Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), a nontoxic TLR4 ligand derived from lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is used clinically as an adjuvant in cancer, hepatitis, and malaria vaccines and in allergen-specific immunotherapy. Nevertheless, its cell-activating effects have not been analyzed in a comprehensive direct comparison including a wide range of different immune cells. Therefore, the objective of this study was the side-by-side comparison of the immune-modulating properties of MPLA and LPS on different immune cells.Immune-activating properties of MPLA and LPS were compared in human monocytes and mast cells (MCs), a mouse endotoxin shock model (ESM), and mouse bone marrow (BM)-derived myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), T cells (TCs), B cells, and MCs.In a mouse in vivo ESM and a human ex vivo monocyte activation test (MAT), MPLA induced the same cytokine secretion pattern as LPS (ESM: IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α; MAT: IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α), albeit at lower levels. Mouse mDCs and ex vivo isolated B cells stimulated with MPLA required a higher threshold to induce TRIF-dependent cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) than did LPS-stimulated cells. In mDC:DO11.10 CD4 TC cocultures, stimulation with MPLA, but not with LPS, resulted in enhanced OVA-specific IL-4 and IL-5 secretion from DO11.10 CD4 TCs. Unexpectedly, in both human and mouse MCs, MPLA, unlike LPS, did not elicit secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines.Compared to LPS, MPLA induced a qualitatively similar, but less potent pro-inflammatory immune response, but was unable to activate human or mouse MCs.
View details for DOI 10.1111/all.12675
View details for PubMedID 26081583