Synthetic Biology: Advancing the Design of Diverse Genetic Systems
ANNUAL REVIEW OF CHEMICAL AND BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING, VOL 4
2013; 4: 69-102
K-space reconstruction of magnetic resonance inverse imaging (K-InI) of human visuomotor systems
2010; 49 (4): 3086-3098
A major objective of synthetic biology is to make the process of designing genetically encoded biological systems more systematic, predictable, robust, scalable, and efficient. Examples of genetic systems in the field vary widely in terms of operating hosts, compositional approaches, and network complexity, ranging from simple genetic switches to search-and-destroy systems. While significant advances in DNA synthesis capabilities support the construction of pathway- and genome-scale programs, several design challenges currently restrict the scale of systems that can be reasonably designed and implemented. Thus, while synthetic biology offers much promise in developing systems to address challenges faced in the fields of manufacturing, environment and sustainability, and health and medicine, the realization of this potential is currently limited by the diversity of available parts and effective design frameworks. As researchers make progress in bridging this design gap, advances in the field hint at ever more diverse applications for biological systems. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 4 is June 07, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-061312-103351
View details for Web of Science ID 000321740100005
Intuition and Deliberation: Two Systems for Strategizing in the Brain
2009; 324 (5926): 519-522
Using simultaneous measurements from multiple channels of a radio-frequency coil array, magnetic resonance inverse imaging (InI) can achieve ultra-fast dynamic functional imaging of the human with whole-brain coverage and a good spatial resolution. Mathematically, the InI reconstruction is a generalization of parallel MRI (pMRI), which includes image space and k-space reconstructions. Because of the auto-calibration technique, the pMRI k-space reconstruction offers more robust and adaptive reconstructions compared to the image space algorithm. Here we present the k-space InI (K-InI) reconstructions to reconstruct the highly accelerated BOLD-contrast fMRI data of the human brain to achieve 100 ms temporal resolution. Simulations show that K-InI reconstructions can offer 3D image reconstructions at each time frame with reasonable spatial resolution, which cannot be obtained using the previously proposed image space minimum-norm estimates (MNE) or linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) spatial filtering reconstructions. The InI reconstructions of in vivo BOLD-contrast fMRI data during a visuomotor task show that K-InI offer 3 to 5 fold more sensitive detection of the brain activation than MNE and a comparable detection sensitivity to the LCMV reconstructions. The group average of the high temporal resolution K-InI reconstructions of the hemodynamic response also shows a relative onset timing difference between the visual (first) and somatomotor (second) cortices by 400 ms (600 ms time-to-peak timing difference). This robust and sensitive K-InI reconstruction can be applied to dynamic MRI acquisitions using a large-n coil array to improve the spatiotemporal resolution.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.11.016
View details for Web of Science ID 000274064500021
View details for PubMedID 19914383
Dual-process theories distinguish between intuition (fast and emotional) and reasoning (slow and controlled) as a basis for human decision-making. We contrast dominance-solvable games, which can be solved by step-by-step deliberative reasoning, with pure coordination games, which must be solved intuitively. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the middle frontal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobule, and the precuneus were more active in dominance-solvable games than in coordination games. The insula and anterior cingulate cortex showed the opposite pattern. Moreover, precuneus activity correlates positively with how "effortful" a dominance-solvable game is, whereas insula activity correlates positively with how "effortless" a coordination game is.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1165598
View details for Web of Science ID 000265411200049
View details for PubMedID 19390048