Sex-Specific Cognitive Deficits and Regional Brain Volume Loss in Mice Exposed to Chronic, Sublethal Hypoxia
2011; 70 (1): 15-20
Expression and activity, of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in cultured astrocytes, neurons, and C6 glioma cells
MOLECULAR BRAIN RESEARCH
2003; 117 (2): 213-220
Male sex is an independent risk factor for long-term neurologic deficits in human preterm infants. Using a chronic, sublethal hypoxia (CSH) mouse model of preterm brain injury, we recently demonstrated acute brain volume loss with an increased male susceptibility to hippocampal volume loss and hypomyelination. We now characterize the long-term, sex-specific effects of CSH on cognition and brain growth. Neonatal mice were treated with CSH for 8 d, raised in normoxia thereafter and underwent behavioral testing at 6 wk of age. Behavioral assays sensitive to hippocampal function were chosen. CSH-treated males had impairments in associative learning, spatial memory, and long-term social memory compared with control males. In contrast, CSH-treated females were less impaired. Persistent reductions in hippocampal and cerebellar volumes were found in adult CSH-treated males, whereas regional brain volumes in adult CSH-treated females were indistinguishable from controls. Similar to human preterm infants, males exposed to hypoxia are especially vulnerable to short-term and long-term deficits in cognition and brain growth.
View details for Web of Science ID 000292015100004
View details for PubMedID 21436761
Poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism plays a major role in DNA repair, transcription, replication, and recombination. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases are localized primarily to the nucleus, whereas significant levels of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) are believed to be located in the cytoplasm. Only one PARG gene has been identified, but prior studies have reported multiple products of this gene. Here we studied PARG activity and PARG gene expression in several CNS cell types that span the cell growth spectrum: rapidly dividing C6 glioma tumor cells, dividing astrocytes, non-dividing astrocytes (due to contact inhibition), and post-mitotic neurons. Activity assays showed no overall differences between these cell types, but the nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio of PARG activity was highest in C6 glioma cells and lowest in neurons. Western blotting revealed full-length PARG as well as lower molecular weight PARG species in all four cell types.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S0169-328X(03)00325-5
View details for Web of Science ID 000186107300013
View details for PubMedID 14559156