Professional Education

  • Bachelor of Science, Kjobenhavns Universitet (2002)
  • Master of Science, Kjobenhavns Universitet (2005)
  • Doctor of Philosophy, Kjobenhavns Universitet (2011)

Stanford Advisors


All Publications

  • Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans SCIENCE Raghavan, M., Steinruecken, M., Harris, K., Schiffels, S., Rasmussen, S., DeGiorgio, M., Albrechtsen, A., Valdiosera, C., Avila-Arcos, M. C., Malaspinas, A., Eriksson, A., Moltke, I., Metspalu, M., Homburger, J. R., Wall, J., Cornejo, O. E., Moreno-Mayar, J. V., Korneliussen, T. S., Pierre, T., Rasmussen, M., Campos, P. F., Damgaard, P. D., Allentoft, M. E., Lindo, J., Metspalu, E., Rodriguez-Varela, R., Mansilla, J., Henrickson, C., Seguin-Orlando, A., Malmstrom, H., Stafford, T., Shringarpure, S. S., Moreno-Estrada, A., Karmin, M., Tambets, K., Bergstrom, A., Xue, Y., Warmuth, V., Friend, A. D., Singarayer, J., Valdes, P., Balloux, F., Leboreiro, I., Vera, J. L., Rangel-Villalobos, H., Pettener, D., Luiselli, D., Davis, L. G., Heyer, E., Zollikofer, C. P., de Leon, M. S., Smith, C. I., Grimes, V., Pike, K., Deal, M., Fuller, B. T., Arriaza, B., Standen, V., Luz, M. F., Ricaut, F., Guidon, N., Osipova, L., Voevoda, M. I., Posukh, O. L., Balanovsky, O., Lavryashina, M., Bogunov, Y., Khusnutdinova, E., Gubina, M., Balanovska, E., Fedorova, S., Litvinov, S., Malyarchuk, B., Derenko, M., Mosher, M. J., Archer, D., Cybulski, J., Petzelt, B., Mitchell, J., Worl, R., Norman, P. J., Parham, P., Kemp, B. M., Kivisild, T., Tyler-Smith, C., Sandhu, M. S., Crawford, M., Villems, R., Smith, D. G., Waters, M. R., Goebel, T., Johnson, J. R., Malhi, R. S., Jakobsson, M., Meltzer, D. J., Manica, A., Durbin, R., Bustamante, C. D., Song, Y. S., Nielsen, R., Willerslev, E. 2015; 349 (6250)
  • The ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man. Nature Rasmussen, M., Sikora, M., Albrechtsen, A., Korneliussen, T. S., Moreno-Mayar, J. V., Poznik, G. D., Zollikofer, C. P., Ponce De León, M. S., Allentoft, M. E., Moltke, I., Jónsson, H., Valdiosera, C., Malhi, R. S., Orlando, L., Bustamante, C. D., Stafford, T. W., Meltzer, D. J., Nielsen, R., Willerslev, E. 2015; 523 (7561): 455-458


    Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state (USA) in 1996 and initially radiocarbon dated to 8,340-9,200 calibrated years before present (BP). His population affinities have been the subject of scientific debate and legal controversy. Based on an initial study of cranial morphology it was asserted that Kennewick Man was neither Native American nor closely related to the claimant Plateau tribes of the Pacific Northwest, who claimed ancestral relationship and requested repatriation under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). The morphological analysis was important to judicial decisions that Kennewick Man was not Native American and that therefore NAGPRA did not apply. Instead of repatriation, additional studies of the remains were permitted. Subsequent craniometric analysis affirmed Kennewick Man to be more closely related to circumpacific groups such as the Ainu and Polynesians than he is to modern Native Americans. In order to resolve Kennewick Man's ancestry and affiliations, we have sequenced his genome to ∼1× coverage and compared it to worldwide genomic data including for the Ainu and Polynesians. We find that Kennewick Man is closer to modern Native Americans than to any other population worldwide. Among the Native American groups for whom genome-wide data are available for comparison, several seem to be descended from a population closely related to that of Kennewick Man, including the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville), one of the five tribes claiming Kennewick Man. We revisit the cranial analyses and find that, as opposed to genome-wide comparisons, it is not possible on that basis to affiliate Kennewick Man to specific contemporary groups. We therefore conclude based on genetic comparisons that Kennewick Man shows continuity with Native North Americans over at least the last eight millennia.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature14625

    View details for PubMedID 26087396

  • The ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man NATURE Rasmussen, M., Sikora, M., Albrechtsen, A., Korneliussen, T. S., Moreno-Mayar, J. V., Poznik, G. D., Zollikofer, C. P., de Leon, M. S., Allentoft, M. E., Moltke, I., Jonsson, K., Valdiosera, C., Malhi, R. S., Orlando, L., Bustamante, C. D., Stafford, T. W., Meltzer, D. J., Nielsen, R., Willerslev, E. 2015; 523 (7561): 455-U159
  • Comprehensive transcriptome analysis using synthetic long-read sequencing reveals molecular co-association of distant splicing events NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Tilgner, H., Jahanbani, F., Blauwkamp, T., Moshrefi, A., Jaeger, E., Chen, F., Harel, I., Bustamante, C. D., Rasmussen, M., Snyder, M. P. 2015; 33 (7): 736-742


    Alternative splicing shapes mammalian transcriptomes, with many RNA molecules undergoing multiple distant alternative splicing events. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis, including analysis of exon co-association in the same molecule, requires deep, long-read sequencing. Here we introduce an RNA sequencing method, synthetic long-read RNA sequencing (SLR-RNA-seq), in which small pools (≤1,000 molecules/pool, ≤1 molecule/gene for most genes) of full-length cDNAs are amplified, fragmented and short-read-sequenced. We demonstrate that these RNA sequences reconstructed from the short reads from each of the pools are mostly close to full length and contain few insertion and deletion errors. We report many previously undescribed isoforms (human brain: ∼13,800 affected genes, 14.5% of molecules; mouse brain ∼8,600 genes, 18% of molecules) and up to 165 human distant molecularly associated exon pairs (dMAPs) and distant molecularly and mutually exclusive pairs (dMEPs). Of 16 associated pairs detected in the mouse brain, 9 are conserved in human. Our results indicate conserved mechanisms that can produce distant but phased features on transcript and proteome isoforms.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.3242

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358396100029

    View details for PubMedID 25985263

  • Beyond the reference genome. Nature biotechnology Bustamante, C. D., Rasmussen, M. 2015; 33 (6): 605-606

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.3249

    View details for PubMedID 26057977

  • Genome-wide Ancestry Patterns in Rapanui Suggest Pre-European Admixture with Native Americans CURRENT BIOLOGY Moreno-Mayar, J. V., Rasmussen, S., Seguin-Orlando, A., Rasmussen, M., Liang, M., Flam, S. T., Lie, B. A., Gilfillan, G. D., Nielsen, R., Thorsby, E., Willerslev, E., Malaspinas, A. 2014; 24 (21): 2518-2525
  • Genome-wide ancestry patterns in Rapanui suggest pre-European admixture with Native Americans. Current biology Moreno-Mayar, J. V., Rasmussen, S., Seguin-Orlando, A., Rasmussen, M., Liang, M., Flåm, S. T., Lie, B. A., Gilfillan, G. D., Nielsen, R., Thorsby, E., Willerslev, E., Malaspinas, A. 2014; 24 (21): 2518-2525


    Rapa Nui (Easter Island), located in the easternmost corner of the Polynesian Triangle, is one of the most isolated locations on the planet inhabited by humans. Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the island was first colonized by Polynesians around AD 1200, during their eastward expansion. Although it remains contentious whether Polynesians reached South America, suggestive evidence has been brought forward supporting the possibility of Native American contact prior to the European "discovery" of the island in AD 1722.We generated genome-wide data for 27 Rapanui. We found a mostly Polynesian ancestry among Rapanui and detected genome-wide patterns consistent with Native American and European admixture. By considering the distribution of local ancestry tracts of eight unrelated Rapanui, we found statistical support for Native American admixture dating to AD 1280-1495 and European admixture dating to AD 1850-1895.These genetic results can be explained by one or more pre-European trans-Pacific contacts.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2014.09.057

    View details for PubMedID 25447991

  • bammds: a tool for assessing the ancestry of low-depth whole-genome data using multidimensional scaling (MDS) BIOINFORMATICS Malaspinas, A., Tange, O., Moreno-Mayar, J. V., Rasmussen, M., DeGiorgio, M., Wang, Y., Valdiosera, C. E., Politis, G., Willerslev, E., Nielsen, R. 2014; 30 (20): 2962-2964
  • bammds: a tool for assessing the ancestry of low-depth whole-genome data using multidimensional scaling (MDS). Bioinformatics Malaspinas, A., Tange, O., Moreno-Mayar, J. V., Rasmussen, M., DeGiorgio, M., Wang, Y., Valdiosera, C. E., Politis, G., Willerslev, E., Nielsen, R. 2014; 30 (20): 2962-2964


    We present bammds, a practical tool that allows visualization of samples sequenced by second-generation sequencing when compared with a reference panel of individuals (usually genotypes) using a multidimensional scaling algorithm. Our tool is aimed at determining the ancestry of unknown samples-typical of ancient DNA data-particularly when only low amounts of data are available for those samples.The software package is available under GNU General Public License v3 and is freely available together with test datasets It is using R (, parallel (, samtools ( data are available at Bioinformatics online.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/bioinformatics/btu410

    View details for PubMedID 24974206

  • The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic. Science Raghavan, M., DeGiorgio, M., Albrechtsen, A., Moltke, I., Skoglund, P., Korneliussen, T. S., Grønnow, B., Appelt, M., Gulløv, H. C., Friesen, T. M., FitzHugh, W., Malmström, H., Rasmussen, S., Olsen, J., Melchior, L., Fuller, B. T., Fahrni, S. M., Stafford, T., Grimes, V., Renouf, M. A., Cybulski, J., Lynnerup, N., Lahr, M. M., Britton, K., Knecht, R., Arneborg, J., Metspalu, M., Cornejo, O. E., Malaspinas, A., Wang, Y., Rasmussen, M., Raghavan, V., Hansen, T. v., Khusnutdinova, E., Pierre, T., Dneprovsky, K., Andreasen, C., Lange, H., Hayes, M. G., Coltrain, J., Spitsyn, V. A., Götherström, A., Orlando, L., Kivisild, T., Villems, R., Crawford, M. H., Nielsen, F. C., Dissing, J., Heinemeier, J., Meldgaard, M., Bustamante, C., O'Rourke, D. H., Jakobsson, M., Gilbert, M. T., Nielsen, R., Willerslev, E. 2014; 345 (6200)


    The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (~3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1255832

    View details for PubMedID 25170159

  • The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana. Nature Rasmussen, M., Anzick, S. L., Waters, M. R., Skoglund, P., DeGiorgio, M., Stafford, T. W., Rasmussen, S., Moltke, I., Albrechtsen, A., Doyle, S. M., Poznik, G. D., Gudmundsdottir, V., Yadav, R., Malaspinas, A., White, S. S., Allentoft, M. E., Cornejo, O. E., Tambets, K., Eriksson, A., Heintzman, P. D., Karmin, M., Korneliussen, T. S., Meltzer, D. J., Pierre, T. L., Stenderup, J., Saag, L., Warmuth, V. M., Lopes, M. C., Malhi, R. S., Brunak, S., Sicheritz-Ponten, T., Barnes, I., Collins, M., Orlando, L., Balloux, F., Manica, A., Gupta, R., Metspalu, M., Bustamante, C. D., Jakobsson, M., Nielsen, R., Willerslev, E. 2014; 506 (7487): 225-229


    Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 (14)C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 (14)C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature13025

    View details for PubMedID 24522598

  • Pulling out the 1%: Whole-Genome Capture for the Targeted Enrichment of Ancient DNA Sequencing Libraries AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Carpenter, M. L., Buenrostro, J. D., Valdiosera, C., Schroeder, H., Allentoft, M. E., Sikora, M., Rasmussen, M., Gravel, S., Guillen, S., Nekhrizov, G., Leshtakov, K., Dimitrova, D., Theodossiev, N., Pettener, D., Luiselli, D., Sandoval, K., Moreno-Estrada, A., Li, Y., Wang, J., Gilbert, M. T., Willerslev, E., Greenleaf, W. J., Bustamante, C. D. 2013; 93 (5): 852-864
  • An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia SCIENCE Rasmussen, M., Guo, X., Wang, Y., Lohmueller, K. E., Rasmussen, S., Albrechtsen, A., Skotte, L., Lindgreen, S., Metspalu, M., Jombart, T., Kivisild, T., Zhai, W., Eriksson, A., Manica, A., Orlando, L., De La Vega, F. M., Tridico, S., Metspalu, E., Nielsen, K., Avila-Arcos, M. C., Moreno-Mayar, J. V., Muller, C., Dortch, J., Gilbert, M. T., Lund, O., Wesolowska, A., Karmin, M., Weinert, L. A., Wang, B., Li, J., Tai, S., Xiao, F., Hanihara, T., van Driem, G., Jha, A. R., Ricaut, F., de Knijff, P., Migliano, A. B., Romero, I. G., Kristiansen, K., Lambert, D. M., Brunak, S., Forster, P., Brinkmann, B., Nehlich, O., Bunce, M., Richards, M., Gupta, R., Bustamante, C. D., Krogh, A., Foley, R. A., Lahr, M. M., Balloux, F., Sicheritz-Ponten, T., Villems, R., Nielsen, R., Wang, J., Willerslev, E. 2011; 334 (6052): 94-98


    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1211177

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295580300047

    View details for PubMedID 21940856

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