B.S., Taipei Medical College, Medical Technology (1981)
M.S., University of Oklahoma HSC, Microbiol. and Immunol. (1985)
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma HSC, Microbial Genetics (1988)
We study the role of oxygen free radicals in oxidative tissue damage and degeneration. Our research tools include transgenic and knockout mice and tissue culture cells for in vitro gene expression.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a major cause of chronic pain after surgery or trauma to the limbs. Despite evidence showing that the prevalence and severity of many forms of chronic pain, including CRPS, differ between males and females, laboratory studies on sex-related differences in animal models of CRPS are not available, and the impact of sex on the transition from acute to chronic CRPS pain and disability are unexplored. Here we make use of a tibia fracture/cast mouse model that recapitulates the nociceptive, functional, vascular, trophic, inflammatory and immune aspects of CRPS. Our aim is to describe the chronic time course of nociceptive, motor and memory changes associated with fracture/cast in male and female mice, in addition to exploring their underlying spinal mechanisms. Our behavioral data shows that, compared to males, female mice display lower nociceptive thresholds following fracture in the absence of any differences in ongoing or spontaneous pain. Furthermore, female mice show exaggerated signs of motor dysfunction, deficits in fear memory, and latent sensitization that manifests long after the normalization of nociceptive thresholds. Our biochemical data show differences in the spinal cord levels of the glutamate receptor NR2b, suggesting sex differences in mechanisms of central sensitization that could account for differences in duration and severity of CRPS symptoms between the two groups.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nlm.2015.06.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000359510900013
Cranial irradiation is widely used in cancer therapy, but it often causes cognitive defects in cancer survivors. Oxidative stress is considered a major cause of tissue injury from irradiation. However, in an earlier study mice deficient in the antioxidant enzyme extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD KO) showed reduced sensitivity to radiation-induced defects in hippocampal functions. To further dissect the role of EC-SOD in neurogenesis and in response to irradiation, we generated a bigenic EC-SOD mouse model (OE mice) that expressed high levels of EC-SOD in mature neurons in an otherwise EC-SOD-deficient environment. EC-SOD deficiency was associated with reduced progenitor cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus in KO and OE mice. However, high levels of EC-SOD in the granule cell layer supported normal maturation of newborn neurons in OE mice. Following irradiation, wild-type mice showed reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, reduced dendritic spine densities, and defects in cognitive functions. OE and KO mice, on the other hand, were largely unaffected, and the mice performed normally in neurocognitive tests. Although the resulting hippocampal-related functions were similar in OE and KO mice following cranial irradiation, molecular analyses suggested that they may be governed by different mechanisms: whereas neurotrophic factors may influence radiation responses in OE mice, dendritic maintenance may be important in the KO environment. Taken together, our data suggest that EC-SOD plays an important role in all stages of hippocampal neurogenesis and its associated cognitive functions, and that high-level EC-SOD may provide protection against irradiation-related defects in hippocampal functions.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1216913110
View details for Web of Science ID 000313627700077
View details for PubMedID 23236175
Radiation therapy of the CNS, even at low doses, can lead to deficits in neurocognitive functions. Reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis is usually, but not always, associated with cognitive deficits resulting from radiation therapy. Generation of reactive oxygen species is considered the main cause of radiation-induced tissue injuries, and elevated levels of oxidative stress persist long after the initial cranial irradiation. Consequently, mutant mice with reduced levels of the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD or Sod2), are expected to be more sensitive to radiation-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the related functions. In this study, we showed that MnSOD deficiency led to reduced generation of immature neurons in Sod2-/+ mice even though progenitor cell proliferation was not affected. Compared to irradiated Sod2+/+ mice, which showed cognitive defects and reduced differentiation of newborn cells towards the neuronal lineage, irradiated Sod2-/+ mice showed normal hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions and normal differentiation pattern for newborn neurons and astroglia. However, we also observed a disproportional decrease in newborn neurons in irradiated Sod2-/+ following behavioral studies, suggesting that MnSOD deficiency may render newborn neurons more sensitive to stress from behavioral trainings following cranial irradiation. A positive correlation between normal cognitive functions and normal dendritic spine densities in dentate granule cells was observed. The data suggest that maintenance of synaptic connections, via maintenance of dendritic spines, may be important for normal cognitive functions following cranial irradiation.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0049367
View details for Web of Science ID 000312269500104
View details for PubMedID 23145165
Hippocampus plays an important role in learning and memory and in spatial navigation. Production of new neurons that are functionally integrated into the hippocampal neuronal network is important for the maintenance of functional plasticity. In adults, production of new neurons in the hippocampus takes place in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of dentate gyrus. Neural progenitor/stem cells go through processes of proliferation, differentiation, migration, and maturation. This process is exquisitely sensitive to oxidative stress, and perturbation in the redox balance in the neurogenic microenvironment can lead to reduced neurogenesis. Cranial irradiation is an effective treatment for primary and secondary brain tumors. However, even low doses of irradiation can lead to persistent elevation of oxidative stress and sustained suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are major antioxidant enzymes for the removal of superoxide radicals in different subcellular compartments. To identify the subcellular location where reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated after cranial irradiation, different SOD deficient mice have been used to determine the effects of irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis. The study results suggest that, regardless of the subcellular location, SOD deficiency leads to a significant reduction in the production of new neurons in the SGZ of hippocampal dentate gyrus. In exchange, the generation of new glial cells was significantly increased. The SOD deficient condition, however, altered the tissue response to irradiation, and SOD deficient mice were able to maintain a similar level of neurogenesis after irradiation while wild type mice showed a significant reduction in the production of new neurons.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.semcdb.2012.04.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000309264300004
View details for PubMedID 22521481
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful, disabling, and often chronic condition, where many patients transition from an acute phase with prominent peripheral neurogenic inflammation to a chronic phase with evident central nervous system changes. Ketamine is a centrally acting agent believed to work through blockade of N-methyl-D- aspartate receptors and is being increasingly used for the treatment of refractory CRPS, although the basis for the drug's effects and efficacy at different stages of the syndrome remains unclear.The authors used a mouse model of CRPS (n = 8 to 12/group) involving tibia fracture/cast immobilization to test the efficacy of ketamine (2 mg kg day; 7 days) or vehicle infusion during acute (3 weeks after fracture) and chronic (7 weeks after fracture) stages.Acute-phase fracture mice displayed increased limb temperature, edema, and nociceptive sensitization that were not reduced by ketamine. Fracture mice treated with ketamine during the chronic phase showed reduced nociceptive sensitization that persisted beyond completion of the infusion. During this chronic phase, ketamine also reduced latent nociceptive sensitization and improved motor function at 18 weeks after fracture. No side effects of the infusions were identified. These behavioral changes were associated with altered spinal astrocyte activation and expression of pain-related proteins including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2b, Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.Collectively, these results demonstrate that ketamine is efficacious in the chronic, but not acute, stage of CRPS, suggesting that the centrally acting drug is relatively ineffective in early CRPS when peripheral mechanisms are more critical for supporting nociceptive sensitization.
View details for DOI 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000889
View details for Web of Science ID 000365483600026
View details for PubMedID 26492479
Hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions rely on production of new neurons and maintenance of dendritic structures to provide the synaptic plasticity needed for learning and formation of new memories. Hippocampal formation is exquisitely sensitive to patho-physiological changes, and reduced antioxidant capacity and exposure to low dose irradiation can significantly impede hippocampal-dependent functions of learning and memory by reducing the production of new neurons and alter dendritic structures in the hippocampus. Although the mechanism leading to impaired cognitive functions is complex, persistent oxidative stress likely plays an important role in the SOD-deficient and radiation-exposed hippocampal environment. Aging is associated with increased production of pro-oxidants and accumulation of oxidative end products. Similar to the hippocampal defects observed in SOD-deficient mice and mice exposed to low dose irradiation, reduced capacity in learning and memory, diminishing hippocampal neurogenesis, and altered dendritic network are universal in the aging brains. Given the similarities in cellular and structural changes in the aged, SOD-deficient, and radiation-exposed hippocampal environment and the corresponding changes in cognitive decline, understanding the shared underlying mechanism will provide more flexible and efficient use of SOD deficiency or irradiation to model age-related changes in cognitive functions and identify potential therapeutic or intervention methods.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.abb.2015.03.014
View details for PubMedID 25797440
View details for Web of Science ID 000342741000020
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful condition with approximately 50,000 annual new cases in the United States. It is a major cause of work-related disability, chronic pain after limb fractures, and persistent pain after extremity surgery. Additionally, CRPS patients often experience cognitive changes, anxiety, and depression. The supraspinal mechanisms linked to these CRPS-related comorbidities remain poorly understood.The authors used a previously characterized mouse model of tibia fracture/cast immobilization showing the principal stigmata of CRPS (n = 8 to 20 per group) observed in humans. The central hypothesis was that fracture/cast mice manifest changes in measures of thigmotaxis (indicative of anxiety) and working memory reflected in neuroplastic changes in amygdala, perirhinal cortex, and hippocampus.The authors demonstrate that nociceptive sensitization in these mice is accompanied by altered thigmotactic behaviors in the zero maze but not open field assay, and working memory dysfunction in novel object recognition and social memory but not in novel location recognition. Furthermore, the authors found evidence of structural changes and synaptic plasticity including changes in dendritic architecture and decreased levels of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in specific brain regions.The study findings provide novel observations regarding behavioral changes and brain plasticity in a mouse model of CRPS. In addition to elucidating some of the supraspinal correlates of the syndrome, this work supports the potential use of therapeutic interventions that not only directly target sensory input and other peripheral mechanisms, but also attempt to ameliorate the broader pain experience by modifying its associated cognitive and emotional comorbidities.
View details for DOI 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000403
View details for PubMedID 25093591
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection exacerbates alcoholic liver injury by mechanisms that include enhanced oxidative stress. The forkhead box transcription factor FOXO3 is an important component of the antioxidant stress response that can be altered by HCV. To test whether FOXO3 is protective for alcoholic liver injury, we fed alcohol to FOXO3(-/-) mice. After 3 weeks, one third of these mice developed severe hepatic steatosis, neutrophilic infiltration, and >10-fold alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations. In cell culture, either alcohol or HCV infection alone increased FOXO3 transcriptional activity and expression of target genes, but the combination of HCV and alcohol together caused loss of nuclear FOXO3 and decreased its transcriptional activity. This was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of FOXO3. Mice expressing HCV structural proteins on a background of reduced expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2; Sod2(+/-)) also had increased liver sensitivity to alcohol, with elevated ALT, steatosis, and lobular inflammation. Elevated ALT was associated with an alcohol-induced decrease in SOD2 and redistribution of FOXO3 to the cytosol. These results demonstrate that FOXO3 functions as a protective factor preventing alcoholic liver injury. The combination of HCV and alcohol, but not either condition alone, inactivates FOXO3, causing a decrease in expression of its target genes and an increase in liver injury. Modulation of the FOXO3 pathway is a potential therapeutic approach for HCV-alcohol-induced liver injury.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.08.013
View details for Web of Science ID 000327829000012
View details for PubMedID 24225087
Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study.Female wild-type, EC-SOD-null (KO), and EC-SOD bigenic mice with neuronal-specific expression of EC-SOD (OE) were subjected to a single dose of 5-Gy gamma rays to the head at 8 weeks of age. Progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and long-term survival of newborn neurons were determined.Similar to results from male mice, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation both resulted in significant reductions in mature newborn neurons in female mice. EC-SOD deficiency reduced long-term survival of newborn neurons whereas irradiation reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Overexpression of EC-SOD corrected the negative impacts from EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation and normalized the production of newborn neurons in OE mice. Expression of neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 were significantly reduced by irradiation in wild-type mice, but the levels were not changed in KO and OE mice even though both cohorts started out with a lower baseline level.In terms of hippocampal neurogenesis, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation have the same overall effects in males and females at the age the studies were conducted.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.08.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000325763300031
View details for PubMedID 24064316
Changes in the intracellular and extracellular redox balance have been correlated with cell fate decisions in terms of proliferation versus differentiation, entering versus existing cell cycle and survival versus cell death. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been correlated with neuronal plasticity of learning and memory; however, the process is exquisitely sensitive to changes in redox balance. Cranial irradiation is an effective modality in treating brain tumours but often leads to deficits in hippocampus-related learning and memory, which is most likely due to sustained elevation of oxygen free radical production and suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis. The subcellular redox environment affecting hippocampal neurogenesis is largely unknown. Using mutant mice deficient in each one of the three superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 22.214.171.124) isoforms, we have begun to determine the consequences of SOD deficiency in hippocampal neurogenesis and the related functions of learning and memory under normal condition and following cranial irradiation.
View details for DOI 10.3109/10715762.2012.664770
View details for Web of Science ID 000306427200004
View details for PubMedID 22315982
The accumulation of somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is regarded as a major contributor to aging and age-related degenerative diseases. ROS have also been shown to facilitate the formation of certain advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in proteins and DNA and N(2)-carboxyethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (CEdG) has been identified as a major DNA-bound AGE. Therefore, the influence of mitochondrial ROS on the glycation of mtDNA was investigated in primary embryonic fibroblasts derived from mutant mice (Sod2(-/+)) deficient in the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase. In Sod2(-/+) fibroblasts vs wild-type fibroblasts, the CEdG content of mtDNA was increased from 1.90 ± 1.39 to 17.14 ± 6.60 pg/μg DNA (p<0.001). On the other hand, the CEdG content of nuclear DNA did not differ between Sod2(+/+) and Sod2(-/+) cells. Similarly, cytosolic proteins did not show any difference in advanced glycation end-products or protein carbonyl contents between Sod2(+/+) and Sod2(-/+). Taken together, the data suggest that mitochondrial oxidative stress specifically promotes glycation of mtDNA and does not affect nuclear DNA or cytosolic proteins. Because DNA glycation can change DNA integrity and gene functions, glycation of mtDNA may play an important role in the decline of mitochondrial functions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.02.021
View details for Web of Science ID 000304177500026
View details for PubMedID 22370091
Epileptic seizures are a common feature associated with inherited mitochondrial diseases. This study investigated the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in epilepsy resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction using cross-bred mutant mice lacking mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) and a lipophilic metalloporphyrin catalytic antioxidant. Video-EEG monitoring revealed that in the second to third week of postnatal life (P14-P21) B6D2F2 Sod2(-/-) mice exhibited frequent spontaneous motor seizures providing evidence that oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to epileptic seizures. To confirm the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in epilepsy a newly developed lipophilic metalloporphyrin, AEOL 11207, with high potency for catalytic removal of endogenously generated reactive oxygen species was utilized. AEOL 11207-treated Sod2(-/-) mice showed a significant decrease in both the frequency and duration of spontaneous seizures but no effect on seizure severity. A significant increase in the average lifespan of AEOL 11207-treated Sod2(-/-) mice compared to vehicle-treated Sod2(-/-) mice was also observed. Indices of mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage (aconitase inactivation, 3-nitrotyrosine formation, and depletion of reduced coenzyme A) and ATP levels affecting neuronal excitability were significantly attenuated in the brains of AEOL 11207-treated Sod2(-/-) mice compared to vehicle-treated Sod2(-/-) mice. The occurrence of epileptic seizures in Sod2(-/-) mice and the ability of catalytic antioxidant therapy to attenuate seizure activity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ATP levels suggest that ongoing mitochondrial oxidative stress can contribute to epilepsy associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and disease.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nbd.2011.12.025
View details for Web of Science ID 000300519600024
View details for PubMedID 22200564
HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and liver cancer in the United States. To address the pathogenesis caused by HCV infection, recent studies have focused on the direct cytopathic effects of individual HCV proteins, with the objective of identifying their specific roles in the overall pathogenesis. However, this approach precludes examination of the possible interactions between different HCV proteins and organelles. To obtain a better understanding of the various cytopathic effects of and cellular responses to HCV proteins, we used human hepatoma cells constitutively replicating HCV RNA encoding either the full-length polyprotein or the non-structural proteins, or cells constitutively expressing the structural protein core, to model the state of persistent HCV infection and examined the combination of various HCV proteins in cellular pathogenesis. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the mitochondria, mitochondrial injury and degeneration, and increased lipid accumulation were common among all HCV protein-expressing cells regardless of whether they expressed the structural or non-structural proteins. Expression of the non-structural proteins also led to increased oxidative stress in the cytosol, membrane blebbing in the endoplasmic reticulum, and accumulation of autophagocytic vacuoles. Alterations of cellular redox state, on the other hand, significantly changed the level of autophagy, suggesting a direct link between oxidative stress and HCV-mediated activation of autophagy. With the wide-spread cytopathic effects, cells with the full-length HCV polyprotein showed a modest antioxidant response and exhibited a significant increase in population doubling time and a concomitant decrease in cyclin D1. In contrast, cells expressing the non-structural proteins were able to launch a vigorous antioxidant response with up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes. The population doubling time and cyclin D1 level were also comparable to that of control cells. Finally, the cytopathic effects of core protein appeared to focus on the mitochondria without remarkable disturbances in the cytosol.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0028551
View details for Web of Science ID 000298171400106
View details for PubMedID 22164304
Differentiated cells primarily metabolize glucose for energy via the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, but cancer cells thrive on a different mechanism to produce energy, characterized as the Warburg effect, which describes the increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis. The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), which is responsible for catalyzing the final step of aerobic glycolysis, is highly expressed in cancer cells and may contribute to the Warburg effect. However, whether PKM2 plays a contributing role during early cancer development is unclear. In our studies, we have made an attempt to elucidate the effects of varying mitochondrial respiration substrates on skin cell transformation and expression of PKM2. Tumorigenicity in murine skin epidermal JB6 P+ (promotable) cells was measured in a soft agar assay using 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a tumor promoter. We observed a significant reduction in cell transformation upon pretreatment with the mitochondrial respiration substrate succinate or malate/pyruvate. We observed that increased expression and activity of PKM2 in TPA-treated JB6 P+ cells and pretreatment with succinate or malate/pyruvate suppressed the effects. In addition, TPA treatment also induced PKM2 whereas PKM1 expression was suppressed in mouse skin epidermal tissues in vivo. In comparison with JB6 P+ cells, the nonpromotable JB6 P- cells showed no increase in PKM2 expression or activity upon TPA treatment. Knockdown of PKM2 using a siRNA approach significantly reduced skin cell transformation. Thus, our results suggest that PKM2 activation could be an early event and play a contributing role in skin tumorigenesis.
View details for DOI 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0028
View details for Web of Science ID 000294490100019
View details for PubMedID 21673231
The effects of ionizing irradiation on the brain are associated with oxidative stress. While oxidative stress following irradiation is generally viewed as detrimental for hippocampal function, it might have beneficial effects as part of an adaptive or preconditioning response to a subsequent challenge. Here we show that in contrast to what is seen in wild-type mice, irradiation enhances hippocampus- dependent cognitive measures in mice lacking extracellular superoxide dismutase. These outcomes were associated with genotype-dependent effects on measures of oxidative stress. When cortices and hippocampi were analyzed for nitrotyrosine formation as an index of oxidative stress, the levels were chronically elevated in mice lacking extracellular superoxide dismutase. However, irradiation caused a greater increase in nitrotyrosine levels in wild-type mice than mice lacking extracellular superoxide dismutase. These paradoxical genotype-dependent effects of irradiation on measures of oxidative stress and cognitive function underscore potential beneficial effects associated with chronic oxidative stress if it exists prior to a secondary insult such as irradiation.
View details for DOI 10.1002/hipo.20724
View details for Web of Science ID 000286489100007
View details for PubMedID 20020436
Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)-deficient mice (Sod2-/-) suffer from mitochondrial damage and have various survival times and phenotypic presentations that are dependent on the genetic background of the mutant mice. The mitochondrial NADPH transhydrogenase (NNT) was identified as a putative genetic modifier based on a genome-wide quantitative trait association study on the molecular defect of the protein in more severely affected Sod2-/- mice and on the biological function of NNT. Hence, Sod2-/- mice on the C57BL/6J (B6J) background have the shortest survival time, and the mice are homozygous for the truncated Nnt allele (Nnt ( T )). On the other hand, genetic backgrounds that support longer survival of Sod2-/- mice all have at least one normal copy of Nnt (Nnt ( W )). To confirm the role of NNT in the phenotypic modification of Sod2-/- mice, we introduced a normal copy of Nnt allele from a C57BL/6 substrain into B6J-Sod2-/- mice and analyzed survival time, cardiac functions, and histopathology of the heart. The study results show that the presence of a normal Nnt allele preserves cardiac function, delays the onset of heart failure, and extends the survival of B6J-Sod2-/- mice to the end of gestation. Postnatal survival, however, is not supported. Consequently, the majority of B6J-Sod2-/- mice died within a few hours after birth and only a few survived for 5-6 days. The study results suggest that NNT is important for normal development and function of fetal hearts and that there may be other genetic modifier(s) important for postnatal survival of Sod2-/- mice.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00335-010-9299-x
View details for Web of Science ID 000285364600002
View details for PubMedID 21069343
Impaired locomotor activity and spatial memory are common features in the natural aging process, and aging is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative disease and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. To characterize age-related changes in psychomotor performance, we assessed sensorimotor activity, spatial learning, and memory in C57BL/6 mice using the Rotarod, foot fault, and Barnes Maze tests. Old mice exhibit significant deficits in locomotor activity and spatial memory relative to young mice, but improve with training. These tests will be useful to assess outcome in neurodegenerative disease and postoperative cognitive dysfunction models carried out in aged mice.
View details for DOI 10.1097/ANA.0b013e3181d56c98
View details for Web of Science ID 000278709200006
View details for PubMedID 20479674
Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is an important mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, and elevated MnSOD levels have been shown to reduce tumor growth in part by suppressing cell proliferation. Studies with fibroblasts have shown that increased MnSOD expression prolongs cell cycle transition time in G1/S and favors entrance into the quiescent state. To determine if the same effect occurs during tissue regeneration in vivo, we used a transgenic mouse system with liver-specific MnSOD expression and a partial hepatectomy paradigm to induce synchronized in vivo cell proliferation during liver regeneration. We show in this experimental system that a 2.6-fold increase in MnSOD activity leads to delayed entry into S phase, as measured by reduction in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and decreased expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Thus, compared to control mice with baseline MnSOD levels, transgenic mice with increased MnSOD expression in the liver have 23% fewer BrdU-positive cells and a marked attenuation of PCNA expression. The increase in MnSOD activity also leads to an increase in the mitochondrial form of thioredoxin (thioredoxin 2), but not in several other peroxidases examined, suggesting the importance of thioredoxin 2 in maintaining redox balance in mitochondria with elevated levels of MnSOD.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.02.028
View details for Web of Science ID 000277822400006
View details for PubMedID 20188820
Alcohol consumption increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which can damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and alter mitochondrial function. To test whether manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) modulates acute alcohol-induced mitochondrial alterations, transgenic MnSOD-overexpressing (MnSOD(+++)) mice, heterozygous knockout (MnSOD(+/-)) mice, and wild-type (WT) littermates were sacrificed 2 or 24 h after intragastric ethanol administration (5 g/kg). Alcohol administration further increased MnSOD activity in MnSOD(+++) mice, but further decreased it in MnSOD(+/-) mice. In WT mice, alcohol administration transiently increased mitochondrial ROS formation, decreased mitochondrial glutathione, depleted and damaged mtDNA, and decreased complex I and V activities; alcohol durably increased inducible nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) expression, plasma nitrites/nitrates, and the nitration of tyrosine residues in complex V proteins. These effects were prevented in MnSOD(+++) mice and prolonged in MnSOD(+/-) mice. In alcoholized WT or MnSOD(+/-) mice, mtDNA depletion and the nitration of tyrosine residues in complex I and V proteins were prevented or attenuated by cotreatment with tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl), a superoxide scavenger; N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and N-[3-(aminomethyl)benzyl]acetamidine (1,400W), two NOS inhibitors; or uric acid, a peroxynitrite scavenger. In conclusion, MnSOD overexpression prevents, and MnSOD deficiency prolongs, mtDNA depletion after an acute alcohol binge in mice. The protective effects of MnSOD, tempol, NOS inhibitors, and uric acid point out a role of the superoxide anion reacting with NO to form mtDNA-damaging peroxynitrite.
View details for DOI 10.1124/jpet.109.160879
View details for Web of Science ID 000274800200022
View details for PubMedID 20016022
Ionizing irradiation significantly affects hippocampal neurogenesis and is associated with cognitive impairments; these effects may be influenced by an altered microenvironment. Oxidative stress is a factor that has been shown to affect neurogenesis, and one of the protective pathways that deal with such stress involves the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). This study addressed what impact a deficiency in cytoplasmic (SOD1) or mitochondrial (SOD2) SOD has on radiation effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. Wild-type (WT) and SOD1 and SOD2 knockout (KO) mice received a single X-ray dose of 5 Gy, and quantification of the survival and phenotypic fate of newly generated cells in the dentate subgranular zone was performed 2 months later. Radiation exposure reduced neurogenesis in WT mice but had no apparent effect in KO mice, although baseline levels of neurogenesis were reduced in both SOD KO strains before irradiation. Additionally, there were marked and significant differences between WT and both KO strains in how irradiation affected newly generated astrocytes and activated microglia. The mechanism(s) responsible for these effects is not yet known, but a pilot in vitro study suggests a "protective" effect of elevated levels of superoxide. Overall, these data suggest that under conditions of SOD deficiency, there is a common pathway dictating how neurogenesis is affected by ionizing irradiation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.08.016
View details for Web of Science ID 000271934400017
View details for PubMedID 19703553
The extracellular isoform of superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD, Sod3) plays a protective role against various diseases and injuries mediated by oxidative stress. To investigate the pathophysiological roles of EC-SOD, we generated tetracycline-inducible Sod3 transgenic mice and directed the tissue-specific expression of transgenes by crossing Sod3 transgenic mice with tissue-specific transactivator transgenics. Double transgenic mice with liver-specific expression of Sod3 showed increased EC-SOD levels predominantly in the plasma as the circulating form, whereas double transgenic mice with neuronal-specific expression expressed higher levels of EC-SOD in hippocampus and cortex with intact EC-SOD as the dominant form. EC-SOD protein levels also correlated well with increased SOD activities in double transgenic mice. In addition to enabling tissue-specific expression, the transgene expression can be quickly turned on and off by doxycycline supplementation in the mouse chow. This mouse model, thus, provides the flexibility for on-off control of transgene expression in multiple target tissues.
View details for DOI 10.1002/dvg.20470
View details for Web of Science ID 000264655500002
View details for PubMedID 19165829
To identify biomarkers associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, Sod1) deficient mice, 2-DE followed by MS analysis was carried out with liver samples obtained from 18-month-old Sod1-/- and +/+ mice. The intracellular Ca binding protein, regucalcin (RGN), showed a divergent alteration in Sod1-/- samples. Whereas elevated RGN levels were observed in -/- samples with no obvious neoplastic changes, marked reduction in RGN was observed in -/- samples with fully developed HCC. GST mu1 (GSTM1), on the other hand, showed a significant increase only in the neoplastic regions obtained from Sod1-/- livers. No change in GSTM1 was observed in the surrounding normal tissues. Marked reduction was observed in two intracellular lipid transporters, fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1) and major urinary protein 11 and 8 (MUP 11&8), in Sod1-/- samples. Analysis of additional samples at 18-22 months of age showed a three-fold increase in enolase activities in Sod1-/- livers. Consistent with previous findings, carbonic anhydrase 3 (CAIII) levels were significantly reduced in Sod1-/- samples, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the reduction was not homogenous throughout the lobular structure in the liver.
View details for DOI 10.1002/pmic.200601011
View details for Web of Science ID 000247642100016
View details for PubMedID 17514684
Ionizing irradiation results in significant alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis that are associated with cognitive impairments. Such effects are influenced, in part, by alterations in the microenvironment within which the neurogenic cells exist. One important factor that may affect neurogenesis is oxidative stress, and this study was done to determine if and how the extracellular isoform of superoxide dismutase (SOD3, EC-SOD) mediated radiation-induced alterations in neurogenic cells. Wild-type (WT) and EC-SOD knockout (KO) mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and acute (8-48 h) cellular changes and long-term changes in neurogenesis were quantified. Acute radiation responses were not different between genotypes, suggesting that the absence of EC-SOD did not influence mechanisms responsible for acute cell death after irradiation. On the other hand, the extent of neurogenesis was decreased by 39% in nonirradiated KO mice relative to WT controls. In contrast, while neurogenesis was decreased by nearly 85% in WT mice after irradiation, virtually no reduction in neurogenesis was observed in KO mice. These findings show that after irradiation, an environment lacking EC-SOD is much more permissive in the context of hippocampal neurogenesis. This finding may have a major impact in developing strategies to reduce cognitive impairment after cranial irradiation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.01.020
View details for Web of Science ID 000245514000002
View details for PubMedID 17382195
Sod2-/- mice, which are deficient in the mitochondrial form of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), have a short survival time that is strongly affected by genetic background. This suggests the existence of genetic modifiers that are capable of modulating the degree of mitochondrial oxidative damage caused by the MnSOD deficiency, thereby altering longevity. To identify these modifier(s), we generated recombinant congenic mice with quantitative trait loci (QTL) containing the putative genetic modifiers on the short-lived C57BL/6J genetic background. MnSOD deficient C57BL/6J mice with a QTL from the distal region of chromosome 13 from DBA/2J were able to survive for as long as those generated on the long-lived DBA/2J background. Within this region, the gene encoding nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) was found to be defective in C57BL/6J mice, and no mature NNT protein could be detected. The forward reaction of NNT, a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial inner membrane protein, couples the generation of NADPH to proton transport and provides NADPH for the regeneration of two important antioxidant compounds, glutathione and thioredoxin, in the mitochondria. This action of NNT could explain its putative protective role in MnSOD-deficient mice.
View details for DOI 10.1093/hmg/ddl034
View details for Web of Science ID 000236105800014
View details for PubMedID 16497723
To understand the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial defects in the development of neurodegeneration, we examined the age-related pathological changes and corresponding gene expression profiles in homozygous mutant mice deficient in the mitochondrial form of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, SOD2). These Sod2-/- mice, generated on a B6D2F1 background, developed ataxia at Postnatal Day (P) 11 and progressively deteriorated with frequent seizures by P14. Histopathological examination revealed neurodegenerative changes consistent with the neurological signs. Vacuolar degeneration was observed in neurons and neuropil throughout the brainstem and rostral cortex. The motor trigeminal nucleus in brainstem and the deeper layers of the motor cortex were the earliest regions to degenerate, with the thalamus and hippocampus affected at later stages. Oligonucleotide microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles in the brainstem and thalamus of Sod2+/+ and -/- mice from birth to P18. Notably, a large set of heat-shock protein genes was transcriptionally down regulated, and this was most likely due to a reduction in the heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). Other major classes of differentially expressed genes include lipid biosynthesis and ROS metabolism.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.12.020
View details for Web of Science ID 000227502500014
View details for PubMedID 15721992
Mice deficient in CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) showed no overt abnormalities during development and early adulthood, but had a reduced lifespan and increased incidence of neoplastic changes in the liver. Greater than 70% of Sod1-/- mice developed liver nodules that were either nodular hyperplasia or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cross-sectional studies with livers collected from Sod1-/- and age-matched +/+ controls revealed extensive oxidative damage in the cytoplasm and, to a lesser extent, in the nucleus and mitochondria from as early as 3 months of age. A marked reduction in cytosolic aconitase, increased levels of 8-oxo dG and F2-isoprostanes, and a moderate reduction in glutathione peroxidase activities and porin levels were observed in all age groups of Sod1-/- mice examined. There were also age-related reductions in Mn superoxide dismutase activities and carbonic anhydrase III. Parallel to the biochemical changes, there were progressive increases in the DNA repair enzyme APEX1, the cell cycle control proteins cyclin D1 and D3, and the hepatocyte growth factor receptor Met. Increased cell proliferation in the presence of persistent oxidative damage to macromolecules likely contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis later in life.
View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.onc.1208207
View details for Web of Science ID 000226279700008
View details for PubMedID 15531919
Stress-induced reductions of neural precursor cells from the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus have been linked to impaired neurogenesis and cognitive dysfunction. Given the importance of redox state in regulating multiple damage-responsive pathways in the CNS, we hypothesize that oxidative stress plays a major role in affecting neurogenesis and subsequent cognitive function after cell injury/depletion. Using an in vitro system, we showed that the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which depend critically on changes in cell density, were significantly higher in neural precursor cells when compared with other primary and transformed cell lines. ROS were significantly elevated ( approximately 4-fold) under low- (<1 x 10(4) cells per cm(2)) versus high-density (>1 x 10(5) cells per cm(2)) conditions. Higher ROS levels found at lower cell densities were associated with elevated proliferation and increased metabolic activity. These ROS were likely a result of altered mitochondrial function that ultimately compromised the growth rate of cells. At high cell densities, intracellular ROS and oxidative damage were reduced in concert with an increased expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2. Our finding that DNA-damage-induced depletion of neural precursor cells in the subgranular zone of mice also led to increased ROS and altered proliferation validated our in vitro system. Increased ROS and proliferation associated with the reduction of precursor cell numbers both in vitro and in vivo could be reversed with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. These data showed that neural precursor cells were predisposed to microenvironmental cues that regulate redox-sensitive pathways to control cellular proliferation after CNS damage.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0407065101
View details for Web of Science ID 000225196800043
View details for PubMedID 15522966
Mice heterozygous for the Sod2 gene (Sod2+/- mice) have been used to study the phenotype of life-long reduced Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity. The Sod2+/- mice have reduced MnSOD activity (50%) in all tissues throughout life. The Sod2+/- mice have increased oxidative damage as demonstrated by significantly elevated levels of 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8oxodG) in nuclear DNA in all tissues of Sod2+/- mice studied. The levels of 8oxodG in nuclear DNA increased with age in all tissues of Sod2+/- and wild-type (WT) mice, and at 26 mo of age, the levels of 8oxodG in nuclear DNA were significantly higher (from 15% in heart to over 60% in liver) in the Sod2+/- mice compared with WT mice. The level of 8oxodG was also higher in mitochondrial DNA isolated from liver and brain in Sod2+/- mice compared with WT mice. The increased oxidative damage to DNA in the Sod2+/- mice is associated with a 100% increase in tumor incidence (the number of mice with tumors) in old Sod2+/- mice compared with the old WT mice. However, the life spans (mean and maximum survival) of the Sod2+/- and WT mice were identical. In addition, biomarkers of aging, such as cataract formation, immune response, and formation of glycoxidation products carboxymethyl lysine and pentosidine in skin collagen changed with age to the same extent in both WT and Sod2+/- mice. Thus life-long reduction of MnSOD activity leads to increased levels of oxidative damage to DNA and increased cancer incidence but does not appear to affect aging.
View details for DOI 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00122.2003
View details for Web of Science ID 000187327300005
View details for PubMedID 14679299
Reactive oxygen species are required for cell proliferation but can also induce apoptosis. In proliferating cells this paradox is solved by the activation of protein kinase B (PKB; also known as c-Akt), which protects cells from apoptosis. By contrast, it is unknown how quiescent cells that lack PKB activity are protected against cell death induced by reactive oxygen species. Here we show that the PKB-regulated Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a (also known as FKHR-L1) protects quiescent cells from oxidative stress by directly increasing their quantities of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) messenger RNA and protein. This increase in protection from reactive oxygen species antagonizes apoptosis caused by glucose deprivation. In quiescent cells that lack the protective mechanism of PKB-mediated signalling, an alternative mechanism is induced as a consequence of PKB inactivity. This mechanism entails the activation of Forkhead transcription factors, the transcriptional activation of MnSOD and the subsequent reduction of reactive oxygen species. Increased resistance to oxidative stress is associated with longevity. The model of Forkhead involvement in regulating longevity stems from genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans, and we conclude that this model also extends to mammalian systems.
View details for Web of Science ID 000178056300050
View details for PubMedID 12239572
Induction or overexpression of pulmonary manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been shown to protect against oxygen (O2) toxicity. Genetic inactivation of MnSOD (Sod2) results in multiple organ failure and early neonatal death. However, lungs or O2-tolerance of Sod2 knockout mice have not been investigated. We evaluated survival, lung histopathology, and other pulmonary antioxidants (glutathione cycle) of homozygous (-/-) and heterozygous (+/-) Sod2 mutant mice compared with wild-type controls (Sod2+/+) following 48 h exposure to either room air or to O2. The ability of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine to compensate for the loss of MnSOD was explored. Mortality of Sod2-/- mice increased from 0% in room air to 18 and 83% in 50 and 80% O2, respectively. N-acetylcysteine did not alter mortality of Sod2-/- mice. Histopathological analysis revealed abnormalities in saccules of Sod2-/- mice exposed either to room air or to 50% O2 suggestive of delayed postnatal lung development. In 50% O2, activities of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) (previously known as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, gamma-GCS) and glutathione peroxidase increased in Sod2-/- (35 and 70%, respectively) and Sod2+/- (12 and 70%, respectively) mice, but glutathione levels remained unaltered. We conclude that MnSOD is required for normal O2 tolerance and that in the absence of MnSOD there is a compensatory increase in pulmonary glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense in hyperoxia.
View details for Web of Science ID 000173416100010
View details for PubMedID 11796207
Neuronal loss was quantified in both cortical and subcortical brain regions after traumatic brain injury in male and female nontransgenic (nTg) and transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase. Mice were euthanized at 7 days after a controlled cortical impact injury. Sections of brain were processed for immunolocalization of NeuN, a neuronal nuclear antigen, and the complement type 3 receptor, a marker of microglia/macrophages, and stained for iron. Cortical lesion volume and neuronal loss in the medial and/or lateral ventroposterior thalamic nuclei were significantly less in the nTg female compared to the nTg male (P = 0.0373 and P = 0.0023, respectively). In contrast, in CA3 of the hippocampus and laterodorsal thalamic nucleus (LD), there were no gender differences in neuronal loss between these nTg groups. Cortical lesion volume was significantly reduced in Tg males compared to nTg males (P = 0.0137) and was unchanged in the Tg females compared to the nTg females. Neuronal loss was attenuated in the CA3 and LD in the Tg females compared to the nTg females (P = 0.0252 and P = 0.0244, respectively). A similar protection was not observed in the Tg males. Microglial activation paralleled the pattern of neuronal loss and was most consistently aligned with iron deposition in the cortex and hippocampus. No overt differences were found in the pattern of microglial activation or iron staining between nTg and Tg mice nor between genders. Our findings demonstrate that neuroprotection, afforded by overexpression of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase, exhibits both regional and gender specificity.
View details for DOI 10.1006/exnr.2001.7820
View details for Web of Science ID 000173218600008
View details for PubMedID 11716557
Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, has been shown to be essential for animal survival. MnSOD mutant mice (Sod2-/- mice) on the CD1 background develop severe dilated cardiomyopathy and usually die within 10 d after birth. To characterize better the phenotype and understand the mechanism of superoxide-mediated tissue damage in Sod2-/- mice, congenic Sod2-/- mice on inbred backgrounds were generated to ensure genetic homogeneity. When generated on a C57BL/6J background (B6
View details for Web of Science ID 000171962400009
View details for PubMedID 11677043
Oxidative damage has been implicated in the aging process and in a number of degenerative diseases. To investigate the role of oxygen radicals in the aging process in mammals, the life spans of transgenic mice on a CD-1 background expressing increased levels of CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), the enzyme that metabolizes superoxide radicals, were determined. Homozygous transgenic mice with a two- to five-fold elevation of CuZnSOD in various tissues showed a slight reduction of life span, whereas hemizygous mice with a 15- to 3-fold increase of CuZnSOD showed no difference in life span from that of the nontransgenic littermate controls. The results suggest that constitutive and ubiquitous overexpression of CuZnSOD alone is not sufficient to extend the life spans of transgenic mice.
View details for Web of Science ID 000088044100001
View details for PubMedID 10719757
To distinguish the role of Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) from that of cytoplasmic CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), the mouse MnSOD gene (Sod2) was inactivated by homologous recombination. Sod2 -/- mice on a CD1 (outbred) genetic background die within the first 10 days of life (mean, 5.4 days) with a complex phenotype that includes dilated cardiomyopathy, accumulation of lipid in liver and skeletal muscle, metabolic acidosis and ketosis, and a severe reduction in succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) and aconitase (a TCA cycle enzyme) activities in the heart and, to a lesser extent, in other organs. These findings indicate that MnSOD is required to maintain the integrity of mitochondrial enzymes susceptible to direct inactivation by superoxide. On the other hand, Lebovitz et al. reported an independently derived MnSod null mouse (Sod2tmlLeb) on a mixed C57BL/6 and 129Sv background with a different phenotype. Because a difference in genetic background is the most likely explanation for the phenotypic differences, the two mutant lines were crossed into different genetic backgrounds for further analyses. To study the phenotype of Sod2tmlLeb mice CD1 background, the Sod2tmlLeb mice were crossed to CD1 for two generations before the -/+ mice were intercrossed to generate -/- mice. The life span distribution of CD1 < Sod2-/- > Leb was shifted to the left, indicating a shortened life span on the CD1 background. Furthermore, the CD1 < Sod2-/- > Leb mice develop metabolic acidosis at an early stage as was observed with CD1 < Sod2-/- > Cje. When Sod2tmlCje was placed on C57BL/6J (B6) background, the -/- mice were found to die either during midgestation or within the first 4 days after birth. However, when the B6 < Sod2 -/+ > Cje were crossed with DBA/2J (D2) for the generation of B6D2F2 < Sod2-/- > Cje mice, an entirely different phenotype, similar to that described by Lebovitz et al., was observed. The F2 Sod -/- mice were able to survive up to 18 days, and the animals that lived for more than 15 days displayed neurological abnormalities including ataxia and seizures. Their hearts were not as severely affected as were those of the CD1 mice, and neurological degeneration rather than heart defect appears to be the cause of death.
View details for Web of Science ID 000085330600009
View details for PubMedID 10672232
A mouse model for Down syndrome, Ts1Cje, has been developed. This model has made possible a step in the genetic dissection of the learning, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities associated with segmental trisomy for the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous with the so-called "Down syndrome region" of human chromosome segment 21q22. Tests of learning in the Morris water maze and assessment of spontaneous locomotor activity reveal distinct learning and behavioral abnormalities, some of which are indicative of hippocampal dysfunction. The triplicated region in Ts1Cje, from Sod1 to Mx1, is smaller than that in Ts65Dn, another segmental trisomy 16 mouse, and the learning deficits in Ts1Cje are less severe than those in Ts65Dn. In addition, degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, which was observed in Ts65Dn, was absent in Ts1Cje.
View details for Web of Science ID 000073852600073
View details for PubMedID 9600952
The Sod2 gene for Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an intramitochondrial free radical scavenging enzyme that is the first line of defense against superoxide produced as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation, was inactivated by homologous recombination. Homozygous mutant mice die within the first 10 days of life with a dilated cardiomyopathy, accumulation of lipid in liver and skeletal muscle, and metabolic acidosis. Cytochemical analysis revealed a severe reduction in succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) and aconitase (a TCA cycle enzyme) activities in the heart and, to a lesser extent, in other organs. These findings indicate that MnSOD is required for normal biological function of tissues by maintaining the integrity of mitochondrial enzymes susceptible to direct inactivation by superoxide.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995TH62900013
View details for PubMedID 7493016