and the presence of MetS with ED in a nationally representative U.S. data sample.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of adult participants in the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.ED was ascertained by self-report. T2DM severity was defined by calculated measures of glycemic control and insulin resistance (IR). IR was estimated using fasting plasma insulin (FPI) levels and the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) definition. We classified glycemic control using hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels. MetS was defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. Logistic regression models, adjusted for sociodemographics, risk factors, and comorbidities, were fitted for each measure of T2DM severity, MetS, and the presence of ED.Proxy measures of glycemic control and IR were associated with ED. Participants with FPG between 100-126 mg/dL (5.6-7 mmol/L) and ≥ 126 mg/dL (>7 mmol/L) had higher odds of ED, odds ratio (OR) 1.22 (confidence interval or CI, 0.83-1.80), and OR 2.68 (CI, 1.48-4.86), respectively. Participants with HbA1c 5.7-6.4% (38.8-46.4 mmol/mol) and ≥ 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol) had higher odds of ED (OR 1.73 [CI, 1.08-2.76] and 3.70 [CI, 2.19-6.27], respectively). When FPI and HOMA-IR were evaluated by tertiles, there was a graded relation among participants in the top tertile. In multivariable models, a strong association remained between HbA1c and ED (OR 3.19 [CI,1.13-9.01]). MetS was associated with >2.5-fold increased odds of self reported ED (OR 2.55 [CI, 1.85-3.52]).Poor glycemic control, impaired insulin sensitivity, and the MetS are associated with a heightened risk of ED.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jsm.12318

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327583600021

  • The relationship between anogenital distance and the androgen receptor CAG repeat length ASIAN JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Hsieh, T., Pastuszak, A. W., McIntyre, M. G., Walters, R. C., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2013; 15 (2): 286-289


    Anogenital distance (AGD) is used to define degree of virilization of genital development, with shorter length being associated with feminization and male infertility. The first exon of the androgen receptor (AR) consists of a polymorphic sequence of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats, with longer CAG repeat lengths being associated with decreased receptor function. We sought to determine if there is an association between AGD and AR CAG repeat length. A cross-sectional, prospective cohort of men evaluated at a urology clinic at a single institution was recruited. AGD (the distance from the posterior scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length (PL) were measured. Sanger DNA sequence analysis was used to define CAG repeat length. AGD and CAG repeat lengths in 195 men were determined. On unadjusted analysis, there was no linear relationship between CAG repeat length and PL (P=0.17) or AGD (P=0.31). However, on sub-population analyses, those men with longer CAG repeat lengths (>26) had significantly shorter AGDs compared to men with shorter CAG repeat lengths. For example, the mean AGD was 41.9 vs. 32.4 mm with a CAG repeat length ≤26 vs. >26 (P=0.01). In addition, when stratifying the cohort based on AGD, those with AGD less than the median (i.e. 40 mm) had a longer CAG repeat length compared to men with an AGD >40 mm (P=0.02). In summary, no linear relationship was found between AGD and AR CAG repeat length overall.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/aja.2012.126

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318690700031

    View details for PubMedID 23334200

  • The relationship between anogenital distance and age ANDROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Hsieh, T., Lipshultz, L. I. 2013; 1 (1): 90-93


    In humans, recent studies have correlated anogenital distance (AGD) in adult men to intrinsic testicular function. Although rodent studies suggest that AGD is determined in utero and remains constant in adult life, it is not certain if AGD remains constant across a man's adult life. We sought to determine if adult male AGD varies based on age. A cross-sectional study of men being evaluated at a men's health clinic. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length (PL) were measured using digital callipers. anova and linear regression were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status and age. In all, 473 men were included in the analysis with a mean age of 43 ± 13 years. The mean AGD for the group was 39 ± 13 mm. Anogenital distance did not vary between age categories for the entire group, for fathers, and for childless men. Moreover, penile length also remained constant across age categories. On adjusted analyses stratified by fatherhood status, there was no relationship between AGDp and age. The current cross-sectional study demonstrates that anogenital distance, defined as the distance from the posterior scrotum to the anal verge, is similar for men of different ages. As such, AGD may provide a measure for genital development and function throughout adult life. However, confirmation with longitudinal studies is needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.2047-2927.2012.00019.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315461700013

    View details for PubMedID 23258635

  • Increased cancer risk and azoospermia. Fertility and sterility Eisenberg, M. L., Betts, P., Herder, D., Lamb, D. J., Lipshultz, L. I. 2013

    View details for PubMedID 23850299

  • Anogenital distance and the risk of prostate cancer. BJU international Eisenberg, M. L. 2012; 110 (11): E711-?

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11524.x

    View details for PubMedID 22984939

  • The relationship between anogenital distance and the efficacy of varicocele repair. BJU international Eisenberg, M. L., Shy, M., Herder, D., Walters, R. C., Lipshultz, L. I. 2012; 110 (11): E927-30


    Study Type--Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Anogenital distance (AGD) is a marker of genital development and adult testicular function. To date, there is no data on the clinical utility of using such an anthropomorphic variable. About 30% of men will have no improvement in semen parameters after varicocele repair. It is currently difficult to assess which patients are most likely to benefit from surgical repair. The present study showed that men with a longer AGD had a higher likelihood of improvement after varicocelectomy. As such, AGD may allow clinicians to better counsel men on the efficacy of varicocele repair.• To investigate whether anogenital distance (AGD) can identify men most likely to show improved semen parameters after varicocele ligation, as AGD has been shown to correlate with intrinsic adult testicular function.• Men with varicoceles who were evaluated at a men's reproductive health clinic in Houston were recruited. • AGD (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) was measured using digital callipers. • Logistic regression was used to compare outcomes after stratifying men based on AGD.• In all, 46 men with a mean (sd) age of 33.1 (6.3) years with postoperative semen data were recruited. • Semen concentration, motility, and total motile sperm count all showed significant improvement postoperatively (P < 0.01). • While 48% of men with a shorter AGD had improvements in sperm concentration postoperatively, 84% of men with a longer AGD improved (P = 0.01). • There was a trend toward a lower percentage of men (62% vs 84%) with shorter AGDs showing improvements in total motile sperm count (P = 0.09).• AGD may provide a novel metric to assess intrinsic testicular function and predict efficacy of varicocele repair.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11154.x

    View details for PubMedID 22520827

  • The relationship between anogenital distance and the efficacy of varicocele repair BJU INTERNATIONAL Eisenberg, M. L., Shy, M., Herder, D., Walters, R. C., Lipshultz, L. I. 2012; 110 (11C): E927-E930

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PSY.0b013e318273880f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311131800017

    View details for PubMedID 23107840

  • Seasonal Fluctuations in Testosterone-Estrogen Ratio in Men From the Southwest United States JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY Moskovic, D. J., Eisenberg, M. L., Lipshultz, L. I. 2012; 33 (6): 1298-1304


    Although controversial, seasonal variations in testosterone have been observed in several populations of men throughout the world. This finding might have an impact on screening and treatment of hypogonadism. We examined the circannual patterns of sex hormones in the Southwest United States. A prospectively assembled database of almost 11 000 patients in a men's health practice was used to collect data on testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S). Patient age, address, and date of visit were recorded. Of note, testosterone-estrogen ratio (T/E ratio) and free testosterone were calculated values. The data were grouped by month and by season (3-month intervals beginning with June, July, and August as summer). Analysis of variance was used to compare hormone levels between seasonal and monthly data sets, with P < .05 regarded as statistical significance. Statistically significant differences in estradiol (P = .02), T/E ratio (P < .01), FSH (P = .02), and SHBG (P < .01) were observed between seasons. Peak-to-trough variations were as follows: 6% for estradiol, 16.5% for T/E ratio, 11.0% for FSH, and 11.6% for SHBG. The T/E ratio peaked in the spring and was at its nadir in the fall. No differences in testosterone (P = .21), LH (P = .25), free testosterone (P = .08), and DHEA-S (P = .11) were observed. Statistically significant evidence of variation in estradiol and T/E ratio were identified in the men included in this study. Although this is consistent with seasonal body habitus changes, physical activity levels, and hypothesized hormonal patterns, the variability reported in the literature makes further trials covering a broader geographic region important to confirm the findings.

    View details for DOI 10.2164/jandrol.112.016386

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312113200032

    View details for PubMedID 22790643

  • The relationship between anogenital distance and azoospermia in adult men INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Shy, M., Walters, R. C., Lipshultz, L. I. 2012; 35 (5): 726-730


    Anogenital distance (AGD) is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies in which decreased male AGD has been associated with testicular dysfunction. The objective of the study was to investigate whether anogenital distance could distinguish men with obstructive azoospermia (OA) from those with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). To accomplish this, azoospermic men were recruited and evaluated at a men's reproductive health clinic in Houston, TX. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length (PL) were measured using digital calipers. Testis size was estimated by physical examination. Logistic regression was used to compare AGD lengths in men with OA and men with NOA. A total of 69 OA men (mean age: 44.2 ± 9.2) and 29 NOA men (mean age: 32.8 ± 4.8) were recruited. The NOA men possessed significantly shorter mean AGD than the men with OA (AGD: 36.3 vs. 41.9 mm, p = 0.01). An AGD of less than 30 mm, had a 91% specificity in accurately classifying NOA. Moreover, after adjustment for age, race, and BMI, an AGD of less than 30 mm yielded a significantly increased odds of NOA compared to OA (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.0, 30.7). In summary, AGD may provide a novel metric for assessing testicular function in men and in distinguishing OA from NOA.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01275.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308642100014

    View details for PubMedID 22519659

  • Caucasian male infants and boys with hypospadias exhibit reduced anogenital distance HUMAN REPRODUCTION Hsieh, M. H., Eisenberg, M. L., Hittelman, A. B., Wilson, J. M., Tasian, G. E., Baskin, L. S. 2012; 27 (6): 1577-1580


    Animal models of endocrine dysfunction have associated male genital defects with reduced anogenital distance (AGD). Human studies have correlated shorter AGD with exposure to putative endocrine disruptors in the environment but have not examined AGD in hypospadiac boys. We measured AGD in boys with hypospadias and those with normal genitals.Data were collected prospectively on boys undergoing urologic procedures at the University of California San Francisco and the Children's Hospital of Oakland, CA, USA. Data included age, race, height, weight, BMI, urologic diagnoses and AGD. To minimize any potential effects of race on observed AGD, we examined only Caucasian boys. Differences between boys with hypospadias and those with normal genitals were examined through two-tailed Student's t-tests.One hundred and nineteen Caucasian boys ranging in age from 4 to 86 months underwent AGD measurement, of which 42 and 77 were boys with normal genitals and hypospadias, respectively. The mean (±SD) AGD of boys with hypospadias was 67 ± 1.2 versus 73 ± 1 mm for boys with normal genitals (P = 0.002). In these age-unmatched patient groups, there were also differences in age, height and weight (P = 0.0001, 0.0002 and 0.0004, respectively). After age matching (all <2 years of age), boys with hypospadias (n= 26) still featured a shorter AGD than boys with normal genitals (n= 26; 62 ± 2 versus 68 ± 2 mm respectively, P = 0.033) but the differences in age, height and weight were no longer significant.In humans, hypospadias may indeed be associated with reduced AGD. Additional studies are needed to corroborate these preliminary findings and to determine their etiology.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/des087

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304530900004

    View details for PubMedID 22434852

  • Men Who Seek Infertility Care May Not Represent the General US Population: Data From the National Survey of Family Growth UROLOGY Hotaling, J. M., Davenport, M. T., Eisenberg, M. L., Vandeneeden, S. K., Walsh, T. J. 2012; 79 (1): 123-127


    To examine the National Survey of Family Growth to identify differences in the characteristics of men who did and did not seek infertility care to determine whether such men are representative of the U.S. population.We analyzed the data from the 2002 (cycle 6) National Survey of Family Growth. In-home interviews were conducted from March 2002 to February 2003. A total of 4928 men were surveyed, with underrepresented groups sampled at greater rates to provide an adequate sample size for meaningful statistical analyses. The use of infertility services was queried by a single question: "Have you been to a doctor to talk about ways to help have a baby together?" The demographic and socioeconomic variables, including age, marital status, number of children, race, religion, income, education, and insurance status were analyzed for the 2161 men surveyed who were aged 30-45 years. We performed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine the predictors of infertility service use.Marital status and education level were strongly associated with infertility care seeking. In the adjusted analysis, married men were 9 times (odds ratio 9.3, 95% confidence interval 4.1-20.9) more likely to seek care than unmarried men, and men with a college degree and those with an advanced degree were 3 times (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.4-5.0) and 5 times (odds ratio 4.7, 95% confidence interval 2.1-10.5) more likely to seek care, respectively.Men seeking infertility care in the United States tend to be married, older, and more educated than those not seeking care. Given these findings, some results of male infertility studies from cohorts of men from infertility referral centers might not apply to the U.S. population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2011.09.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298671000031

    View details for PubMedID 22119258

  • Use of Google Insights for Search to Track Seasonal and Geographic Kidney Stone Incidence in the United States UROLOGY Breyer, B. N., Sen, S., Aaronson, D. S., Stoller, M. L., Erickson, B. A., Eisenberg, M. L. 2011; 78 (2): 267-271


    To determine whether Internet search volume for kidney stones has seasonal and geographic distributions similar to known kidney stone incidence.Google Insights for Search analyzes a portion of Google web searches from all Google domains to compute how many searches are performed for a given term relative to the total number of searches done over a specific time interval and geographic region. Selected terms related to kidney stones were examined to determine which most closely tracked kidney stone incidence. Google Insights for Search data were correlated with hospital admissions for the emergent treatment of nephrolithiasis found through the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Ambient temperature in Seattle and New York were compared with search volume for these regions to display qualitative relationships.The term "kidney stones" had the highest seasonal correlation of terms examined (r = .81, P = .0014). Google Insights for Search output and national Inpatient Sample admissions also correlated when regions were compared (r = .90, P = .005). Qualitative relationships between ambient temperatures and kidney stone search volume do exist.Internet search volume activity for kidney stones correlates with temporal and regional kidney stone insurance claims data. In the future, with improved modeling of search detection algorithms and increased Internet usage, search volume has the potential to serve as a surrogate for kidney stone incidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2011.01.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293577100010

    View details for PubMedID 21459414

  • Words of wisdom: Re: Does varicocele repair improve male infertility? An evidence-based perspective from a randomized, controlled trial. European urology Eisenberg, M. L., Lipshultz, L. I. 2011; 60 (2): 395-?

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eururo.2011.05.025

    View details for PubMedID 21703969

  • Socioeconomic disparities in the use and success of fertility treatments: analysis of data from a prospective cohort in the United States FERTILITY AND STERILITY Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Glidden, D., Millstein, S. G., Cedars, M., Walsh, T. J., Showstack, J., Pasch, L. A., Adler, N., Katz, P. P. 2011; 96 (1): 95-101


    To determine the effect of income, education, and race on the use and outcomes of infertility care.Prospective cohort.Eight community and academic infertility practices.Three hundred ninety-one women presenting for an infertility evaluation.Face-to-face and telephone interviews and questionnaires.Use of infertility services and odds of pregnancy. Linear and logistic regression used to assess relationship between racial and socioeconomic characteristics, use of infertility services, and infertility outcomes.After adjustment for age and demographic and fertility characteristics, college-educated couples (? = $5,786) and households earning $100,000-$150,000 (? = $6,465) and ?$150,000 (? = $8,602) spent significantly more on infertility care than their non-college-educated, lower-income counterparts. Higher income and college-educated couples were much more likely to use more cycles of higher-intensity fertility treatment. The increased cost of infertility care was primarily explained by these differences in number and type of infertility treatment. Even after adjustment for these factors and total amount spent on fertility care, having a college degree was associated with persistently higher odds of achieving a pregnancy (OR = 1.9).Education and household income were independently associated with the amount of money spent on fertility care. This relationship was primarily explained by types and intensity of infertility treatments used. Having at least a college degree was independently associated with improved odds of pregnancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.04.054

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292283000039

    View details for PubMedID 21616487

  • Contraceptive usage patterns in North American medical students CONTRACEPTION Rowen, T. S., Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Breyer, B. N., Drey, E. A., Shindel, A. W. 2011; 83 (5): 459-465


    Previous studies indicate that the sexual beliefs and mores of students in medical professions may influence their capacity to care for patients' sexuality and contraception issues. Students also represent a large sample of reproductive-age individuals. In this study, we examined contraceptive usage patterns in North American medical students.Students using online medical student social and information networks enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February and July of 2008 were invited to participate via email and published announcements in an Internet-based survey consisting of a questionnaire that assessed ethnodemographic factors, year in school and sexual history. We also collected information about current use of contraceptive and barrier methods. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses.Among our 2269 complete responses, at least one form of contraception was being utilized by 71% of men and 76% of women. Condoms were the most popular form of contraceptive, utilized by 1011 respondents (50% of men and 40% of women). Oral contraceptive pills were the contraceptive of choice for 34% of men and 41% of women. Decreased rates of contraception use were associated with being black or Asian, not being in a relationship and having more sexual dysfunction in female respondents. Students who reported comfort discussing sexual issues with patients were more likely to use effective contraceptive methods themselves. Ten percent of this of sexually active medical students was not currently using contraception.There are significant differences in contraceptive use based on demographics, even at the highest education levels. The personal contraception choices of medical students may influence their ability to accurately convey information about contraception to their patients. In addition, medical students may personally benefit from improved knowledge of effective contraceptive practices.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.contraception.2010.09.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289821600013

    View details for PubMedID 21477690

  • HIV Status is An Independent Risk Factor for Reporting Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Breyer, B. N., Van Den Eeden, S. K., Horberg, M. A., Eisenberg, M. L., Deng, D. Y., Smith, J. F., Shindel, A. W. 2011; 185 (5): 1710-1715


    HIV/AIDS is a worldwide epidemic. Limited evidence suggests that men infected with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk for lower urinary tract symptoms. We determined whether HIV/AIDS status is an independent risk factor for self-reported bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms in a large contemporary cohort.We performed a cross-sectional, Internet based survey of urinary quality of life outcomes in adult HIV infected and HIV uninfected men who have sex with men. The main outcome measure was International Prostate Symptom Score.Of respondents with complete data 1,507 were HIV uninfected (median age 42 years, mean 43) and 323 HIV infected (median age 45 years, mean 45.1). Of the HIV infected respondents 148 were nonAIDS defining HIV infected and 175 were AIDS defining HIV infected. After adjusting for age and other comorbid conditions, nonAIDS defining HIV infected and AIDS defining HIV infected status increased the odds of severe lower urinary tract symptoms by 2.07 (95% CI 1.04-3.79) and 2.49 (95% CI 1.43-4.33), respectively. HIV infected men had a worse total International Prostate Symptom Score for all domains including quality of life compared to HIV uninfected men. Within the population of men with HIV, those with AIDS had worse mean total International Prostate Symptom Score and all individual International Prostate Symptom Score components relative to nonAIDS defining HIV infected men.HIV status is an independent risk factor for bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. The odds of severe lower urinary tract symptoms are greater in HIV infected men with a history of AIDS.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2010.12.043

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289279600050

    View details for PubMedID 21420120

  • Re: Estimating the Number of Vasectomies Performed Annually in the United States: Data From the National Survey of Family Growth JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Lipshultz, L. I. 2011; 185 (4): 1541-1542

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288430200141

    View details for PubMedID 21345456

  • Costs of infertility treatment: results from an 18-month prospective cohort study FERTILITY AND STERILITY Katz, P., Showstack, J., Smith, J. F., Nachtigall, R. D., Millstein, S. G., Wing, H., Eisenberg, M. L., Pasch, L. A., Croughan, M. S., Adler, N. 2011; 95 (3): 915-921


    To examine resource use (costs) by women presenting for infertility evaluation and treatment over 18 months, regardless of treatment pursued.Prospective cohort study in which women were followed for 18 months.Eight infertility practices.Three hundred ninety-eight women recruited from infertility practices.Women completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline and after 4, 10, and 18 months of follow-up. Medical records were abstracted after 18 months to obtain details of services used.Per-person and per-successful-outcome costs.Treatment groups were defined as highest intensity treatment use. Twenty percent of women did not pursue cycle-based treatment; approximately half pursued IVF. Median per-person costs ranged from $1,182 for medications only to $24,373 and $38,015 for IVF and IVF-donor egg groups, respectively. Estimates of costs of successful outcomes (delivery or ongoing pregnancy by 18 months) were higher--$61,377 for IVF, for example--reflecting treatment success rates. Within the time frame of the study, costs were not significantly different for women whose outcomes were successful and women whose outcomes were not.Although individual patient costs vary, these cost estimates developed from actual patient treatment experiences may provide patients with realistic estimates to consider when initiating infertility treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.11.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287480300014

    View details for PubMedID 21130988

  • Pentoxifylline treatment and penile calcifications in men with Peyronie's disease ASIAN JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY Smith, J. F., Shindel, A. W., Huang, Y., Clavijo, R. I., Flechner, L., Breyer, B. N., Eisenberg, M. L., Lue, T. F. 2011; 13 (2): 322-325


    This retrospective cohort study from a single clinical practice enrolled patients with evidence of calcified Peyronie's disease (PD) plaques detected on penile ultrasound at the time of initial presentation. The primary objective was to describe the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) treatment on subtunical calcifications in men with PD. A PD-specific questionnaire was administered and sonographic evaluations were performed at baseline and follow-up visits. Descriptive statistics and ?(2) analysis were used to characterize the effect of PTX on calcified tunical plaques. In all, 71 men (mean age: 51.9 years) with PD and sonographic evidence of calcification were identified. Of them, 62 of these men were treated with PTX for a mean duration of 1 year, and nine with vitamin E or no treatment. Improvement or stabilization in calcium burden at follow-up was noted in 57 (91.9%) of men treated with PTX versus four (44.4%) of those not treated with PTX (P<0.001). PTX users were much less likely to have a subjective worsening of their clinical condition (25.0% versus 78.3%, P=0.002). Treatment with PTX appeared to stabilize or reduce calcium content in PD plaques. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to further explore this effect.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/aja.2010.117

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288074400035

    View details for PubMedID 21102473

  • The importance of tumor palpability and transrectal ultrasonographic appearance in the contemporary clinical staging of prostate cancer UROLOGIC ONCOLOGY-SEMINARS AND ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Eisenberg, M. L., Cowan, J. E., Davies, B. J., Carroll, P. R., Shinohara, K. 2011; 29 (2): 171-176


    An accurate assessment of the clinical stage of prostate cancer is important to determine the most appropriate treatments for patients. Most centers rely on digital rectal examination, given conflicting results in the literature regarding the role of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS).Since ultrasound technologies as well as physician experience have improved, the contemporary impact of TRUS on the clinical staging of prostate cancer was assessed.In 2002, a standardized form to evaluate TRUS findings in order to rank the clinical suspicion of extracapsular extension (ECE) was used for all prostate cancer patients evaluated at UCSF. Preoperative clinical findings were compared with pathological staging as assessed by analysis of radical prostatectomy specimens from 2002 to 2007 (n = 620).Mean patient age was 58 ± 6.6 years with a mean PSA of 7.0 ± 4.5; 157/620 (25.3%) had pathologic ECE. Evidence of ECE by TRUS was associated with higher pathologic stage (P < 0.00001) and higher rates of biochemical failure after prostatectomy (P = 0.0006). Overall, TRUS had a 31% sensitivity, 92% specificity, 58% positive predictive value, and 80% negative predictive value with an area under the curve of 0.77 for the detection of ECE. TRUS alone was significantly more accurate in predicting ECE than commonly used nomograms or tables (P < 0.001) when examining patients with impalpable tumors.In the current era, TRUS provides an accurate method to assess a cancer stage.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.01.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288342700012

    View details for PubMedID 19362864

  • Tunica-sparing ossified Peyronie's plaque excision BJU INTERNATIONAL Eisenberg, M. L., Smith, J. F., Shindel, A. W., Lue, T. F. 2011; 107 (4): 622-625


    Ossified Peyronie's plaques may require surgical excision because of the palpable problems and penile curvature that result. As tunical excision can result in impotence and decrease penile sensation, we describe a novel method of tunical preserving excision of such lesions.We evaluated 12 men with dorsal penile curvature between 10° and 90°. Penile plaque size ranged from 1 to 5 cm. 80% had painful erections. An artificial erection was induced with intracavernous injection of papaverine to assess penile deformity. Via a circumcising or ventral incision, plication sutures were placed to correct penile curvature. A lateral longitudinal corporotomy was made and the calcified/ossified portion was dissected free from the tunica albuginea/plaque of the corpora cavernosa. Watertight tunical closure was then performed.Postoperatively, 80% of men reported erections always adequate for intercourse and normal sensation with a mean follow-up of 7 months (range 2.1-14.5 months). All patients required simultaneous penile plication to ensure a straight phallus. Pathologic evaluation of plaque specimens all showed bone fragments.Tunica-sparing excision of the ossified/calcified portion of Peyronie's plaques shows a durable benefit for large, ossified lesions and maintains potency and penile sensation.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09546.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286767300016

    View details for PubMedID 20804484

  • Sexual Function and Depressive Symptoms Among Female North American Medical Students JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Shindel, A. W., Eisenberg, M. L., Breyer, B. N., Sharlip, I. D., Smith, J. F. 2011; 8 (2): 391-399


    Depression and sexual dysfunction are often comorbid.We explored the relationship between sexuality, sexual dysfunction, and depressive symptoms in female medical students in North America.Female North American medical students were invited to participate in an internet survey. The CES-D was utilized to screen for depressive symptoms and an abbreviated Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) was used to quantify anxiety symptoms.Subjects completed an ethnodemographic survey, a sexuality survey, and modified instruments for the quantification of sexual function (the Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI] and the Index of Sexual Life [ISL]). Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between sexuality and depressive symptoms.There were 1,241 female subjects with complete data on CES-D and STAI. Mean age was 25.4 years. Depressive symptoms (CES-D>16) were present in 46% of respondents and were more common in subjects with anxiety symptoms. Subjects who were Caucasian, younger than 28, heterosexual, and in a relationship were least likely to report depressive symptoms. High risk of female sexual dysfunction (HRFSD) was significantly associated with greater likelihood of depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 2.25, P<0.001). After adjusting for ethnodemographic and sexual history factors, HRFSD remained significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms (OR 1.85, P<0.001). Analysis of FSFI and ISL domains indicated that depressive symptoms were most directly associated with worse orgasmic function, interference in sex life from stress and lack of partner, and lower general life satisfaction (P<0.05). Interestingly, greater ISL-sexual satisfaction was associated with greater odds of depressive symptoms (OR 1.40, P=0.01).Depressive symptoms are common in female medical students. HRFSD is associated with depressive symptoms, although the relationship is complex when psychosocial factors are included in the multivariate model. Attention to sexuality factors from student health providers may enhance quality-of-life, academic achievement, and patient care.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02085.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286838900008

    View details for PubMedID 21054793

  • Management for Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Posterior Urethral and Bladder Neck Stenosis With Stents JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Erickson, B. A., McAninch, J. W., Eisenberg, M. L., Washington, S. L., Breyer, B. N. 2011; 185 (1): 198-203


    Prostate cancer treatment has the potential to lead to posterior urethral stricture. These strictures are sometimes recalcitrant to dilation and urethrotomy alone. We present our experience with the Urolume® stent for prostate cancer treatment related stricture.A total of 38 men with posterior urethral stricture secondary to prostate cancer treatment were treated with Urolume stenting. Stents were placed in all men after aggressive urethrotomy over the entire stricture. A successfully managed stricture was defined as open and stable for greater than 6 months after any necessary secondary procedures.The initial success rate was 47%. After a total of 31 secondary procedures in 19 men, including additional stent placement in 8 (18%), the final success rate was 89% at a mean ± SD followup of 2.3 ± 2.5 years. Four cases (11%) in which treatment failed ultimately requiring urinary diversion (3) or salvage prostatectomy (1). Incontinence was noted in 30 men (82%), of whom 19 (63%) received an artificial urinary sphincter a mean of 7.2 ± 2.4 months after the stent. Subanalysis revealed that irradiated men had longer strictures (3.6 vs 2.0 cm, p = 0.003) and a higher post-stent incontinence rate (96% vs 50%, p < 0.001) than men who underwent prostatectomy alone but the initial failure rate was similar (54% vs 50%, p = 0.4).Urolume stenting is a reasonable option for severe post-prostate cancer treatment stricture when patients are unwilling or unable to undergo open reconstructive surgery. Incontinence should be expected. The need for additional procedures is common and in some men may be required periodically for the lifetime of the stent.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2010.09.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285141900064

    View details for PubMedID 21074796

  • Varicocele-induced infertility: Newer insights into its pathophysiology. Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India Eisenberg, M. L., Lipshultz, L. I. 2011; 27 (1): 58-64


    The association between varicoceles and male infertility has been known since the 1950s; however, the pathophysiology of the process remains uncertain. The primary proposed hypotheses involve hyperthermia, venous pressure, testicular blood flow, hormonal imbalance, toxic substances, and reactive oxygen species. It is difficult to identify a single or dominant factor, and it is likely that many of these factors contribute to the infertile phenotype seen in clinical practice. Moreover, patient lifestyle and genetic factors likely affect patient susceptibilities to the varicocele insult. While the current studies have weaknesses, they provide building blocks for futures studies into the pathophysiology of the varicocele.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/0970-1591.78428

    View details for PubMedID 21716891

  • Fertility treatments and outcomes among couples seeking fertility care: data from a prospective fertility cohort in the United States FERTILITY AND STERILITY Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Millstein, S. G., Nachtigall, R. D., Sadetsky, N., Cedars, M. I., Katz, P. P. 2011; 95 (1): 79-84


    To determine the relationship between number of fertility treatment cycles and pregnancy rates.Prospective cohort study.Eight community and academic infertility practices.Four hundred eight (408) couples presenting for an infertility evaluation.Face-to-face and telephone interviews and questionnaires.Incidence of pregnancy. Cox regression analysis compared the efficacy of cycle-based fertility treatments with no cycle-based fertility treatment after multivariable adjustment.Couples using one to two medications-only cycles had a significantly higher pregnancy rate (hazard ratio [HR] 4.7 [95% confidence interval 1.3-16.6]), a benefit that did not persist after three or more cycles (HR 0.6 [0.1-3.2]). Couples using IUI for one (HR 2.9 [1.4-5.8]), two (HR 2.0 [0.9-4.5]), and three cycles (HR 4.5 [1.8-10.9]) were more likely to achieve a pregnancy. No additional benefit was seen for couples using four or more IUI cycles (HR 1.0 [0.4-2.6]). In vitro fertilization was associated with significant benefit for couples using one (HR 2.8 [1.5-5.2]) and two cycles (HR 2.2 [1.2-4.1]). Couples using three or more IVF cycles had a non-statistically significant higher likelihood of pregnancy (HR 1.3 [0.7-2.4]).Cycle-based fertility treatments may offer a point of diminishing returns for infertile couples: two cycles of medications only, three cycles of IUI, and two cycles of IVF.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.06.043

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285411600021

    View details for PubMedID 20659733

  • Sexual Function and Depressive Symptoms among Male North American Medical Students JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Smith, J. F., Breyer, B. N., Eisenberg, M. L., Sharlip, I. D., Shindel, A. W. 2010; 7 (12): 3909-3917


    The role of sexuality as an association of medical student well-being has not been extensively studied.We explored the relationship between depressive symptoms, sexuality, and sexual dysfunction in male North American medical students.North American medical students were invited to participate in an Internet-based survey. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was utilized to screen for depressive symptoms.Subjects completed an ethnodemographic survey, a sexuality survey, and instruments for the quantification of anxiety, sexuality, and psychosocial function. Descriptive statistics, odds ratios (ORs), and logistic regression were used to analyze our data.There were 844 male subjects with complete data on the CES-D and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index. Depressive symptoms (CES-D ? 16) were present in 37% of respondents and were more common in subjects with greater levels of anxiety. Subjects who were in sexual relationships and/or had frequent sexual activity were less likely to be depressed compared to other subjects. Erectile dysfunction (ED) was associated with significantly greater likelihood of depressive symptoms (OR 2.90 and 9.27 for depressive symptoms in men with mild or moderate/severe ED relative to men without ED, P < 0.01). After adjusting for ethnodemographic and sexual history factors, ED remained significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms (OR 2.87 and 6.59 for depressive symptoms in men with mild or moderate/severe ED relative to men without ED after adjustment, P ? 0.01). Inclusion of data related to psychosocial/relationship factors in the multivariate model eliminated the significant association between ED and depressive symptoms (OR 1.59 and 2.29 for depressive symptoms in men with mild or moderate/severe ED relative to men without ED after adjustment with the Self-Esteem and Relationship quality instrument, P > 0.05), suggesting that psychosocial factors were more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than erectile function.Healthy sexuality and relationships may be protective against depressive symptoms in medical students. Attention to these factors may enhance medical student well-being.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02033.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284850800011

    View details for PubMedID 21059174

  • Predictors of not pursuing infertility treatment after an infertility diagnosis: examination of a prospective US cohort FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L., Smith, J. F., Millstein, S. G., Nachtigall, R. D., Adler, N. E., Pasch, L. A., Katz, P. P. 2010; 94 (6): 2369-2371


    We studied a prospective cohort of 434 couples in Northern California and found that 13% did not pursue any form of infertility treatment after their initial consultation. Although age, education, and financial concerns remain important for patients in choosing whether to pursue infertility treatment, depressive symptoms may also be a barrier to achieving reproductive goals.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.03.068

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283441400097

    View details for PubMedID 20471010

  • The impact of infertility on family size in the USA: data from the National Survey of Family Growth HUMAN REPRODUCTION Breyer, B. N., Smith, J. F., Shindel, A. W., Sharlip, I. D., Eisenberg, M. L. 2010; 25 (9): 2360-2365


    Investigators have postulated that family size may be influenced by biologic fertility potential in addition to sociodemographic factors. The aim of the current study is to determine if a diagnosis of infertility is associated with family size in the USA.We analyzed data from the male and female samples of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth using multivariable logistic regression models to determine the relationship between infertility and family size while adjusting for sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics.In the survey, 4409 women and 1739 men met the inclusion criteria, of whom 10.2% and 9.7%, respectively, were classified as infertile, on the basis of having sought reproductive assistance. Infertile females had a 34% reduced odds of having an additional child compared with women who did not seek reproductive assistance. For each additional 6 months it took a woman to conceive her first child, the odds of having a larger family fell by 9% and the odds of having a second child were reduced by 11%. A diagnosis of male infertility reduced the odds of having a larger family more than a diagnosis of female infertility.A diagnosis of infertility, especially male factor, is associated with reduced odds of having a larger family, implicating a biologic role in the determination of family size in the USA.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/deq152

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281343700026

    View details for PubMedID 20601679

  • Perceived negative consequences of donor gametes from male and female members of infertile couples FERTILITY AND STERILITY Eisenberg, M. L., Smith, J. F., Millstein, S. G., Walsh, T. J., Breyer, B. N., Katz, P. P. 2010; 94 (3): 921-926


    To determine the views toward donor sperm and eggs of both men and women. The use of donor sperm or ova becomes an option for some infertile couples.Prospective cohort of infertile couples.Eight California reproductive endocrinology practices.Infertile couples (n=377) were recruited after an initial infertility clinic visit.From questionnaires administered at recruitment, ratings concerning the impact of the use of donor gametes were assessed. Differences between men and women in attitudes toward donor gametes were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA). Linear regression was used to identify independent predictors of attitudes toward gametes.Women's attitudes toward donor sperm were significantly more negative than their attitudes toward donor eggs (5.1+/-1.4 vs. 4.7+/-1.6). Similarly, male donor gamete attitude scores were higher for donor sperm compared with donor eggs (4.9+/-1.6 vs. 4.1+/-1.6). Both men and women agreed that the use of donor sperm was more likely to have negative effects on their relationship and negative societal ramifications. Female donor gamete attitude scores were predicted by marital status, race, and education, whereas men's scores were independent of all measured factors.Both men and women view the use of donor sperm with more skepticism compared with the use of donor eggs, suggesting a unique underlying perception regarding the use of male donor gametes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.04.049

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280407900016

    View details for PubMedID 19523614

  • Use of Google in Study of Noninfectious Medical Conditions EPIDEMIOLOGY Breyer, B. N., Eisenberg, M. L. 2010; 21 (4): 584-585

    View details for DOI 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181e080cd

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279038600024

    View details for PubMedID 20539114

  • The Impact of Sexual Orientation on Sexuality and Sexual Practices in North American Medical Students JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Breyer, B. N., Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Ando, K. A., Rowen, T. S., Shindel, A. W. 2010; 7 (7): 2391-2400


    There has been limited investigation of the sexuality and sexual dysfunction in non-heterosexual subjects by the sexual medicine community. Additional research in these populations is needed.To investigate and compare sexuality and sexual function in students of varying sexual orientations.An internet-based survey on sexuality was administered to medical students in North American between the months of February and July of 2008.All subjects provided information on their ethnodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and sexual history. Subjects also completed a series of widely-utilized instruments for the assessment of human sexuality (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI], Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool [PEDT], Index of Sex Life [ISL]).There were 2,276 completed responses to the question on sexual orientation. 13.2% of male respondents and 4.7% of female respondents reported a homosexual orientation; 2.5% of male and 5.7% of female respondents reported a bisexual orientation. Many heterosexual males and females reported same-sex sexual experiences (4% and 10%, respectively). Opposite-sex experiences were very common in the male and female homosexual population (37% and 44%, respectively). The prevalence of premature ejaculation (PEDT > 8) was similar among heterosexual and homosexual men (16% and 17%, P = 0.7, respectively). Erectile dysfunction (IIEF-EF < 26) was more common in homosexual men relative to heterosexual men (24% vs. 12%, P = 0.02). High risk for female sexual dysfunction (FSFI < 26.55) was more common in heterosexual and bisexual women compared with lesbians (51%, 45%, and 29%, respectively, P = 0.005).In this survey of highly educated young professionals, numerous similarities and some important differences in sexuality and sexual function were noted based on sexual orientation. It is unclear whether the dissimilarities represent differing relative prevalence of sexual problems or discrepancies in patterns of sex behavior and interpretation of the survey questions.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01794.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279620100010

    View details for PubMedID 20384941

  • Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Quantitative 24-Hour Urine Chemistries in Patients With Nephrolithiasis UROLOGY Eisner, B. H., Eisenberg, M. L., Stoller, M. L. 2010; 75 (6): 1289-1293


    To examine the relationship between body mass index and 24-hour urine constituents in a population of stone-forming patients.A total of 880 patients who presented to a metabolic stone clinic for initial evaluation were analyzed. Patients were stratified by gender and divided into quartiles of body mass index. Associations between body mass index (BMI) and urine parameters were explored using bivariate and multivariate linear regression.On bivariate analysis, increasing body mass index was associated with a significant increase in sodium, calcium, citrate, uric acid, magnesium, calcium oxalate, uric acid, and a decrease in pH in men. In women, it was associated with a significant increase in sodium, uric acid, oxalate, uric acid, and decreasing pH. On multivariate analysis, BMI was associated only with increases in sodium and calcium oxalate and decrease in pH in men. In women, multivariate analysis demonstrated positive association between BMI and urine sodium, creatinine, and phosphate and a negative relationship with urine citrate and sulfate.Increasing body mass index was related to several risk factors for urinary stone disease in this study, including increasing urine sodium and decreasing pH in men and increasing urine uric acid, sodium, and decreasing urine citrate in women. Just as general recommendations for patients with nephrolithiasis include high voided volumes, low dietary sodium, and low animal protein intake, perhaps weight reduction should be included as part of the counseling of stone-formers to optimize 24-hour urine parameters.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2009.09.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278221100015

    View details for PubMedID 20018350

  • Selective arterial embolization of angiomyolipoma leading to pulmonary hypertension CANADIAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Lee, F., Aaronson, D. S., Blaschko, S., Barbosa, P., Wu, A. K., Eisenberg, M., Erickson, B. A., McAninch, J. W. 2010; 17 (3): 5232-5235


    To report two cases of secondary pulmonary hypertension resulting from microsphere extravasation following selective arterial embolization of renal angiomyolipoma, its diagnosis, and management.We reviewed the cases of two patients at the University of California, San Francisco, treated with selective arterial embolization for management of their angiomyolipoma (AML) using Tris-Acryl Gelatin Microspheres.Both patients were women, ages 51 and 77. Indications for treatment were the following: Patient 1 was treated for a large asymptomatic AML. Patient 2 was treated for a symptomatic, bleeding AML. Both patients developed progressive hypoxia following selective arterial embolization using Tris-Acryl Gelatin Microspheres. Each patient underwent a subsequent work up including a CT chest, echocardiogram, and chest x-ray. Both demonstrated significant pulmonary hypertension following their procedure and were discharged with supplemental oxygen.Selective arterial embolization of AML with microsphere extravasation into the pulmonary vasculature can lead to pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemia.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279294100020

    View details for PubMedID 20566024

  • The use of complementary and alternative fertility treatment in couples seeking fertility care: data from a prospective cohort in the United States FERTILITY AND STERILITY Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Millstein, S. G., Nachtigall, R. D., Shindel, A. W., Wing, H., Cedars, M., Pasch, L., Katz, P. P. 2010; 93 (7): 2169-2174


    To determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among couples seeking fertility care and to identify the predictors of CAM use in this population.Prospective cohort study.Eight community and academic infertility practices.A total of 428 couples presenting for an infertility evaluation.Interviews and questionnaires.Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine therapy.After 18 months of observation, 29% of the couples had utilized a CAM modality for treatment of infertility; 22% had tried acupuncture, 17% herbal therapy, 5% a form of body work, and 1% meditation. An annual household income of > or = $200,000 (odds ratio 2.8, relative to couples earning <$100,000), not achieving a pregnancy (odds ratio 2.3), and a positive attitude toward CAM use at baseline were independently associated with CAM use.A substantial minority of infertile couples use CAM treatments. CAM was chosen most commonly by wealthier couples, those not achieving a pregnancy, and those with a baseline belief in the effectiveness of CAM treatments.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.02.054

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277608200012

    View details for PubMedID 20338559

  • The adjunctive use of power Doppler imaging in the preoperative assessment of prostate cancer BJU INTERNATIONAL Eisenberg, M. L., Cowan, J. E., Carroll, P. R., Shinohara, K. 2010; 105 (9): 1237-1240


    To determine if the adjunctive use of power Doppler imaging (PDI) could provide prognostic utility in the treatment of prostate cancer, as an accurate prediction of the clinical behaviour of prostate cancer is important to determine appropriate treatment.Most centres rely on a digital rectal examination or transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) to assess the clinical stage of patients. In 2002, we began using a standardized form to evaluate TRUS findings and PDI findings. We compared preoperative clinical findings with those from pathological analysis of 620 radical prostatectomy specimens from 2002 to 2007.The mean (sd) patient age was 58 (6.6) years with a mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 7.0 (4.5) ng/mL. Of the 620 specimens 157 (25.3%) had evidence of extracapsular extension on pathological evaluation; 443 (71.5%) men had a hypervascular lesion seen on TRUS, while 177 (28.5%) patients had none. There was no difference in preoperative PSA level, grade or stage of tumour. Furthermore, rates of biochemical recurrence or secondary treatment did not differ based on PDI findings. As a tool to help locate prostate tumours, PDI improved the specificity of TRUS but did not improve the overall accuracy or sensitivity.PDI provides little prognostic utility to assess risk in prostate cancer. However, PDI might improve the specificity of TRUS in identifying prostate tumours and could have a role in image guidance for focal therapy of prostate cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2009.08958.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276486900008

    View details for PubMedID 19888980

  • Prognostic Implications of an Undetectable Ultrasensitive Prostate-Specific Antigen Level after Radical Prostatectomy EUROPEAN UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Davies, B. J., Cooperberg, M. R., Cowan, J. E., Carroll, P. R. 2010; 57 (4): 622-629


    The prognostic meaning of an undetectable ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen (USPSA) level after prostatectomy remains unclear.To determine whether an undetectable USPSA level obtained after surgery is a predictor of biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival.From the Urologic Oncology Database at the University of California San Francisco, 525 men were identified who had a USPSA measurement 1-3 mo postoperatively with at least 2 yr of follow-up. All preoperative and pathologic criteria were recorded.Patients were stratified based on their initial USPSA level. We defined an undetectable USPSA level at ?0.05 ng/ml. Recurrence was defined as two consecutive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ?0.2 ng/ml or secondary treatment.We found that 456 patients (87%) had undetectable USPSA and 69 patients (13%) had detectable USPSA immediately postprostatectomy. A 5-yr recurrence-free rate of 86% was found in the undetectable USPSA group compared with 67% in the detectable USPSA group (p<0.01). For patients with pT3 disease, men with an undetectable USPSA had a 5-yr BCR-free survival rate of 78% compared with 40% for men with a detectable USPSA (p<0.01). A multivariable analysis confirmed that patients with an undetectable USPSA were 67% less likely to recur (hazard ratio: 0.33; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.55). As the detection level of PSA is lowered, the false-positive rate of BCR necessarily increases. A limitation of the study is its retrospective nature.An undetectable USPSA after radical prostatectomy is a prognostic indicator of BCR-free survival at 5 yr and may aid in predicting outcome in higher risk patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eururo.2009.03.077

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275739300017

    View details for PubMedID 19375843

  • Are Sonographic Characteristics Associated With Progression to Surgery in Men With Peyronie's Disease? JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Breyer, B. N., Shindel, A. W., Huang, Y., Eisenberg, M. L., Weiss, D. A., Lue, T. F., Smith, J. F. 2010; 183 (4): 1484-1488


    Traditionally, diagnosis and treatment plans for Peyronie's disease have been based on history and physical examination. Penile ultrasound provides rapid, anatomical information to establish disease severity, and to monitor progression and response to medical therapy. We determined the relationship between ultrasound characteristics and progression to surgical intervention in men with Peyronie's disease.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 518 patients with Peyronie's disease. Patients completed a Peyronie's disease specific questionnaire detailing medical history, health related behaviors and Peyronie's disease characteristics, and underwent sonographic evaluation of the penis. Measurements of subtunical calcifications, septal fibrosis, tunical thickening (tunica thickness greater than 2 mm) and intracavernous fibrosis were made. Progression to surgery was determined from the medical record.In this cohort (mean patient age 53.8 years, range 20 to 78) 31% of patients had calcifications, 50% had tunical thickening, 20% had septal fibrosis and 15% had intracavernous fibrosis. Overall 25% of the cohort progressed to surgical intervention after an average followup of 1.25 years (range 0 to 7.6). Patients who underwent surgery were more likely to have subtunical calcifications present at the first clinic visit (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.16-2.62). No other sonographic characteristics were associated with progression to surgery. After adjustment for age, marital status, degree of curvature, additional penile deformity, difficulty with penetration, ability to have intercourse and prior treatment for Peyronie's disease, calcifications were strongly associated with progression to surgery (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.25-3.45).In a large cohort of patients with Peyronie's disease the presence of sonographically detected sub-tunical calcifications during the initial office evaluation was independently associated with subsequent surgical intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2009.12.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275968200081

    View details for PubMedID 20171694

  • Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors for Long-Term Urethroplasty Outcome JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Breyer, B. N., McAninch, J. W., Whitson, J. M., Eisenberg, M. L., Mehdizadeh, J. F., Myers, J. B., Voelzke, B. B. 2010; 183 (2): 613-617


    We studied the patient risk factors that promote urethroplasty failure.Records of patients who underwent urethroplasty at the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center between 1995 and 2004 were reviewed. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to identify multivariate predictors of urethroplasty outcome.Between 1995 and 2004, 443 patients of 495 who underwent urethroplasty had complete comorbidity data and were included in analysis. Median patient age was 41 years (range 18 to 90). Median followup was 5.8 years (range 1 month to 10 years). Stricture recurred in 93 patients (21%). Primary estimated stricture-free survival at 1, 3 and 5 years was 88%, 82% and 79%. After multivariate analysis smoking (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.1, p = 0.05), prior direct vision internal urethrotomy (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.0, p = 0.04) and prior urethroplasty (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.1, p = 0.03) were predictive of treatment failure. On multivariate analysis diabetes mellitus showed a trend toward prediction of urethroplasty failure (HR 2.0, 95% CI 0.8-4.9, p = 0.14).Length of urethral stricture (greater than 4 cm), prior urethroplasty and failed endoscopic therapy are predictive of failure after urethroplasty. Smoking and diabetes mellitus also may predict failure potentially secondary to microvascular damage.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2009.10.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273540600079

    View details for PubMedID 20018318

  • Socioeconomic, Anthropomorphic, and Demographic Predictors of Adult Sexual Activity in the United States: Data from the National Survey of Family Growth JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Eisenberg, M. L., Shindel, A. W., Smith, J. F., Breyer, B. N., Lipshultz, L. I. 2010; 7 (1): 50-58


    Individuals who engage in regular sexual intercourse are more likely to report good overall quality of life. Studies of sexuality in adolescents have focused on high-risk behaviors whereas similar studies in older adults have focused on sexual dysfunction. Given a paucity of data on the sexual behaviors of young adults and the possibility of important relationships between sexuality and overall health, we sought to determine factors that influence the frequency of intercourse in adult men and women in the United States.To identify factors related to coital frequency in young and middle-aged adults.We analyzed data from the male and female sample of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to examine frequency of sexual intercourse among Americans aged 25-45 years (men: N = 2,469; women: N = 5,120).Multivariable negative binomial regression modeling was used to test for independent associations between the frequency of sexual intercourse and demographic, socioeconomic, and anthropometric variables.In this study, men and women between the ages of 25 and 45 have sex a mean 5.7 and 6.4 times per month, respectively. Being married significantly increased coital frequency for women but has no effect on male coital frequency. Increased height, less than high school education, and younger age were predictive of increased sexual frequency in men. Pregnancy was associated with significantly lower coital frequency for both men and women. No association was shown between self-reported health status and coital frequency on multivariable analysis.Among young male adults, coital frequency is associated with specific socioeconomic, demographic, and anthropomorphic characteristics. Sexual frequency in women does not appear to be influenced by such factors. Self-reported health is not predictive of sexual activity in this age group.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01522.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273313600006

    View details for PubMedID 19796014

  • Impact of Urine Sodium on Urine Risk Factors for Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisner, B. H., Eisenberg, M. L., Stoller, M. L. 2009; 182 (5): 2330-2333


    Increased sodium intake is thought to promote nephrolithiasis by dietary sodium hypercalciuric effects. However, equivocal data exist on whether increased urine sodium actually increases the nephrolithiasis risk. We examined the relationship between urine sodium and urine risk factors for nephrolithiasis.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 880 patients evaluated at a metabolic stone clinic to determine the relationship between urine sodium and urine calcium, volume and calcium oxalate supersaturation. Patients were separated into sodium excretion quintiles. Tests of linear trend were performed by examining the linear contrast in coefficients and using Cuzick's nonparametric linear trend test. Multivariate linear regression with urine sodium as a continuous variable was done to assess the relationship between urine sodium and other urine variables.Tests of linear trend showed that urine calcium and volume increased with increasing urine sodium (each p <0.01) but urine calcium oxalate supersaturation decreased with increasing urine sodium (p <0.01). Multivariate linear regression was adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and urine constituents. Urine sodium was positively associated with urine calcium (beta = 0.28, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41, p <0.001) but negatively associated with urine calcium oxalate supersaturation (beta = -0.013, 95% CI -0.016 to -0.011, p <0.001). There was a trend toward a positive association of urine sodium and volume (beta = 0.001, 95% CI -0.00019 to 0.002, p = 0.10).Increasing urine sodium does not appear to increase the risk of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Global sodium restriction may not necessarily alter the risk of stone formation, ie cause changes in calcium oxalate urine supersaturation, in patients with a history of nephrolithiasis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2009.07.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270756900082

    View details for PubMedID 19758639

  • Racial Differences in Vasectomy Utilization in the United States: Data From the National Survey of Family Growth UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Henderson, J. T., Amory, J. K., Smith, J. F., Walsh, T. J. 2009; 74 (5): 1020-1024


    To explore whether health care, socioeconomic, or personal characteristics account for disparities observed in the utilization of vasectomy. More than 500,000 vasectomies are performed annually in the United States. The safety and efficacy of vasectomy make it a good family planning option, yet the factors related to use of male surgical sterilization are not well understood. In this analysis, we examined differences in vasectomy rates according to factors such as race and socioeconomic status.We analyzed data from the male sample of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to examine the use of vasectomy among the sample of men aged 30-45 (n = 2161). Demographic, socioeconomic, and reproductive characteristics were analyzed to assess associations with vasectomy.About 11.4% of men aged 30-45 years reported having a vasectomy, representing approximately 3.6 million American men. Although 14.1% of white men had a vasectomy, only 3.7% of black and 4.5% of Hispanic men reported undergoing vasectomy. On multivariate analysis, a significant difference in the odds of vasectomy by race/ethnicity remained, with black (odds ratio = 0.20, 0.09-0.45) and Hispanic men (odds ratio = 0.41, 0.18-0.95) having a significantly lower rate of vasectomy independent of demographic, partner, and socioeconomic factors. Having ever been married, fathering 2 or more children, older age, and higher income were the factors associated with vasectomy.After accounting for reproductive history, partner, and demographic characteristics, black and Hispanic men were less likely to rely on vasectomy for contraception. Further research is needed to identify the reasons for these race/ethnic differences and to identify factors that impede minority men's reliance on this means of fertility control.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2009.06.042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271992400021

    View details for PubMedID 19773036

  • Influence of Body Mass Index on Quantitative 24-Hour Urine Chemistry Studies in Children With Nephrolithiasis JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisner, B. H., Eisenberg, M. L., Stoller, M. L. 2009; 182 (3): 1142-1145


    A high body mass index increases the risk of nephrolithiasis in adults. Despite the growing problem of pediatric obesity, little is known about the relationship between body mass index and risk of nephrolithiasis in children. We examined the association between body mass index and 24-hour urine chemistry studies in children with a history of nephrolithiasis.A total of 43 children were included in the study. We retrospectively reviewed a database of 24-hour urine chemistry studies. We calculated body mass index for each individual and cases were then stratified by percentile. The 24-hour urine chemistry studies were adjusted for daily creatinine excretion, urine volume was adjusted for age, and pH and urine supersaturations were unadjusted.Body mass index percentile was below the 25th percentile in 8 cases, 25th to 49th percentile in 7, 50th to 74th percentile in 5 and 75th percentile or above in 14. On multivariate analysis the only 24-hour urine parameters with a significant relationship to body mass index were urine oxalate (negative relationship) and supersaturation of calcium phosphate (positive). As body mass index increased, urine oxalate excretion decreased and supersaturation of calcium phosphate increased.A high body mass index is associated with decreased urine oxalate and increased supersaturation of calcium phosphate. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity in younger patients, our findings have important clinical implications. Pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists should be aware of these findings when evaluating children with nephrolithiasis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2009.05.052

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268899300120

    View details for PubMedID 19625057

  • Who is the 40-Year-Old Virgin and Where Did He/She Come From? Data from the National Survey of Family Growth JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Eisenberg, M. L., Shindel, A. W., Smith, J. F., Lue, T. F., Walsh, T. J. 2009; 6 (8): 2154-2161


    Little is known about young and middle aged adults who have never engaged in sexual intercourse. Individuals who have not engaged in sexual activity may theoretically have diminished overall quality of life, as recent evidence suggests that sexual activity may be related to overall health status in adults.We sought to identify factors related to sexual abstinence in young and middle-aged adults.We analyzed data from the male and female sample of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to examine sexual abstinence among unmarried participants aged 25-45 (men: N = 2,469; women: N = 5,120). Main Outcome Measures. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to test for independent associations between demographic, medical, and anthropometric variables and abstinence while adjusting for confounding and mediating variables.A total of 122 (13.9%) men aged 25-45 reported never having had sex, representing approximately 1.1 million American men in this age cohort. Among female participants, a total of 104 (8.9%) women aged 25-45 reported never having sex, representing approximately 800,000 American women in this age cohort. Both men and women who reported that they attend religious services one or more times per week were more likely to be sexually abstinent, independent of their specific religious beliefs. Virgin status was also significantly associated with drinking alcohol within the past year. While a college degree in women predicted virginity, education was not associated with virginity in men. Men showed lower rates of sexual abstinence if they reported having spent time in prison or serving in the military.Amongst young adults, sexual abstinence does not appear to be mediated by health status, anthropometric measures, or age. Attending religious services and avoidance of alcohol consumption are associated with virginity in adults. Other factors associated with abstinence differ between genders and merit further study.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01327.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268466800010

    View details for PubMedID 19493289

  • Endoscopic Management of Retained Renal Foreign Bodies UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Lee, K. L., Stoller, M. L. 2009; 73 (6): 1189-1194


    To review our experience with endoscopic extraction of renal foreign bodies. We assessed the preoperative factors associated with renal failure, operative planning and technique, and postoperative outcomes. Retained foreign bodies in the kidney from previous endoscopic and/or percutaneous manipulation can be technically challenging.We retrospectively reviewed our database from November 1992 through April 2008 for patients who had undergone extraction of a renal foreign body.A total of 21 patients were identified who met the selection criteria (11 men and 10 women), with a mean age of 41 +/- 22 years. The renal foreign bodies included indwelling ureteral stents (n = 15), nephrostomy tubes (n = 3), the inner core of a guidewire (n = 1), a nephrostomy tube pull string (n = 1), and a laser fiber (n = 1). Of the 21 patients, 15 (71%) required antegrade instrumentation by way of a percutaneous tract to remove the foreign body. Extraction of the nephrostomy pull string, fragmented guidewire, and laser fiber remnant were approached percutaneously. In the case of a retained ureteral stent, all but 2 required a combined antegrade and retrograde approach for extraction. Patients presenting with renal insufficiency (n = 5), defined by a creatinine >1.5 mg/dL, had obstruction resulting from a forgotten ureteral stent that had been left in place for among the longest periods in our cohort (range 1.5-10 years). Two fifths of these patients had improvement in renal function after endoscopic extraction.Patients with retained renal foreign bodies benefit from extraction by way of retrograde and/or antegrade endoscopic techniques. In patients presenting with renal failure, improvement in renal function is often seen after extraction of a retained renal foreign body.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2008.09.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266972100009

    View details for PubMedID 19362355

  • Effect of Obesity on Urethroplasty Outcome UROLOGY Breyer, B. N., McAninch, J. W., Whitson, J. M., Eisenberg, M. L., Master, V. A., Voelzke, B. B., Elliott, S. P. 2009; 73 (6): 1352-1355


    To determine whether obesity increases the risk of urethroplasty failure.A total of 381 patients underwent urethroplasty and had complete body mass index (BMI) data. Stricture recurrence-free survival was defined as subjective and objective improvement in urinary flow, an absence of radiographic evidence of stricture, and no further need for urethral instrumentation. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to identify both univariate and multivariate predictors of urethroplasty outcome.The median patient age was 40 years (range 18-90). The median follow-up was 5.9 years (range 1 month to 10 years). Of the 381 patients, 60 developed recurrent stricture (15.7%). Overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI 30-35 kg/m(2)) patients were more likely to have urethroplasty failure, reaching significance and near significance on univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively (P = .03 and P = .07, respectively). Patients who were severely (BMI 35-40 kg/m(2)) or morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m(2)) did not have an increased risk of urethroplasty failure.Although obesity's relationship with urethroplasty failure is not linear, it does appear to affect outcomes after urethroplasty.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2008.12.073

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266972100058

    View details for PubMedID 19371937

  • Use of Viscoelastic Solution to Improve Visualization During Urologic Microsurgery: Evaluation of Patency After Vasovasostomy UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Walsh, T. J., Turek, P. J. 2009; 73 (1): 134-136


    Viscoat is a nonpyrogenic, sterile, viscoelastic solution used to protect the endothelium and enhance visualization during cataract and corneal surgery. Commonly used in ophthalmic surgery, we evaluated whether it could improve the optics during urologic microsurgery without adversely affecting outcomes.We retrospectively compared consecutive vasovasostomies performed by a single surgeon with (n = 23) and without (n = 50) the bilateral use of Viscoat. The examined parameters included patient age, vasectomy duration, intraoperative sperm characteristics, patency (ejaculation of motile sperm), time to patency, and postoperative semen characteristics. The comparisons of the sample mean values and proportions were assessed with analysis of variance, Wilcoxon, and chi(2) tests.Subjectively, Viscoat improved visualization of the vasal lumen and suture placement and aided in resident and fellow instruction. The vasovasostomy cases performed with and without the use of Viscoat were similar with regard to the patient and intraoperative characteristics. The overall patency rates were similar between the two groups (91% vs 92%, P = .92) with a median follow-up of 7 months. In addition, the best total motile sperm count and the durability of the patency achieved were similar between the two groups.Viscoat is a dispersive agent that does not adversely affect surgical patency after vasovasostomy. Subjectively, it helped with visualizing the lumen of the vas deferens during urologic microsurgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2008.03.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262379700036

    View details for PubMedID 18977020

  • Differences in quantitative urine composition in stone-forming versus unaffected mate kidneys. Open access journal of urology Eisenberg, M. L., Lee, K. L., Breyer, B. N., Walsh, T. J., Konety, B. R., Stoller, M. L. 2009; 1: 9-13


    Many patients present with bilateral stones. There is a unique group of patients, however, that presents with stones exclusively on one side. We hypothesize that in such situations, 24-hour urine collections may not reveal specific defects on the affected stone-bearing kidney. We therefore evaluated selective 12-hour urine collections after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) to help determine if there is differential renal excretion.We collected urine specimens from patients with nephrolithiasis who underwent unilateral PNL. Urine samples were collected and analyzed from nephrostomy tubes, representing the affected kidneys, and from Foley bladder catheters, representing the contralateral mate kidney.Thirty-one patients were studied (14 with unilateral nephrolithiasis and 17 with bilateral). Treated kidneys from patients with unilateral nephrolithiasis displayed lowered urine excretion of uric acid, sodium, chloride, calcium, and total osmoles when compared to patients with bilateral nephrolithiasis. Stone size and length of procedure were not predictive of urine composition after PNL.Treated kidneys from patients with a history of unilateral stone disease revealed marked differences in urine excretion compared to those with bilateral nephrolithiasis after unilateral PNL. These findings could be secondary to the surgical insult, urinary stone disease, or could be a responsible factor for stone pathogenesis.

    View details for PubMedID 24198607

  • Partial Salvage Cryoablation of the Prostate for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Radiotherapy Failure UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Shinohara, K. 2008; 72 (6): 1315-1318


    To determine the efficacy of partial cryoablation of the prostate in the salvage setting.All patients who were treated between April 2004 and September 2007 for recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma after failure of primary radiotherapy by means of partial cryoablation were identified.Nineteen patients met inclusion criteria; 15 had >6 months' follow-up. Mean age was 71 years. Men received salvage therapy a mean of 6 years after primary radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 6-33 months). The biochemical recurrence-free survival rate (according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition) was 89%, 67%, and 50% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. One of 10 patients harbored residual carcinoma on routine follow-up biopsy at 1 year, whereas 50% harbored residual benign prostate tissue. Complications included incontinence (1), urethral stricture (1), and urethral ulcer (1).In properly selected patients with a unilateral focus of disease recurrence after radiotherapy, acceptable oncologic results can be achieved with partial cryoablation of the prostate, with low morbidity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2008.03.040

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262121500032

    View details for PubMedID 18597824

  • Ejaculatory duct manometry in normal men and in patients with ejaculatory duct obstruction JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Walsh, T. J., Garcia, M. M., Shinohara, K., Turek, P. J. 2008; 180 (1): 255-260


    Ejaculatory duct obstruction is a treatable cause of male infertility but the diagnosis can be difficult to make. Transrectal ultrasound is valuable but not specific for ejaculatory duct obstruction. Adjunctive procedures, such as chromotubation and seminal vesicle aspiration, are more sensitive but not definitive, especially for partial obstruction. We describe what is to our knowledge a new hydraulic test and report its ability to identify physical and functional ejaculatory duct obstruction.Two groups of men were studied, including patients with infertility or ejaculatory pain in whom ejaculatory duct obstruction was suspected and fertile men undergoing vasectomy reversal (controls). In each cohort ejaculatory duct injection and manometry were performed. Patients with ejaculatory duct obstruction underwent transurethral ejaculatory duct resection based on routine criteria. Pressure was reassessed after resection. Manometry pressures were compared between controls and patients with ejaculatory duct obstruction, and correlated with the response to transurethral ejaculatory duct resection.In the 7 controls (14 sides) mean ejaculatory duct opening pressure was 33.2 cm H(2)O. In the 9 patients (17 sides) with suspected ejaculatory duct obstruction mean ejaculatory duct opening pressure before transurethral ejaculatory duct resection was 116 cm H(2)O. In the 6 patients who underwent resection, which was unilateral and bilateral in 3 each, mean ejaculatory duct opening pressure decreased from 118 to 53 cm H(2)O. Of the 5 patients who underwent semen analyses before and after resection 80% showed an increase in ejaculate volume and/or at least 100% improvement in TMC (volume x concentration x motile fraction).Ejaculatory duct manometry with baseline values defined in fertile men demonstrates that men with clinically suspected ejaculatory duct obstruction have higher ejaculatory duct opening pressure than fertile men and ejaculatory duct pressure decreases after transurethral ejaculatory duct resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2008.03.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256643900064

    View details for PubMedID 18499178

  • First-stage urethroplasty: Utility in the modern era UROLOGY Elliott, S. P., Eisenberg, M. L., McAninch, J. W. 2008; 71 (5): 889-892


    To describe the current role of first-stage urethroplasty and its success as a management option in patients with complex anterior urethral stricture disease.We reviewed our urethral stricture database to identify patients managed with a staged urethral reconstruction or permanent first-stage urethroplasty. We noted patient age, etiology of stricture disease, location and length of stricture, location of neomeatus, indication for a staged approach, follow-up, and failure rate.A total of 38 men with a median age of 53 years met the inclusion criteria. The etiology of stricture disease varied, most commonly prior hypospadias repair (n = 9 [24%]) and lichen sclerosis (n = 6 [16%]). Location of stricture disease varied throughout the anterior urethra. Median stricture length was 5 cm. First-stage urethroplasty was accomplished with a penile shaft neomeatus in 13 patients (34%) and a perineal neomeatus in 25 (66%). Median follow-up was 22 months. Postoperative urethral dilation was required in 7 patients (18%). No patient has required an indwelling urethral catheter, suprapubic cystostomy, or urinary diversion. Of 38 patients, 9 (24%) have undergone a second-stage urethroplasty.The first-stage urethroplasty produces unobstructed voiding with few complications in high-risk patients. Few patients elect to have a second-stage urethroplasty performed. This is an old but not obsolete concept. We have presented modifications in technique to optimize success.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2007.11.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255992000042

    View details for PubMedID 18279942

  • Associations among hypospadias, cryptorchidism, anogenital distance, and endocrine disruption. Current urology reports Hsieh, M. H., Breyer, B. N., Eisenberg, M. L., Baskin, L. S. 2008; 9 (2): 137-142


    Endocrine disruptors, such as environmental compounds with endocrine-altering properties, may cause hypospadias and cryptorchidism in several species, including humans. Anogenital distance is sexually dimorphic in many mammals, with males having longer anogenital distance on average than females. Animal models of proposed endocrine disruptors have associated prenatal exposure with hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and reduced anogenital distance. Human studies have correlated shorter anogenital distance to in utero exposure to putative endocrine disruptors. We review preliminary data suggesting that anogenital distance is reduced in boys with hypospadia and cryptorchidism. Hence, human hypospadias and cryptorchidism may be associated with reduced anogenital distance as a result of endocrine disruption.

    View details for PubMedID 18419998

  • Management of restenosis after urethral stent placement JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Elliott, S. P., McAnincht, J. W. 2008; 179 (3): 991-995


    We describe our experience with the management of restricture after urethral stent placement, including endoscopic and open surgical treatment.We surveyed our prospectively collected database for patients with restenosis after urethral stent insertion. We reviewed patient age, comorbidities, indications for stent placement, restricture length, management of restricture, postoperative complications and the further restenosis rate.Overall we have treated 22 patients with failed urethral stents with a median followup of 30 months (range 1 to 96). All stents were initially placed for urethral stricture management. Stricture etiology included prostate cancer therapy in 9 cases, idiopathic causes in 6, urethral instrumentation in 2, trauma in 2, simple prostatectomy in 2 and gender reassignment/phalloplasty in 1. Ten patients had anterior urethral stricture, 11 had posterior stricture and 1 patient had each type. Of the 22 patients with stenosis after stent placement 13 underwent urethroplasty. Of the 18 patients with indwelling stents at treatment the stent was removed in 8 intraoperatively and in 10 the stent was left in situ. Ten of the 11 anterior strictures were treated with urethroplasty. Only 4 of the 12 posterior strictures were treated with urethroplasty, while 8 were managed endoscopically. Our overall success rate for treatment after stent failure was 67% (8 of 12 cases) for posterior urethral strictures and 82% (9 of 11) for anterior strictures.Urethral stent failure requires complex intervention. A failed posterior urethral stent can often be managed endoscopically. Conversely we have managed failed anterior urethral stents by urethroplasty.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2007.10.047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253176000058

    View details for PubMedID 18206915

  • Long-term outcomes and late complications of laparoscopic nephrectomy with renal autotransplantation JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Lee, K. L., Zumrutbas, A. E., Meng, M. V., Freise, C. E., Stoller, M. L. 2008; 179 (1): 240-243


    We report long-term outcomes and late complications after laparoscopic nephrectomy with autotransplantation.We retrospectively reviewed clinical data on all patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy with autotransplantation between July 2000 and March 2007. Late complications, ie greater than 6 months, that required surgical intervention were analyzed. Clinical outcomes in patients with primary ureteral stricture disease and oncological outcomes in patients with renal tumors were examined.Indications for autotransplantation included complex ureteral stricture disease in 15 patients and renal malignancy in 4. Median age at surgery was 48 years (range 25 to 68). Median followup was 29 months. Of the 17 patients with greater than 6 months of followup late complications requiring surgical intervention occurred in 4. Transplant nephrectomy was required in 2 patients in the stricture group. Indications for nephrectomy were nonfunction complicated by pseudoaneurysm in 1 case and chronic loin pain in 1. Another patient had recurrent nephrolithiasis requiring percutaneous nephrolithotomy and in 1 a pseudoaneurysm was managed successfully by endovascular techniques. Two patients in the tumor group had disease progression, which was managed medically.Given the complexity and severity of disease that necessitates renal autotransplantation, it is not surprising that additional treatments are required. Patients with primary stricture disease may be at increased risk for vascular aneurysm due to infection and/or inflammation. Tumor progression is possible after ex vivo tumor excision and autotransplantation, especially in patients requiring heroic measures to avoid or delay dialysis. Thus, careful patient selection and vigilant followup are mandatory.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2007.08.135

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251650200062

    View details for PubMedID 18001789

  • Preservation of lower urinary tract function in posterior urethral stenosis: Selection of appropriate patients for urethral Stents JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Elliott, S. P., McAninch, J. W. 2007; 178 (6): 2456-2460


    We describe our experience with urethral stents to manage iatrogenic posterior urethral stenosis.We surveyed our retrospective database for patients in whom we placed a urethral stent for posterior urethral stricture disease. We reviewed patient age, comorbidities, indications for stent placement, stricture length, postoperative complications and the repeat stenosis rate.Overall we placed urethral stents in 13 patients, of whom 12 presented with posterior urethral stenosis and 1 presented with anterior and posterior stricture. The etiology of urethral stricture was prostate cancer therapy in 11 of 13 cases and simple prostatectomy in 2. Urethral stenting was chosen instead of urethral reconstruction largely due to prior radiation for prostate cancer and avoidance of the morbidity of surgery. Overall 6 of 13 patients required additional procedures for stricture recurrence, including 5 in previously irradiated patients. Two patients had stents removed due to migration or pain. Genitourinary infections developed in 5 of 13 patients. Eight of 13 patients with a posterior urethral stricture were incontinent, as expected after stent placement. Incontinence was managed by an artificial urinary sphincter in willing patients with 9 of 13 continent.Urethral stents provide reasonable treatment for patients with posterior urethral stenosis when attempting to preserve lower urinary tract function caused by stricture disease after prostate cancer therapy. Prior radiation seems to increase the failure rate. Continence can be maintained after posterior urethral stenting in select patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2007.08.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250847900062

    View details for PubMedID 17937962

  • Complications in ureterosigmoidostomy endoscopic management of obstructive UROLOGY Eisenberg, M. L., Lee, K. L., Stoller, M. L. 2007; 70 (6): 1048-1052


    Although rarely used today for supravesical urinary diversion, ureterosigmoidostomy remains useful in patients with bladder exstrophy. However, management of ureteral stricture and ureteral urolithiasis is challenging because of the lack of anatomic landmarks.We reviewed our prospectively collected database from 1994 to 2006 for all patients requiring surgical treatment for obstructive complications associated with ureterosigmoidostomy.Our analysis revealed 3 patients (mean age 46 years; 2 men and 1 woman). All 3 patients had undergone ureterosigmoidostomy as a component of bladder exstrophy management. All patients presented with renal failure due to obstruction and required antegrade endoscopic management. Two patients had anastomotic strictures and one had obstructive urolithiasis. One patient in whom the stricture was judged to be chronic was treated with an endoureterotomy and Acucise balloon. The second patient, who had an acute obstruction after colonoscopic biopsy of his anastomosis, was treated with antegrade balloon dilation. Both patients had stents placed across the anastomosis for 6 weeks postoperatively. Despite reflux of stool into the collecting system, neither patient manifested with local or systemic signs of infection. The patient with urolithiasis required antegrade basket stone extraction.Obstructive complications after ureterosigmoidostomy should be managed using antegrade endoscopic techniques.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2007.07.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253194400004

  • Posthumous sperm retrieval: analysis of time interval to harvest sperm HUMAN REPRODUCTION Shefi, S., Raviv, G., Eisenberg, M. L., Weissenberg, R., Jalalian, L., Levron, J., Band, G., Turek, P. J., Madgar, I. 2006; 21 (11): 2890-2893


    Current recommendations regarding posthumous sperm retrieval (PSR) are based on a small number of cases. Our purpose was to determine the time interval from death to a successful procedure.Seventeen consecutive PSR procedures in 14 deceased and 3 neurologically brain-dead patients at two male infertility centres [Sheba Medical Center (SMC), Tel-Hashomer, Israel and University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA] were analysed. Main outcome measures were retrieval of vital sperm, pregnancies and births.PSR methods included resection of testis and epididymis (n = 8), en-block excision of testis, epididymis and proximal vas deferens with vasal irrigation (n = 6), electroejaculation (EEJ) (n = 2) and epididymectomy (n = 1). PSR was performed 7.5-36 h after death. Sperm was retrieved in all cases and was motile in 14 cases. In two cases, testicular and epididymal tissues were cryopreserved without sperm evaluation, and in one case, no motility was detected. IVF and ICSI were performed in two cases in which sperm had been retrieved 30 h after death, and both resulted in pregnancies and live births.Viable sperm is obtainable with PSR well after the currently recommended 24-h time interval. PSR should be considered up to 36 h after death, following appropriate evaluation. No correlation was found between cause of death and chance for successful sperm retrieval.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/del232

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241272700024

    View details for PubMedID 16959804

  • Insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) proteins form a complex on the rat hepatocyte membrane CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY Eisenberg, M. L., Maker, A. V., Slezak, L. A., Nathan, J. D., Sritharan, K. C., Jena, B. P., Geibel, J. P., Andersen, D. K. 2005; 15 (1-4): 51-58


    The hepatic glucose transporter, GLUT2, facilitates bidirectional glucose transport across the hepatocyte plasma membrane under insulin regulation. We studied the interactions of IR and GLUT2 proteins to determine whether they are physically coupled in a receptor-transporter complex. By comparing endosome and plasma membrane IR and GLUT2 ratios before and after feeding, it was determined that IR and GLUT2 are internalized in a fixed ratio. When solubilized hepatocytes were immunoprecipitated with antibodies against either IR or GLUT2, both proteins co-precipitated. The association of IR and GLUT2 was further assessed by confocal microscopy. Sections of fed liver were incubated with fluorescein-tagged anti-GLUT2 or Texas Red-tagged anti-IR. Colocalization was observed both at the plasma membrane and in the cytosol. Fluorescence-resonance energy transfer studies further confirmed this association. We conclude that IR and GLUT2 form a receptor-transporter complex in hepatocytes, which forms a mechanism of insulin-mediated hepatic glucose regulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000083638

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226588000005

    View details for PubMedID 15665515

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