Clinical Focus

  • Neurology

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Fellowship:Stanford School of Medicine (2014) CAUnited States of America
  • Residency:University of California at Irvine (2013) CA
  • Internship:University of California at Irvine (2010) CA
  • Medical Education:University of Toledo College of Medicine (2009) OH
  • Board Certification: Neurology, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (2013)


All Publications

  • What the Gut Can Teach Us About Migraine CURRENT PAIN AND HEADACHE REPORTS Hindiyeh, N., Aurora, S. K. 2015; 19 (7)


    During gestation, cells of the brain and gut develop almost simultaneously into the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS), respectively. They remain connected via the vagal nerve lifelong. While it is well known that the brain sends signal to the gut, communication is in fact bidirectional. Just as the brain can modulate gut functioning, the gut, and likely what we ingest, can in fact influence our brain functioning. We will first review both gastrointestinal (GI) function and migraine pathophysiology and then discuss evidence linking the migraine brain to various GI disorders. Lastly, we discuss the effects of gut microbiota on brain functioning and speculate how the gut and particularly diet may affect migraine.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11916-015-0501-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000356254100004

    View details for PubMedID 26049770

  • Does exercise make migraines worse and tension type headaches better? Current pain and headache reports Hindiyeh, N. A., Krusz, J. C., Cowan, R. P. 2013; 17 (12): 380-?


    Many non-pharmacological treatments have been implicated in the treatment of primary headache, with exercise being a common recommendation. In this review we first provide an overview of the relationship between exercise and primary headaches. We then review the physiology of pain modulation, with focus on the endogenous opioids, endocannabinoids, and neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and their associations with primary headache and exercise. Finally, we summarize current literature evaluating effects of exercise on primary headache in an effort to understand the benefits and disadvantages of exercise in primary headaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11916-013-0380-5

    View details for PubMedID 24234818

  • Does Exercise Make Migraines Worse and Tension Type Headaches Better? CURRENT PAIN AND HEADACHE REPORTS Hindiyeh, N. A., Krusz, J. C., Cowan, R. P. 2013; 17 (12)