Generation of Induced Neuronal Cells by the Single Reprogramming Factor ASCL1
STEM CELL REPORTS
2014; 3 (2): 282-296
Mitotic lamin disassembly is triggered by lipid-mediated signaling.
journal of cell biology
2012; 198 (6): 981-990
Direct conversion of nonneural cells to functional neurons holds great promise for neurological disease modeling and regenerative medicine. We previously reported rapid reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into mature induced neuronal (iN) cells by forced expression of three transcription factors: ASCL1, MYT1L, and BRN2. Here, we show that ASCL1 alone is sufficient to generate functional iN cells from mouse and human fibroblasts and embryonic stem cells, indicating that ASCL1 is the key driver of iN cell reprogramming in different cell contexts and that the role of MYT1L and BRN2 is primarily to enhance the neuronal maturation process. ASCL1-induced single-factor neurons (1F-iN) expressed mature neuronal markers, exhibited typical passive and active intrinsic membrane properties, and formed functional pre- and postsynaptic structures. Surprisingly, ASCL1-induced iN cells were predominantly excitatory, demonstrating that ASCL1 is permissive but alone not deterministic for the inhibitory neuronal lineage.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.05.020
View details for Web of Science ID 000340882400008
Coordination of Kinase and Phosphatase Activities by Lem4 Enables Nuclear Envelope Reassembly during Mitosis
2012; 150 (1): 122-135
Disassembly of the nuclear lamina is a key step during open mitosis in higher eukaryotes. The activity of several kinases, including CDK1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) and protein kinase C (PKC), has been shown to trigger mitotic lamin disassembly, yet their precise contributions are unclear. In this study, we develop a quantitative imaging assay to study mitotic lamin B1 disassembly in living cells. We find that CDK1 and PKC act in concert to mediate phosphorylation-dependent lamin B1 disassembly during mitosis. Using ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi), we showed that diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent PKCs triggered rate-limiting steps of lamin disassembly. RNAi-mediated depletion or chemical inhibition of lipins, enzymes that produce DAG, delayed lamin disassembly to a similar extent as does PKC inhibition/depletion. Furthermore, the delay of lamin B1 disassembly after lipin depletion could be rescued by the addition of DAG. These findings suggest that lipins activate a PKC-dependent pathway during mitotic lamin disassembly and provide evidence for a lipid-mediated mitotic signaling event.
View details for DOI 10.1083/jcb.201205103
View details for PubMedID 22986494
RET rearrangements in post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas with a short latency analysed by interphase FISH
BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER
2006; 94 (10): 1472-1477
Mitosis in metazoa requires nuclear envelope (NE) disassembly and reassembly. NE disassembly is driven by multiple phosphorylation events. Mitotic phosphorylation of the protein BAF reduces its affinity for chromatin and the LEM family of inner nuclear membrane proteins; loss of this BAF-mediated chromatin-NE link contributes to NE disassembly. BAF must reassociate with chromatin and LEM proteins at mitotic exit to reform the NE; however, how its dephosphorylation is regulated is unknown. Here, we show that the C. elegans protein LEM-4L and its human ortholog Lem4 (also called ANKLE2) are both required for BAF dephosphorylation. They act in part by inhibiting BAF's mitotic kinase, VRK-1, in vivo and in vitro. In addition, Lem4/LEM-4L interacts with PP2A and is required for it to dephosphorylate BAF during mitotic exit. By coordinating VRK-1- and PP2A-mediated signaling on BAF, Lem4/LEM-4L controls postmitotic NE formation in a function conserved from worms to humans.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2012.04.043
View details for Web of Science ID 000306115000012
View details for PubMedID 22770216
The conserved transmembrane nucleoporin NDC1 is required for nuclear pore complex assembly in vertebrate cells
2006; 22 (1): 93-103
Tissue samples from 13 post-Chernobyl childhood thyroid tumours that occurred within a short period of time (4-8 years) after the Chernobyl accident have been investigated by interphase FISH analysis for rearrangements of RET. In all, 77% of cases showed RET/PTC rearrangements and a distinct intratumoural genetic heterogeneity. The data were compared to findings on 32 post-Chernobyl PTCs that occurred after a longer period of time (9-12 years) after the accident. In none of the cases from either group were 100% of cells positive for RET rearrangement. In addition, the pattern of RET-positive cells was different in the two groups (short vs longer latency). A significant clustering of aberrant cells could be detected in the long-latency subgroup, whereas the aberrant cells were more homogeneously distributed among the short-latency tumours. The findings suggest that oligoclonal tumour development occurs in post-Chernobyl PTCs. This pattern of different clones within the tumour appears to become more discrete in cases with longer latencies, suggesting either outgrowth of individual clones or development of later subclones with time.
View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603109
View details for Web of Science ID 000237648200018
View details for PubMedID 16641909
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are large proteinaceous channels embedded in the nuclear envelope (NE), through which exchange of molecules between the nucleus and cytosol occurs. Biogenesis of NPCs is complex and poorly understood. In particular, almost nothing is known about how NPCs are anchored in the NE. Here, we characterize vertebrate NDC1--a transmembrane nucleoporin conserved between yeast and metazoans. We show by RNA interference (RNAi) and biochemical depletion that NDC1 plays an important role in NPC and NE assembly in vivo and in vitro. RNAi experiments suggest a functional link between NDC1 and the soluble nucleoporins Nup93, Nup53, and Nup205. Importantly, NDC1 interacts with Nup53 in vitro. This suggests that NDC1 function involves forming a link between the NE membrane and soluble nucleoporins, thereby anchoring the NPC in the membrane.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2006.02.015
View details for Web of Science ID 000236897700010
View details for PubMedID 16600873