Dr. Moiz Ahmad is a researcher of biomedical technology and medical physics. His objective is to develop new biomedical technologies, especially in biomedical imaging, and improve the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Dr. Ahmad's specific research interests are in CT imaging hardware and software, image reconstruction and analysis, and CT imaging for guiding radiotherapy, surgery, and vascular interventions.

Dr. Ahmad earned his PhD degree from The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center in the field of Medical Physics.

Honors & Awards

  • Stanford Molecular Imaging Scholars, National Institutes of Health / Stanford University (Dec. 2012 - Aug. 2015)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Member, American Association of Physicists in Medicine (2008 - Present)
  • Member, World Molecular Imaging Society (2014 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Bachelor of Science, University of Texas Austin (2005)
  • Doctor of Philosophy, UnivTexasBiomedicalSciences (2012)

Stanford Advisors

Research & Scholarship

Lab Affiliations


All Publications

  • Order of Magnitude Sensitivity Increase in X-ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography (XFCT) Imaging With an Optimized Spectro-Spatial Detector Configuration: Theory and Simulation IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING Ahmad, M., Bazalova, M., Xiang, L., Xing, L. 2014; 33 (5): 1119-1128


    The purpose of this study was to increase the sensitivity of XFCT imaging by optimizing the data acquisition geometry for reduced scatter X-rays. The placement of detectors and detector energy window were chosen to minimize scatter X-rays. We performed both theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations of this optimized detector configuration on a mouse-sized phantom containing various gold concentrations. The sensitivity limits were determined for three different X-ray spectra: a monoenergetic source, a Gaussian source, and a conventional X-ray tube source. Scatter X-rays were minimized using a backscatter detector orientation (scatter direction > 110(°) to the primary X-ray beam). The optimized configuration simultaneously reduced the number of detectors and improved the image signal-to-noise ratio. The sensitivity of the optimized configuration was 10 μg/mL (10 pM) at 2 mGy dose with the mono-energetic source, which is an order of magnitude improvement over the unoptimized configuration (102 pM without the optimization). Similar improvements were seen with the Gaussian spectrum source and conventional X-ray tube source. The optimization improvements were predicted in the theoretical model and also demonstrated in simulations. The sensitivity of XFCT imaging can be enhanced by an order of magnitude with the data acquisition optimization, greatly enhancing the potential of this modality for future use in clinical molecular imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/TMI.2014.2305101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335379500010

    View details for PubMedID 24770916

  • X-Ray Luminescence and X-Ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography: New Molecular Imaging Modalities IEEE Access Ahmad, M., Pratx, G., Bazalova, M., Xing, L. 2014; 2: 1051 - 1061
  • Theoretical detection threshold of the proton-acoustic range verification technique MEDICAL PHYSICS Ahmad, M., Xiang, L., Yousefi, S., Xing, L. 2015; 42 (10): 5735-5744


    Range verification in proton therapy using the proton-acoustic signal induced in the Bragg peak was investigated for typical clinical scenarios. The signal generation and detection processes were simulated in order to determine the signal-to-noise limits.An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distribution and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. In this method, the acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were generated by the general 3D pressure wave equation implemented using a finite element method. Various beam pulse widths (0.1-10 μs) were simulated by convolving the acoustic waves with Gaussian kernels. A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth bandpass filter with consideration of random noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio on a per-proton basis was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons required to generate a detectable pulse. The maximum spatial resolution of the proton-acoustic imaging modality was also estimated from the signal spectrum.The calculated noise in the transducer was 12-28 mPa, depending on the transducer central frequency (70-380 kHz). The minimum number of protons detectable by the technique was on the order of 3-30 × 10(6) per pulse, with 30-800 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak. Wider pulses produced signal with lower acoustic frequencies, with 10 μs pulses producing signals with frequency less than 100 kHz.The proton-acoustic process was simulated using a realistic model and the minimal detection limit was established for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a single large detector with no losses and detector thermal noise as the sensitivity limiting factor. Our study indicated practical proton-acoustic range verification may be feasible with approximately 5 × 10(6) protons/pulse and beam current.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4929939

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362570100016

    View details for PubMedID 26429247

  • Optimized Detector Angular Configuration Increases the Sensitivity of X-ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography (XFCT) IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING Ahmad, M., Bazalova-Carter, M., Fahrig, R., Xing, L. 2015; 34 (5): 1140-1147


    In this work, we demonstrated that an optimized detector angular configuration based on the anisotropic energy distribution of background scattered X-rays improves X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) detection sensitivity. We built an XFCT imaging system composed of a bench-top fluoroscopy X-ray source, a CdTe X-ray detector, and a phantom motion stage. We imaged a 6.4-cm-diameter phantom containing different concentrations of gold solution and investigated the effect of detector angular configuration on XFCT image quality. Based on our previous theoretical study, three detector angles were considered. The X-ray fluorescence detector was first placed at 145 (°) (approximating back-scatter) to minimize scatter X-rays. XFCT image quality was compared to images acquired with the detector at 60 (°) (forward-scatter) and 90 (°) (side-scatter). The datasets for the three different detector positions were also combined to approximate an isotropically arranged detector. The sensitivity was optimized with detector in the 145 (°) back-scatter configuration counting the 78-keV gold Kβ1 X-rays. The improvement arose from the reduced energy of scattered X-ray at the 145 (°) position and the large energy separation from gold K β1 X-rays. The lowest detected concentration in this configuration was 2.5 mgAu/mL (or 0.25% Au with SNR = 4.3). This concentration could not be detected with the 60 (°) , 90 (°) , or isotropic configurations (SNRs = 1.3, 0, 2.3, respectively). XFCT imaging dose of 14 mGy was in the range of typical clinical X-ray CT imaging doses. To our knowledge, the sensitivity achieved in this experiment is the highest in any XFCT experiment using an ordinary bench-top X-ray source in a phantom larger than a mouse ( > 3 cm).

    View details for DOI 10.1109/TMI.2014.2376813

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353899600011

    View details for PubMedID 25474808

  • Proton-induced x-ray fluorescence CT imaging. Medical physics Bazalova-Carter, M., Ahmad, M., Matsuura, T., Takao, S., Matsuo, Y., Fahrig, R., Shirato, H., Umegaki, K., Xing, L. 2015; 42 (2): 900-907


    To demonstrate the feasibility of proton-induced x-ray fluorescence CT (pXFCT) imaging of gold in a small animal sized object by means of experiments and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations.First, proton-induced gold x-ray fluorescence (pXRF) was measured as a function of gold concentration. Vials of 2.2 cm in diameter filled with 0%-5% Au solutions were irradiated with a 220 MeV proton beam and x-ray fluorescence induced by the interaction of protons, and Au was detected with a 3 × 3 mm(2) CdTe detector placed at 90° with respect to the incident proton beam at a distance of 45 cm from the vials. Second, a 7-cm diameter water phantom containing three 2.2-diameter vials with 3%-5% Au solutions was imaged with a 7-mm FWHM 220 MeV proton beam in a first generation CT scanning geometry. X-rays scattered perpendicular to the incident proton beam were acquired with the CdTe detector placed at 45 cm from the phantom positioned on a translation/rotation stage. Twenty one translational steps spaced by 3 mm at each of 36 projection angles spaced by 10° were acquired, and pXFCT images of the phantom were reconstructed with filtered back projection. A simplified geometry of the experimental data acquisition setup was modeled with the MC TOPAS code, and simulation results were compared to the experimental data.A linear relationship between gold pXRF and gold concentration was observed in both experimental and MC simulation data (R(2) > 0.99). All Au vials were apparent in the experimental and simulated pXFCT images. Specifically, the 3% Au vial was detectable in the experimental [contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) = 5.8] and simulated (CNR = 11.5) pXFCT image. Due to fluorescence x-ray attenuation in the higher concentration vials, the 4% and 5% Au contrast were underestimated by 10% and 15%, respectively, in both the experimental and simulated pXFCT images.Proton-induced x-ray fluorescence CT imaging of 3%-5% gold solutions in a small animal sized water phantom has been demonstrated for the first time by means of experiments and MC simulations.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4906169

    View details for PubMedID 25652502

  • Evaluation of intrinsic respiratory signal determination methods for 4D CBCT adapted for mice MEDICAL PHYSICS Martin, R., Rubinstein, A., Ahmad, M., Court, L., Pan, T. 2015; 42 (1): 154-164


    4D CT imaging in mice is important in a variety of areas including studies of lung function and tumor motion. A necessary step in 4D imaging is obtaining a respiratory signal, which can be done through an external system or intrinsically through the projection images. A number of methods have been developed that can successfully determine the respiratory signal from cone-beam projection images of humans, however only a few have been utilized in a preclinical setting and most of these rely on step-and-shoot style imaging. The purpose of this work is to assess and make adaptions of several successful methods developed for humans for an image-guided preclinical radiation therapy system.Respiratory signals were determined from the projection images of free-breathing mice scanned on the X-RAD system using four methods: the so-called Amsterdam shroud method, a method based on the phase of the Fourier transform, a pixel intensity method, and a center of mass method. The Amsterdam shroud method was modified so the sharp inspiration peaks associated with anesthetized mouse breathing could be detected. Respiratory signals were used to sort projections into phase bins and 4D images were reconstructed. Error and standard deviation in the assignment of phase bins for the four methods compared to a manual method considered to be ground truth were calculated for a range of region of interest (ROI) sizes. Qualitative comparisons were additionally made between the 4D images obtained using each of the methods and the manual method.4D images were successfully created for all mice with each of the respiratory signal extraction methods. Only minimal qualitative differences were noted between each of the methods and the manual method. The average error (and standard deviation) in phase bin assignment was 0.24 ± 0.08 (0.49 ± 0.11) phase bins for the Fourier transform method, 0.09 ± 0.03 (0.31 ± 0.08) phase bins for the modified Amsterdam shroud method, 0.09 ± 0.02 (0.33 ± 0.07) phase bins for the intensity method, and 0.37 ± 0.10 (0.57 ± 0.08) phase bins for the center of mass method. Little dependence on ROI size was noted for the modified Amsterdam shroud and intensity methods while the Fourier transform and center of mass methods showed a noticeable dependence on the ROI size.The modified Amsterdam shroud, Fourier transform, and intensity respiratory signal methods are sufficiently accurate to be used for 4D imaging on the X-RAD system and show improvement over the existing center of mass method. The intensity and modified Amsterdam shroud methods are recommended due to their high accuracy and low dependence on ROI size.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4903264

    View details for Web of Science ID 000347957200015

    View details for PubMedID 25563256

  • Synergistic Assembly of Heavy Metal Clusters and Luminescent Organic Bridging Ligands in Metal-Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient X-ray Scintillation JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Wang, C., Volotskova, O., Lu, K., Ahmad, M., Sun, C., Xing, L., Lin, W. 2014; 136 (17): 6171-6174


    We have designed two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to efficiently convert X-ray to visible-light luminescence. The MOFs are constructed from M6(μ3-O)4(μ3-OH)4(carboxylate)12 (M = Hf or Zr) secondary building units (SBUs) and anthracene-based dicarboxylate bridging ligands. The high atomic number of Zr and Hf in the SBUs serves as effective X-ray antenna by absorbing X-ray photons and converting them to fast electrons through the photoelectric effect. The generated electrons then excite multiple anthracene-based emitters in the MOF through inelastic scattering, leading to efficient generation of detectable photons in the visible spectrum. The MOF materials thus serve as efficient X-ray scintillators via synergistic X-ray absorption by the metal-cluster SBUs and optical emission by the bridging ligands.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja500671h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335369200006

    View details for PubMedID 24730683

  • L-shell x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) imaging of Cisplatin PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY Bazalova, M., Ahmad, M., Pratx, G., Xing, L. 2014; 59 (1): 219-232


    X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) imaging has been focused on the detection of K-shell x-rays. The potential utility of L-shell x-ray XFCT is, however, not well studied. Here we report the first Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of preclinical L-shell XFCT imaging of Cisplatin. We built MC models for both L- and K-shell XFCT with different excitation energies (15 and 30 keV for L-shell and 80 keV for K-shell XFCT). Two small-animal sized imaging phantoms of 2 and 4 cm diameter containing a series of objects of 0.6 to 2.7 mm in diameter at 0.7 to 16 mm depths with 10 to 250 µg mL(-1) concentrations of Pt are used in the study. Transmitted and scattered x-rays were collected with photon-integrating transmission detector and photon-counting detector arc, respectively. Collected data were rearranged into XFCT and transmission CT sinograms for image reconstruction. XFCT images were reconstructed with filtered back-projection and with iterative maximum-likelihood expectation maximization without and with attenuation correction. While K-shell XFCT was capable of providing an accurate measurement of Cisplatin concentration, its sensitivity was 4.4 and 3.0 times lower than that of L-shell XFCT with 15 keV excitation beam for the 2 cm and 4 cm diameter phantom, respectively. With the inclusion of excitation and fluorescence beam attenuation correction, we found that L-shell XFCT was capable of providing fairly accurate information of Cisplatin concentration distribution. With a dose of 29 and 58 mGy, clinically relevant Cisplatin Pt concentrations of 10 µg mg(-1) could be imaged with L-shell XFCT inside a 2 cm and 4 cm diameter object, respectively.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0031-9155/59/1/219

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328549200011

  • Defining internal target volume using positron emission tomography for radiation therapy planning of moving lung tumors JOURNAL OF APPLIED CLINICAL MEDICAL PHYSICS Riegel, A. C., Bucci, M. K., Mawlawi, O. R., Ahmad, M., Luo, D., Chandler, A., Pan, T. 2014; 15 (1): 279-289
  • Hard X-ray-induced optical luminescence via biomolecule-directed metal clusters CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS Osakada, Y., Pratx, G., Sun, C., Sakamoto, M., Ahmad, M., Volotskova, O., Ong, Q., Teranishi, T., Harada, Y., Xing, L., Cui, B. 2014; 50 (27): 3549-3551


    Here, we demonstrate that biomolecule-directed metal clusters are applicable in the study of hard X-ray excited optical luminescence, promising a new direction in the development of novel X-ray-activated imaging probes.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3cc48661c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332483200003

    View details for PubMedID 24463467