Is Continuous Flow Superior to Pulsatile Flow in Single Ventricle Mechanical Support? Results from a Large Animal Pilot Study
2015; 61 (4): 443-447
Hemodynamic monitoring of large animal chronic studies after median sternotomy: experiences with different telemetric physiological devices.
2015; 61 (3): 332-338
Durable mechanical support in situations of physiologic single ventricle has been met with little success so far, particularly in small children. We created an animal model to investigate whether pulsatile or continuous flow would be superior. Three 1 month old sheep (10-16 kg) were instrumented. Via sternotomy and with cardiopulmonary bypass, a large ventricular septal defect and atrial septal defect were created. The left ventricle was cannulated using a Berlin Heart inflow cannula. This was connected sequentially to a continuous flow device (Thoratec HeartMate X, Pleasanton, CA) and to a pulsatile device (Berlin Heart Excor, The Woodlands, TX). Outflow was via a Y-graft to both aorta and pulmonary artery, striving for equal flow to both. Atrial filling pressures were controlled with volume infusions over a wide range. Under comparable loading conditions, significantly higher maximum flow was obtained by HeartMate X than by Excor (4.95 ± 1.27 L/min [range, 3.84-6.34 L/min] for HeartMate X vs. 1.80 ± 0.85 L/min [range, 1.01-2.7 L/min] for Excor; p < 0.05). Judging from this limited animal study, in single ventricle scenarios, continuous flow devices may achieve higher pump flows than pulsatile devices when provided with similar filling pressures. Their clinical use should be investigated. More extensive experimental studies are needed.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MAT.0000000000000220
View details for Web of Science ID 000358285100013
View details for PubMedID 25794246
Innominate artery cannulation and antegrade cerebral perfusion for aortic arch reconstruction in infants and children.
World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery
2013; 4 (4): 356-361
Telemetric physiological monitoring systems (TPMS) have enabled accurate continuous measurement of animal blood pressures and flows. However, few studies describe approaches for use of TPMS in the great vessels or inside the heart. We describe our initial experiences using two types of TPMSs. Twelve lambs (20-37 kg) underwent sternotomy. Two lambs were not instrumented and were killed at 14 days to confirm normal sternal wound healing (sham group, n = 2). Ten lambs underwent placement of either standard indwelling pressure-monitoring catheter and perivascular-flow-probe (CFP group, n = 3) or TPMS implantation (TPMS group, n = 7). The TPMS used were EG1-V3S2T-M2 (EG1, n = 5; Transonic Endogear Inc.) and Physio Tel Digital L21 (PTD, n = 2; Data Sciences Inc.). Two deaths because of respiratory problems occurred in TPMS group, attributed to lung compression by the implanted device. In TPMS group, more consistent trends of blood pressures and flows were recorded, and management of animals was easier and less labor-intensive. Comparing the two TPMSs, the initiation and renewal costs for each case was $28 K vs. $20 K and $1,700 vs. $0, (PTD versus EG1, respectively). In conclusion, TPMS implantation was feasible via median sternotomy in lambs. Telemetric physiological monitoring systems significantly improve reliability of hemodynamic monitoring in chronic survival animal study. EG1 was less costly than PTD.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MAT.0000000000000202
View details for PubMedID 25635937
Fetal cardiac intervention: Improved results of fetal cardiac bypass in immature fetuses using the TinyPump device
JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY
2013; 145 (6): 1460-1464
Innominate artery cannulation has been widely adopted as a means to perform aortic arch reconstruction with continuous cerebral perfusion in the newborn. Although this technique has been subsequently utilized in infants and children, there is currently no data regarding the safety or efficacy in these older children. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with innominate artery cannulation for aortic arch reconstruction in patients beyond the neonatal period.This was a retrospective review of 42 infants and children who underwent aortic arch reconstruction using the technique of innominate artery cannulation with continuous cerebral perfusion. Of these procedures, 29 (69%) were primary arch reconstructions, while 13 (31%) were aortic arch reoperations. The median age at surgery was 8 months, and 22 patients underwent concomitant intracardiac repairs.There was no operative mortality in this cohort of 42 patients undergoing aortic arch reconstruction. There was also no overt evidence of neurologic injury. Specifically, none of the patients demonstrated a neurologic deficit, clinical seizure, or unexpected delay in regaining a normal state of consciousness. The median duration of antegrade cerebral perfusion was 34 minutes. The median duration of hospital stay was 11 days. No patient required reoperation on the aortic arch with a median of 45-month follow-up.Innominate artery cannulation is a safe and effective technique for aortic arch reconstruction in nonneonates. We conclude that antegrade cerebral perfusion is a useful technique for aortic arch reconstruction in this patient population.
View details for DOI 10.1177/2150135113497767
View details for PubMedID 24327627
Anomalous Aortic Origin of a Coronary Artery: Medium-Term Results After Surgical Repair in 50 Patients
ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY
2011; 92 (2): 691-697
Fetal cardiac surgery is a potential innovative treatment for certain congenital heart defects that have significant mortality and morbidity in utero or after birth, but it has been limited by placental dysfunction after fetal cardiac bypass. We have used the TinyPump device for fetal cardiac bypass in sheep fetuses at 90 to 110 days gestation.Ten mixed-breed pregnant ewes were used over a period of 6 months, and 10 fetuses were placed on bypass for 30 minutes. Five fetuses with a mean gestational age of 104 ± 4.5 days and mean weight of 1.4 ± 0.4 kg were placed on bypass using the TinyPump device, and 5 fetuses with a mean gestational age of 119 ± 4.5 days and mean weight of 3.4 ± 0.4 kg were placed on bypass using the roller head pump. The fetuses were monitored for up to 3 hours after bypass or until earlier demise.Progressive respiratory and metabolic acidosis developed in all fetuses. The TinyPump group had a lower gestational age and weight compared with the roller head pump group. However, the rate of postbypass deterioration in the TinyPump group, as measured with blood gases, was noted to be significantly slower compared with the roller head pump group.We demonstrate the feasibility of the TinyPump device for fetal cardiac bypass in a fetal sheep model. The TinyPump group showed improved results compared with the roller head group despite more immature fetuses. The TinyPump device seems to be a promising device for future studies of fetal cardiac bypass in immature fetal sheep and in primates.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.08.014
View details for Web of Science ID 000319066300024
Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) is a rare congenital heart defect that has been associated with myocardial ischemia and sudden death. Controversies exist regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and long-term recommendations for patients with AAOCA. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the medium-term results of surgical repair for AAOCA.From January 1999 through August 2010, 50 patients underwent surgical repair of AAOCA. The median age at surgery was 14 years (range, 5 days to 47 years). Thirty-one patients had the right coronary originate from the left sinus of Valsalva, 17 had the left coronary originate from the right sinus, and 2 had an eccentric single coronary ostium. Twenty six of the 50 patients had symptoms of myocardial ischemia preoperatively, and 14 patients had associated congenital heart defects. Repair was accomplished by unroofing in 35, reimplantation in 6, and pulmonary artery translocation in 9.There was no operative mortality. The median time of follow-up has been 5.7 years. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and 1 patient required heart transplantation 1 year after AAOCA repair. In the remaining 47 postoperative patients, all have remained free of cardiac symptoms and no one has experienced a sudden death event.The surgical treatment of AAOCA is safe and appears to be highly effective in eliminating ischemic symptoms. These medium-term results are encouraging and suggest that many patients may be able to resume normal activities.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.03.127
View details for Web of Science ID 000293221000050
View details for PubMedID 21718962