Phototactic guidance of a tissue-engineered soft-robotic ray
2016; 353 (6295): 158-162
Two Hsp70 family members expressed in atherosclerotic lesions
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2003; 100 (3): 1256-1261
Inspired by the relatively simple morphological blueprint provided by batoid fish such as stingrays and skates, we created a biohybrid system that enables an artificial animal--a tissue-engineered ray--to swim and phototactically follow a light cue. By patterning dissociated rat cardiomyocytes on an elastomeric body enclosing a microfabricated gold skeleton, we replicated fish morphology at 1/10 scale and captured basic fin deflection patterns of batoid fish. Optogenetics allows for phototactic guidance, steering, and turning maneuvers. Optical stimulation induced sequential muscle activation via serpentine-patterned muscle circuits, leading to coordinated undulatory swimming. The speed and direction of the ray was controlled by modulating light frequency and by independently eliciting right and left fins, allowing the biohybrid machine to maneuver through an obstacle course.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aaf4292
View details for Web of Science ID 000379208400036
View details for PubMedID 27387948
Gene expression profiling was carried out comparing Con A elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL6 and FVBN wild-type and apolipoprotein (apo)E knockout mice. An EST, was expressed at higher levels in C57BL6 compared with FVBN mice. mapped to an atherosclerosis susceptibility locus on chromosome 19 revealed in an intercross between atherosclerosis-susceptible C57BL6 and atherosclerosis-resistant FVBN apoE knockout mice. A combination of database search and Northern analysis confirmed that corresponded to 3'-UTR of a hitherto predicted gene, named HspA12A. Blasting the National Center for Biotechnology Information database revealed a closely related homologue, HspA12B. HspA12A and -B have very close human homologues. TaqMan analysis confirmed the increased HspA12A expression (2.6-fold) in elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL6 compared with FVBN mice. TaqMan analysis also revealed increased HspA12A and HspA12B expression (87- and 6-fold, respectively) in lesional versus nonlesional portions of the thoracic aorta from C57BL6 apoE knockout mice on a chow diet. In situ hybridization confirmed that both genes were expressed within lesions but not within nonlesional aortic tissue. Blasting of HspA12A and HspA12B against the National Center for Biotechnology Information database (NR) revealed a hit with the Conserved Domain database for Hsp70 (pfam00012.5, Hsp70). Both genes appear to contain an atypical Hsp70 ATPase domain. The BLAST search also revealed that both genes were more similar to primitive eukaryote and prokaryote than mammalian Hsp70s, making these two genes distant members of the mammalian Hsp70 family. In summary, we describe two genes that code for a subfamily of Hsp70 proteins that may be involved in atherosclerosis susceptibility.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.252764399
View details for Web of Science ID 000180838100088
View details for PubMedID 12552099